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Discourse
Discourse
Published: 2013/06/14
Channel: Debra Marshall
Gee: What is Discourse
Gee: What is Discourse
Published: 2014/11/10
Channel: John Scott
What is Discourse?
What is Discourse?
Published: 2015/12/11
Channel: Jordan Carroll
Introduction to Discourse Analysis
Introduction to Discourse Analysis
Published: 2013/05/06
Channel: Florian Schneider
Sample Video - Chapter 1: Definition and Purposes of a Discourse
Sample Video - Chapter 1: Definition and Purposes of a Discourse
Published: 2016/11/17
Channel: Quipper Philippines
How to Write Up a Discourse Analysis
How to Write Up a Discourse Analysis
Published: 2015/04/07
Channel: Educational Foundations and Research, University of North Dakota
Discourse - The Martyr feat. Lazy Grey
Discourse - The Martyr feat. Lazy Grey
Published: 2016/02/09
Channel: CrateCartel
Discourses
Discourses
Published: 2014/07/07
Channel: Phloneme
Manufactured Consent & the Homogeneity of Public Discourse
Manufactured Consent & the Homogeneity of Public Discourse
Published: 2017/09/06
Channel: Black Pigeon Speaks
Linguistics and Discourse Analysis
Linguistics and Discourse Analysis
Published: 2015/02/06
Channel: i tutor
Introduction to Discourse Analysis
Introduction to Discourse Analysis
Published: 2015/12/10
Channel: Nature Therapy
Sathya Sai Baba Discourse on Mind & thoughts
Sathya Sai Baba Discourse on Mind & thoughts
Published: 2013/05/07
Channel: sharath pola
Discourse Analysis: What Is It???
Discourse Analysis: What Is It???
Published: 2016/03/06
Channel: UK Dissertation Writers
Understate - Discourse
Understate - Discourse
Published: 2016/01/02
Channel: Bassness Music
Nisargadatta Maharaj Discourse - 01
Nisargadatta Maharaj Discourse - 01
Published: 2014/09/23
Channel: byroncollis
One-Click Install: Discourse
One-Click Install: Discourse
Published: 2015/12/23
Channel: OceanCasts
Discourse-Sadguru Part-1of3
Discourse-Sadguru Part-1of3
Published: 2012/02/20
Channel: Dhiraj Shah
Discourse by Swami Anubhavananda
Discourse by Swami Anubhavananda
Published: 2016/04/12
Channel: Kaivalyadhama Yoga
Discourse markers
Discourse markers
Published: 2015/07/12
Channel: EnglishTeacherMarc - Insegnante di Inglese Roma
Language and Politics: This Discourse of Power
Language and Politics: This Discourse of Power
Published: 2012/10/18
Channel: Stanford
Teun van Dijk. Discourse and Knowledge
Teun van Dijk. Discourse and Knowledge
Published: 2013/04/25
Channel: EUSPchannel
BBC Masterclass: Words used to connect ideas - anyway, actually, basically (Discourse markers)
BBC Masterclass: Words used to connect ideas - anyway, actually, basically (Discourse markers)
Published: 2016/10/17
Channel: BBC Learning English
OSHO | The Secret vol.1 | Osho English Discourse
OSHO | The Secret vol.1 | Osho English Discourse
Published: 2017/03/21
Channel: Zorba The Buddha
What is Discourse Analysis?
What is Discourse Analysis?
Published: 2015/01/29
Channel: Educational Foundations and Research, University of North Dakota
Modes of Discourse
Modes of Discourse
Published: 2013/10/21
Channel: Travis McNair
S.N. Goenka - Dhamma Discourses, Day 1
S.N. Goenka - Dhamma Discourses, Day 1
Published: 2013/11/25
Channel: Ganesha
Discourse Analysis Part 1: Discursive Psychology
Discourse Analysis Part 1: Discursive Psychology
Published: 2015/05/06
Channel: Graham R Gibbs
Levels of Language for Discourse Analysis
Levels of Language for Discourse Analysis
Published: 2015/01/19
Channel: Educational Foundations and Research, University of North Dakota
After being called a pedophile, Gascon tells Duterte: Elevate public discourse
