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Aldo Gangemi: Knowledge extraction based on Discourse Representation Theory and linguistic frames
Aldo Gangemi: Knowledge extraction based on Discourse Representation Theory and linguistic frames
Published: 2012/10/17
Channel: DERIGalway
RT1: Representation Theory Basics
RT1: Representation Theory Basics
Published: 2011/03/08
Channel: MathDoctorBob
Discourse
Discourse
Published: 2013/06/14
Channel: Debra Marshall
What is REPRESENTATION THEORY? What does REPRESENTATION THEORY mean?
What is REPRESENTATION THEORY? What does REPRESENTATION THEORY mean?
Published: 2016/11/04
Channel: The Audiopedia
Representation & the Media: Featuring Stuart Hall
Representation & the Media: Featuring Stuart Hall
Published: 2006/10/04
Channel: ChallengingMedia
Stuart Hall Representation Theory
Stuart Hall Representation Theory
Published: 2016/10/10
Channel: Callum Kleber
E010: Discourse Theory
E010: Discourse Theory
Published: 2014/03/10
Channel: Simon Lindgren
What is SOCIAL REPRESENTATION? What does SOCIAL REPRESENTATION mean?
What is SOCIAL REPRESENTATION? What does SOCIAL REPRESENTATION mean?
Published: 2017/06/11
Channel: The Audiopedia
Media Discourse, Social Values and Social Issues - An Overview
Media Discourse, Social Values and Social Issues - An Overview
Published: 2017/04/12
Channel: Charlie Dyring
ELL352 Approaches to Discourse
ELL352 Approaches to Discourse
Published: 2014/03/31
Channel: The School of English at the University of Sheffield
Critical Race Theory & Critical Discourse Analysis (audio only) - Focus on Diversity series
Critical Race Theory & Critical Discourse Analysis (audio only) - Focus on Diversity series
Published: 2013/12/02
Channel: The University of Georgia College of Education
Media Representation & Ideology Pt 5
Media Representation & Ideology Pt 5
Published: 2014/03/13
Channel: TM Dams
How Gendered Discourse Perpetuates Bias | Dr. Stephanie Barnes Taylor | TEDxWilmingtonWomen
How Gendered Discourse Perpetuates Bias | Dr. Stephanie Barnes Taylor | TEDxWilmingtonWomen
Published: 2016/12/21
Channel: TEDx Talks
Class Domination and Ideological Hegemony
Class Domination and Ideological Hegemony
Published: 2014/06/09
Channel: Travis Van Horn
Talk by Stergos Afantenos at ECE TUC (Jun 30, 2015)
Talk by Stergos Afantenos at ECE TUC (Jun 30, 2015)
Published: 2015/07/09
Channel: ECE TUC
22. Post-Colonial Criticism
22. Post-Colonial Criticism
Published: 2009/09/01
Channel: YaleCourses
Theory at Yale: The Strange Case of Deconstruction in America
Theory at Yale: The Strange Case of Deconstruction in America
Published: 2016/03/10
Channel: NYUHumanities
Edward Said On Orientalism
Edward Said On Orientalism
Published: 2012/10/28
Channel: Palestine Diary
FRED: a Machine Reader for the Semantic Web
FRED: a Machine Reader for the Semantic Web
Published: 2013/10/23
Channel: Andrea Giovanni Nuzzolese
Gunther Kress "Multimodal Discourse Analysis"
Gunther Kress "Multimodal Discourse Analysis"
Published: 2016/02/04
Channel: UNF writes
Stuart Hall- Key Concepts
Stuart Hall- Key Concepts
Published: 2008/11/25
Channel: cookkn
Representation Theory 1, Group Action
Representation Theory 1, Group Action
Published: 2013/09/08
Channel: LadislauFernandes
Prof. Alex Lascarides - Discourse Coherence
Prof. Alex Lascarides - Discourse Coherence
Published: 2012/01/11
Channel: The University of Edinburgh
What Is The Ego || Osho Discourse In English
What Is The Ego || Osho Discourse In English
Published: 2017/09/07
Channel: Denver Records
Representation of High-level Semantic Concepts of Films
Representation of High-level Semantic Concepts of Films
Published: 2008/02/24
Channel: UNC-Chapel Hill
Affect theory and reconciliation
Affect theory and reconciliation
Published: 2015/10/04
Channel: Holly Baker
Discourse Theory and JROTC 02
Discourse Theory and JROTC 02
Published: 2015/07/14
Channel: Royal Cuevas
What Are The Different Branches Of Linguistics?
What Are The Different Branches Of Linguistics?
Published: 2017/09/03
Channel: I Question You
COG 376: Computer Models of Language Representation and Processing
COG 376: Computer Models of Language Representation and Processing
Published: 2015/05/09
Channel: Noelle LeRoy
Rohan Mcleod - A General theory of Discourse
Rohan Mcleod - A General theory of Discourse
