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Aldo Gangemi: Knowledge extraction based on Discourse Representation Theory and linguistic frames
Aldo Gangemi: Knowledge extraction based on Discourse Representation Theory and linguistic frames
Published: 2012/10/17
Channel: DERIGalway
RT1: Representation Theory Basics
RT1: Representation Theory Basics
Published: 2011/03/08
Channel: MathDoctorBob
What is REPRESENTATION THEORY? What does REPRESENTATION THEORY mean?
What is REPRESENTATION THEORY? What does REPRESENTATION THEORY mean?
Published: 2016/11/04
Channel: The Audiopedia
Discourse
Discourse
Published: 2013/06/14
Channel: Debra Marshall
What is Discourse?
What is Discourse?
Published: 2015/12/11
Channel: Jordan Carroll
Language & Meaning: Crash Course Philosophy #26
Language & Meaning: Crash Course Philosophy #26
Published: 2016/08/29
Channel: CrashCourse
Rohan Mcleod - A General theory of Discourse
Rohan Mcleod - A General theory of Discourse
Published: 2014/11/03
Channel: Adam Ford
Representation & the Media: Featuring Stuart Hall
Representation & the Media: Featuring Stuart Hall
Published: 2006/10/04
Channel: ChallengingMedia
Ali Hashmi on Ideology and Text: Classifying and Analyzing Discourse using Machine Learning
Ali Hashmi on Ideology and Text: Classifying and Analyzing Discourse using Machine Learning
Published: 2015/06/30
Channel: The Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society
E010: Discourse Theory
E010: Discourse Theory
Published: 2014/03/10
Channel: Simon Lindgren
PHILOSOPHY - Michel Foucault
PHILOSOPHY - Michel Foucault
Published: 2015/07/03
Channel: The School of Life
Discourses
Discourses
Published: 2014/07/07
Channel: Phloneme
Bourdieu - simple explanation
Bourdieu - simple explanation
Published: 2013/04/26
Channel: Cheryl Reynolds
Edward Said - Framed: The Politics of Stereotypes in News
Edward Said - Framed: The Politics of Stereotypes in News
Published: 2017/03/02
Channel: Al Jazeera English
Media Representation & Ideology Pt 5
Media Representation & Ideology Pt 5
Published: 2014/03/13
Channel: TM Dams
Stuart Hall - Race, Gender, Class in the Media
Stuart Hall - Race, Gender, Class in the Media
Published: 2017/03/02
Channel: Al Jazeera English
Representation of High-level Semantic Concepts of Films
Representation of High-level Semantic Concepts of Films
Published: 2008/02/24
Channel: UNC-Chapel Hill
Mod-01 Lec-40 Deconstruction, feminism, discourse theory etc.
Mod-01 Lec-40 Deconstruction, feminism, discourse theory etc.
Published: 2015/04/30
Channel: nptelhrd
How Gendered Discourse Perpetuates Bias | Dr. Stephanie Barnes Taylor | TEDxWilmingtonWomen
How Gendered Discourse Perpetuates Bias | Dr. Stephanie Barnes Taylor | TEDxWilmingtonWomen
Published: 2016/12/21
Channel: TEDx Talks
How Gaming Culture Maintains Male Dominance - Privilege, Discourse, and Framing (Part 4)
How Gaming Culture Maintains Male Dominance - Privilege, Discourse, and Framing (Part 4)
Published: 2017/10/28
Channel: Malmrose Projects
Talk by Stergos Afantenos at ECE TUC (Jun 30, 2015)
Talk by Stergos Afantenos at ECE TUC (Jun 30, 2015)
Published: 2015/07/09
Channel: ECE TUC
Language and Discourse - Critical Social Psychology (26/30)
Language and Discourse - Critical Social Psychology (26/30)
Published: 2011/07/26
Channel: OpenLearn from The Open University
TSD conference 2006 - Presentation of James Pustejovsky
TSD conference 2006 - Presentation of James Pustejovsky
Published: 2012/09/17
Channel: NLPassist
COG 376: Computer Models of Language Representation and Processing
COG 376: Computer Models of Language Representation and Processing
Published: 2015/05/09