After being called a pedophile, Gascon tells Duterte: Elevate public discourse
Published: 2017/09/18
Channel: ABS-CBN News
Vipassana Meditation Discourse - Day 1 (Hindi)
Vipassana Meditation Discourse - Day 1 (Hindi)
Published: 2013/08/19
Channel: Raj
Discourse - Testimony feat. AG of DITC
Discourse - Testimony feat. AG of DITC
Published: 2016/06/06
Channel: CrateCartel
Action, Intuition & Devotion: A Cult of Spirituality - Baba Video discourse
Action, Intuition & Devotion: A Cult of Spirituality - Baba Video discourse
Published: 2016/08/13
Channel: AMPS0521
Spiritual Discourse (English): Life is Precious, Use Your Time Wisely
Spiritual Discourse (English): Life is Precious, Use Your Time Wisely
Published: 2011/05/28
Channel: Gurumaa Ashram
Discourse Analysis Part 2: Foucauldian Approaches
Discourse Analysis Part 2: Foucauldian Approaches
Published: 2015/05/06
Channel: Graham R Gibbs
What is DISCOURSE ANALYSIS? What does DISCOURSE ANALYSIS mean? DISCOURSE ANALYSIS definition
What is DISCOURSE ANALYSIS? What does DISCOURSE ANALYSIS mean? DISCOURSE ANALYSIS definition
Published: 2016/06/25
Channel: The Audiopedia
Bhagavad Geeta Chapter 01 Discourse 01
Bhagavad Geeta Chapter 01 Discourse 01
Published: 2013/08/13
Channel: ChinmayaChannel
18. Democracy and Participation: Rousseau
18. Democracy and Participation: Rousseau's Discourse
Published: 2008/09/22
Channel: YaleCourses
Mahasatipatthana Sutta Discourse In Hindi - Day 1 By- SN Goenka Guruji
Mahasatipatthana Sutta Discourse In Hindi - Day 1 By- SN Goenka Guruji
Published: 2017/01/08
Channel: Nitish Jetithor
The Human Values - Sathya Sai Baba discourse - complete
The Human Values - Sathya Sai Baba discourse - complete
Published: 2011/11/17
Channel: gvmedeiros2008
The Discourse - Drifter Warzone Salvage Sparks New Drive
The Discourse - Drifter Warzone Salvage Sparks New Drive
Published: 2017/09/20
Channel: ARC Studio
How Gendered Discourse Perpetuates Bias | Dr. Stephanie Barnes Taylor | TEDxWilmingtonWomen
How Gendered Discourse Perpetuates Bias | Dr. Stephanie Barnes Taylor | TEDxWilmingtonWomen
Published: 2016/12/21
Channel: TEDx Talks
Slavoj Zizek. Lacan’s four discourses and the real. 2014
Slavoj Zizek. Lacan’s four discourses and the real. 2014
Published: 2015/04/25
Channel: European Graduate School Video Lectures
An Overview of Rousseau
An Overview of Rousseau's Discourse on Inequality
Published: 2016/12/08
Channel: Sargon of Akkad
Text and discourse analysis
Text and discourse analysis
Published: 2014/04/07
Channel: ED1421 Language and Literacy Education
Dayz of Noah Live Show - A Current Affair (News, Views, and Discourse)
Dayz of Noah Live Show - A Current Affair (News, Views, and Discourse)
Published: 2017/09/16
Channel: Dayz of Noah
18 Rahasyangal (Tamil Discourse by Sri Velukkudi Krishnan Swami)
18 Rahasyangal (Tamil Discourse by Sri Velukkudi Krishnan Swami)
Published: 2016/08/03
Channel: Ramya Giri
René Descartes: Discourse on the Method of Rightly Conducting One
René Descartes: Discourse on the Method of Rightly Conducting One's Reason
Published: 2013/01/17
Channel: libribooks
'Us' and 'them' in media discourse - The Listening Post (Feature)
Published: 2015/10/25
Channel: Al Jazeera English
Joseph Smith - The King Follett Discourse
Joseph Smith - The King Follett Discourse
Published: 2016/04/13
Channel: Bryan Ray
Divine discourse of Bhagawan Sri Sathya Sai Baba delivered on 20 Oct 2002
Divine discourse of Bhagawan Sri Sathya Sai Baba delivered on 20 Oct 2002
Published: 2015/05/14
Channel: Radio Sai Global Harmony
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Discourse (from Latin discursus, "running to and from") denotes written and spoken communications:

  • In semantics and discourse analysis: Discourse is a conceptual generalization of conversation within each modality and context of communication.
  • The totality of codified language (vocabulary) used in a given field of intellectual enquiry and of social practice, such as legal discourse, medical discourse, religious discourse, et cetera.[1]
  • In the work of Michel Foucault, and that of the social theoreticians he inspired: discourse describes "an entity of sequences, of signs, in that they are enouncements (énoncés)", statements in conversation.[2]

As discourse, an enouncement (statement) is not a unit of semiotic signs, but an abstract construct that allows the semiotic signs to assign meaning, and so communicate specific, repeatable communications to, between, and among objects, subjects, and statements.[2] Therefore, a discourse is composed of semiotic sequences (relations among signs that communicate meaning) between and among objects, subjects, and statements.

The term "discursive formation" (French: formation discursive) conceptually describes the regular communications (written and spoken) that produce such discourses, such as informal conversations. As a philosopher, Michel Foucault applied the discursive formation in the analyses of large bodies of knowledge, such as political economy and natural history.[3][4]

In the first sense-usage (semantics and discourse analysis), the term discourse is studied in corpus linguistics, the study of language expressed in corpora (samples) of "real world" text. In the second sense (the codified language of a field of enquiry) and in the third sense (a statement, un énoncé), the analysis of a discourse examines and determines the connections among language and structure and agency.

Moreover, because a discourse is a body of text meant to communicate specific data, information, and knowledge, there exist internal relations in the content of a given discourse; likewise, there exist external relations among discourses. As such, a discourse does not exist per se (in itself), but is related to other discourses, by way of inter-discursivity; therefore, in the course of intellectual enquiry, the discourse among researchers features the questions and answers of What is ...? and What is not. ..., conducted according to the meanings (denotation and connotation) of the concepts (statements) used in the given field of enquiry, such as anthropology, ethnography, and sociology; cultural studies and literary theory; the philosophy of science and feminism.

The humanities[edit]

In the humanities and in the social sciences, the term discourse describes a formal way of thinking that can be expressed through language; the discourse is a social boundary that defines what statements can be said about a topic.

Discourse affects the person's perspective; it is impossible to avoid discourse. For example, two notably distinct discourses can be used about various guerrilla movements describing them either as "freedom fighters" or "terrorists". In other words, the chosen discourse provides the vocabulary, expressions and perhaps also the style needed to communicate.

Discourses are embedded in different rhetorical genres and metagenres that constrain and enable them. That is language talking about language, for instance the American Psychiatric Association's DSMIV manual tells which terms have to be used in talking about mental health, thereby mediating meanings and dictating practices of the professionals of psychology and psychiatry.[5]

Discourse is closely linked to different theories of power and state, at least as long as defining discourses is seen to mean defining reality itself. This conception of discourse is largely derived from the work of French philosopher Michel Foucault.

Modernism[edit]

Modern theorists were focused on achieving progress and believed in the existence of natural and social laws which could be used universally to develop knowledge and thus a better understanding of society.[6] Modernist theorists were preoccupied with obtaining the truth and reality and sought to develop theories which contained certainty and predictability.[7] Modernist theorists therefore viewed discourse as being relative to talking or way of talking and understood discourse to be functional.[8] Discourse and language transformations are ascribed to progress or the need to develop new or more "accurate" words to describe new discoveries, understandings, or areas of interest.[8] In modern times, language and discourse are dissociated from power and ideology and instead conceptualized as "natural" products of common sense usage or progress.[8] Modernism further gave rise to the liberal discourses of rights, equality, freedom, and justice; however, this rhetoric masked substantive inequality and failed to account for differences, according to Regnier.[9]

Structuralism[edit]

Structuralist theorists, such as Ferdinand de Saussure and Jacques Lacan, argue that all human actions and social formations are related to language and can be understood as systems of related elements.[10] This means that the "…individual elements of a system only have significance when considered in relation to the structure as a whole, and that structures are to be understood as self-contained, self-regulated, and self-transforming entities." [11] In other words, it is the structure itself that determines the significance, meaning and function of the individual elements of a system. Structuralism has made an important contribution to our understanding of language and social systems.[12] Saussure's theory of language highlights the decisive role of meaning and signification in structuring human life more generally.[10]

Postmodernism[edit]

Following the perceived limitations of the modern era, emerged postmodern theory.[6] Postmodern theorists rejected modernist claims that there was one theoretical approach that explained all aspects of society.[7] Rather, postmodernist theorists were interested in examining the variety of experience of individuals and groups and emphasized differences over similarities and common experiences.[8]

In contrast to modern theory, postmodern theory is more fluid and allows for individual differences as it rejected the notion of social laws. Postmodern theorists shifted away from truth seeking and instead sought answers for how truths are produced and sustained. Postmodernists contended that truth and knowledge is plural, contextual, and historically produced through discourses. Postmodern researchers therefore embarked on analyzing discourses such as texts, language, policies and practices.[8]