Published: 2014/11/03
Channel: Adam Ford
Media Influence - Encoding/Decoding
Media Influence - Encoding/Decoding
Published: 2016/08/04
Channel: Charlie Dyring
Partially Examined Life podcast - Rousseau - Discourse on Inequality
Partially Examined Life podcast - Rousseau - Discourse on Inequality
Published: 2011/05/19
Channel: The Partially Examined Life
"Representation and Contemporary Democracy" Tanner Lectures 2013 | Mahindra Center
"Representation and Contemporary Democracy" Tanner Lectures 2013 | Mahindra Center
Published: 2013/06/18
Channel: Harvard University
Critical Discourse Analysis Presentation
Critical Discourse Analysis Presentation
Published: 2016/11/15
Channel: Kalianne L. Neumann
Olmsted Lecture: Charles Waldheim, "A General Theory"
Olmsted Lecture: Charles Waldheim, "A General Theory"
Published: 2015/09/10
Channel: Harvard GSD
Feminist Critical Discourse Analysis Gender Power and Ideology in Discourse
Feminist Critical Discourse Analysis Gender Power and Ideology in Discourse
Published: 2016/02/26
Channel: annah
Language and Discourse - Critical Social Psychology (26/30)
Language and Discourse - Critical Social Psychology (26/30)
Published: 2011/07/26
Channel: OpenLearn from The Open University
Judith Butler. Distinctions on violence and nonviolence. 2016
Judith Butler. Distinctions on violence and nonviolence. 2016
Published: 2017/02/20
Channel: European Graduate School Video Lectures
The context of maternity care: risk discourse, evidence and trust
The context of maternity care: risk discourse, evidence and trust
Published: 2015/09/01
Channel: Royal Society of Medicine
Do Humans Have Free Will, Or Are We Programmed By Society? | Joscha Bach
Do Humans Have Free Will, Or Are We Programmed By Society? | Joscha Bach
Published: 2017/07/11
Channel: Big Think
2015 GSLIS Research Showcase: Advanced Tools & Techniques for Logic-Based...
2015 GSLIS Research Showcase: Advanced Tools & Techniques for Logic-Based...
Published: 2015/05/11
Channel: iSchool at Illinois
Stuart Hall- Encoding and Decoding
Stuart Hall- Encoding and Decoding
Published: 2009/02/18
Channel: yoteman407
Judith Butler. To preserve the life of the Other. 2016
Judith Butler. To preserve the life of the Other. 2016
Published: 2016/10/13
Channel: European Graduate School Video Lectures
gerard genette narrative discourse an essay in method pdf
gerard genette narrative discourse an essay in method pdf
Published: 2016/10/09
Channel: Валерий Семёнов
Simon O’Sullivan on Art Encounters Deleuze and Guattari: Thought Beyond Representation
Simon O’Sullivan on Art Encounters Deleuze and Guattari: Thought Beyond Representation
Published: 2014/11/09
Channel: Actual Virtual Journal
Critical Race Studies
Critical Race Studies
Published: 2015/11/15
Channel: Sophie Hunt
What is Philosophical Race Theory? - Paul Taylor
What is Philosophical Race Theory? - Paul Taylor
Published: 2016/11/07
Channel: Unit Fellows
Slavoj Zizek. Lacan’s four discourses and the real. 2014
Slavoj Zizek. Lacan’s four discourses and the real. 2014
Published: 2015/04/25
Channel: European Graduate School Video Lectures
Week 2 - Stuart Hall The West and the Rest
Week 2 - Stuart Hall The West and the Rest
Published: 2014/03/04
Channel: Soc Pol
"Music Video Analysis: Genre, Discourse, and Narrative in Music, Words, and Images" - Lori Burns
"Music Video Analysis: Genre, Discourse, and Narrative in Music, Words, and Images" - Lori Burns
Published: 2016/01/08
Channel: UR Institute for Popular Music
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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In formal linguistics, discourse representation theory (DRT) is a framework for exploring meaning under a formal semantics approach. One of the main differences between DRT-style approaches and traditional Montagovian approaches is that DRT includes a level of abstract mental representations (discourse representation structures, DRS) within its formalism, which gives it an intrinsic ability to handle meaning across sentence boundaries. DRT was created by Hans Kamp in 1981.[1] A very similar theory was developed independently by Irene Heim in 1982, under the name of File Change Semantics (FCS).[2] Discourse representation structures can be used to implement natural language understanding software.[3]