French social theorist Michel Foucault developed a notion of discourse in his early work, especially the Archaeology of knowledge (1972). In Discursive Struggles Within Social Welfare: Restaging Teen Motherhood,[13] Iara Lessa summarizes Foucault's definition of discourse as "systems of thoughts composed of ideas, attitudes, courses of action, beliefs and practices that systematically construct the subjects and the worlds of which they speak." Foucault traces the role of discourses in wider social processes of legitimating and power, emphasizing the construction of current truths, how they are maintained and what power relations they carry with them." Foucault later theorized that discourse is a medium through which power relations produce speaking subjects.[8] Foucault (1977, 1980) argued that power and knowledge are inter-related and therefore every human relationship is a struggle and negotiation of power.[14] Foucault further stated that power is always present and can both produce and constrain the truth.[8] Discourse according to Foucault (1977, 1980, 2003) is related to power as it operates by rules of exclusion. Discourse therefore is controlled by objects, what can be spoken of; ritual, where and how one may speak; and the privileged, who may speak.[15] Coining the phrases power-knowledge Foucault (1980) stated knowledge was both the creator of power and creation of power. An object becomes a "node within a network." In his work, The Archaeology of Knowledge, Foucault uses the example of a book to illustrate a node within a network. A book is not made up of individual words on a page, each of which has meaning, but rather "is caught up in a system of references to other books, other texts, other sentences." The meaning of that book is connected to a larger, overarching web of knowledge and ideas to which it relates.

One of the key discourses that Foucault identified as part of his critique of power-knowledge was that of neoliberalism, which he related very closely to his conceptualization of governmentality in his lectures on biopolitics.[16] This trajectory of Foucault's thinking has been taken up widely within Human Geography.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Marks, Larry (June 2001). "A Little Glossary of Semantics". revue-texto.net. Retrieved 25 May 2011. 
  2. ^ a b M. Foucault (1969). L'Archéologie du savoir. Paris: Éditions Gallimard. 
  3. ^ M. Foucault (1970) [1966]. The Order of Things. Pantheon. ISBN 0-415-26737-4. 
  4. ^ Compact Oxford Dictionary, Thesaurus and Wordpower Guide (2001). Oxford University Press, New York.
  5. ^ Catherine F. Schryer and Philippa Spoel. Genre Theory, Health-Care Discourse, and Professional Identity Formation. Journal of Business and Technical Communication 2005. 19: 249 http://jbt.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/19/3/249
  6. ^ a b J. Larrain (1994). "Ideology and cultural identity: Modernity and the third world presence". Cambridge: Polity Press. 
  7. ^ a b Steven Best & Douglas Kellner (1997). The postmodern turn. The Guilford Press. ISBN 1-57230-221-6. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g Strega, 2005
  9. ^ Regnier, 2005
  10. ^ a b D. Howarth (2000). Discourse. Philadelphia, Pa.: Open University Press. ISBN 0-335-20070-2. 
  11. ^ D. Howarth (2000). Discourse. Philadelphia, Pa.: Open University Press. p. 17. ISBN 0-335-20070-2. 
  12. ^ Sommers, Aaron. Discourse and Difference "University of New Hampshire Cosmology Seminar" [1]
  13. ^ Lessa, Iara (February 2006). "Discursive struggles within social welfare: Restaging teen motherhood". The British Journal of Social Work. Oxford Journals. 36 (2): 283–298. doi:10.1093/bjsw/bch256. 
  14. ^ Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings, 1972–1977. M Foucault. Selected interviews and other writings 1972, 1977, 1980. Pantheon
  15. ^ M. Foucault (1972). Archaeology of knowledge. New York: Pantheon. ISBN 0-415-28752-9. 
  16. ^ Foucault, M. (2008) The Birth Of Biopolitics: Lectures at the Collège de France, 1978–1979. New York: Palgrave MacMillan.

References[edit]

  • M. Foucault (1980). "Two Lectures," in Colin Gordon, ed., Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews. New York: Pantheon. 
  • Research as resistance: Critical, indigenous and anti-oppressive approaches.(2005). In Brown L. A., Strega S. (Eds.), Toronto: Canadian Scholars' Press.
  • S. Strega (2005). The view from the poststructural margins: Epistemology and methodology reconsidered. In L. Brown, & S. Strega (Eds.), Research as resistance (pp. 199–235). Toronto: Canadian Scholars' Press.
  • J. Sunderland (2004). Gendered discourses. New York: PalgraveMacmillan. 

External links[edit]

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