Discourse representation structures[edit]

DRT uses discourse representation structures (DRS) to represent a hearer's mental representation of a discourse as it unfolds over time. There are two critical components to a DRS:

  • A set of discourse referents representing entities which are under discussion.
  • A set of DRS conditions representing information that has been given about discourse referents.

Consider Sentence (1) below:

(1) A farmer owns a donkey.

The DRS of (1) can be notated as (2) below:

(2) [x,y: farmer(x), donkey(y), owns(x,y)]

What (2) says is that there are two discourse referents, x and y, and three discourse conditions farmer, donkey, and owns, such that the condition farmer holds of x, donkey holds of y, and owns holds of the pair x and y.

Informally, the DRS in (2) is true in a given model of evaluation if and only if there are entities in that model which satisfy the conditions. So, if a model contains two individuals, and one is a farmer, the other is a donkey, and the first owns the second, the DRS in (2) is true in that model.

Uttering subsequent sentences result in the existing DRS being updated.

(3) He beats it.

Uttering (3) after (1) results in the DRS in (2) being updated as follows, in (4) (assuming a way to disambiguate which pronoun refers to which individual).

(4) [x,y: farmer(x), donkey(y), own(x,y), beat(x,y)]

Successive utterances of sentences work in a similar way, although the process is somewhat more complicated for more complex sentences such as sentences containing negation, and conditionals.

Donkey anaphora[edit]

In one sense, DRT offers a variation of first-order predicate calculus — its forms are pairs of first-order formulae and the free variables that occur in them. In traditional natural language semantics, only individual sentences are examined, but the context of a dialogue plays a role in meaning as well. For example, anaphoric pronouns such as he and she rely upon previously introduced individual constants in order to have meaning. DRT uses variables for every individual constant in order to account for this problem. A discourse is represented in a discourse representation structure (DRS), a box with variables at the top and the sentences in the formal language below in the order of the original discourse. Sub-DRS can be used for different types of sentences.

One of the major advantages of DRT is its ability to account for donkey sentences (Geach 1962) in a principled fashion:

(5) Every farmer who owns a donkey beats it.

Sentence (5) can be paraphrased as follows: Every farmer who owns a donkey beats the donkey that he/she owns. Under a Montagovian approach, the indefinite a donkey, which is assumed to be inherently an existential quantifier, ends up becoming a universal quantifier, an unwelcome result because the change in quantificational force cannot be accounted for in any principled way.

DRT avoids this problem by assuming that indefinites introduce discourse referents (DRs) which are stored in the mental representation and are accessible (or not, depending on the conditions) to expressions like pronouns and other anaphoric elements. Furthermore, they are inherently non-quantificational, and pick up quantificational force depending upon the context.

On the other hand, genuine quantifiers (e.g., 'every professor') bear scope. An 'every-NP' triggers the introduction of a complex condition of the form K1 → K2, where K1 and K2 are sub-DRSs representing the restriction and the scope of the quantification respectively.

Unlike true quantifiers, indefinite NPs just contribute a new DR (together with some descriptive material in terms of conditions on the DR), which is placed in a larger structure. This larger structure can be the top-level DRS or some sub-DRS according to the sentence-internal environment of the analyzed NP — in other words, a level which is accessible to an anaphor that comes later.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kamp, Hans and Reyle, U. 1993. From Discourse to Logic. Kluwer, Dordrecht.
  2. ^ Javier Gutiérrez-Rexach (2003). Semantics: Noun phrase classes. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-415-26635-2. 
  3. ^ Juan Carlos Augusto; Reiner Wichert; Rem Collier; David Keyson, Albert A. Salah and Ah-Hwee Tan (23 November 2013). Ambient Intelligence: 4th International Joint Conference, AmI 2013, Dublin, Ireland, December 3-5, 2013. Proceedings. Springer. ISBN 978-3-319-03647-2. 

External links[edit]

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