Channel: Noelle LeRoy
Discourse analysis
Discourse analysis
Published: 2017/08/04
Channel: Vidya-mitra
Identity and Positioning Theory
Identity and Positioning Theory
Published: 2013/01/13
Channel: rx scabin
Where Does Foucault Define Discourse
Where Does Foucault Define Discourse
Published: 2017/11/30
Channel: Brody Jarvis
FRED: a Machine Reader for the Semantic Web
FRED: a Machine Reader for the Semantic Web
Published: 2013/10/23
Channel: Andrea Giovanni Nuzzolese
Edward Said On Orientalism
Edward Said On Orientalism
Published: 2012/10/28
Channel: Palestine Diary
Representation, As Seen by Stuart Hall
Representation, As Seen by Stuart Hall
Published: 2010/06/14
Channel: kcnova24
Discourse Theory and JROTC 02
Discourse Theory and JROTC 02
Published: 2015/07/14
Channel: Royal Cuevas
"Representation and Contemporary Democracy" Tanner Lectures 2013 | Mahindra Center
"Representation and Contemporary Democracy" Tanner Lectures 2013 | Mahindra Center
Published: 2013/06/18
Channel: Harvard University
Representation Theory 1, Group Action
Representation Theory 1, Group Action
Published: 2013/09/08
Channel: LadislauFernandes
MS2900 Exploring media theory | Encoding & Decoding in Television Discourse
MS2900 Exploring media theory | Encoding & Decoding in Television Discourse
Published: 2017/11/01
Channel: Yu Shi
22. Post-Colonial Criticism
22. Post-Colonial Criticism
Published: 2009/09/01
Channel: YaleCourses
Critical Race Studies
Critical Race Studies
Published: 2015/11/15
Channel: Sophie Hunt
What Are The Different Branches Of Linguistics?
What Are The Different Branches Of Linguistics?
Published: 2017/09/27
Channel: Another Question II
Stuart Hall- Key Concepts
Stuart Hall- Key Concepts
Published: 2008/11/25
Channel: cookkn
A talk: Gender Representation in EFL materials: A critical discourse analysis perspective
A talk: Gender Representation in EFL materials: A critical discourse analysis perspective
Published: 2014/09/03
Channel: Professor Ali Rahimi
What Are The Different Branches Of Linguistics?
What Are The Different Branches Of Linguistics?
Published: 2017/09/03
Channel: I Question You
What is MENTAL MODEL? What does MENTAL MODEL mean? MENTAL MODEL meaning, definition & explanation
What is MENTAL MODEL? What does MENTAL MODEL mean? MENTAL MODEL meaning, definition & explanation
Published: 2017/01/29
Channel: The Audiopedia
Media Representation and the Global Imagination
Media Representation and the Global Imagination
Published: 2013/02/26
Channel: London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE)
What is Representation? (Social Agenda Part 2)
What is Representation? (Social Agenda Part 2)
Published: 2016/04/21
Channel: appabend
16 Set Representation Problem4
16 Set Representation Problem4
Published: 2013/08/05
Channel: Oresoft LWC
A talk: A critical discourse analysis of discursive structures in a political text
A talk: A critical discourse analysis of discursive structures in a political text
Published: 2014/09/11
Channel: Professor Ali Rahimi
Difference Between Model and Theory
Difference Between Model and Theory
Published: 2016/01/28
Channel: Aeldra
[LINGUISTICS] How to find for the Underlying Form in Phonemic Analysis
[LINGUISTICS] How to find for the Underlying Form in Phonemic Analysis
Published: 2016/05/03
Channel: Karen Li
The context of maternity care: risk discourse, evidence and trust
The context of maternity care: risk discourse, evidence and trust
Published: 2015/09/01
Channel: Royal Society of Medicine
Media Studies & Discourse
Media Studies & Discourse
Published: 2013/05/02
Channel: Maddimatters212
Theory at Yale: The Strange Case of Deconstruction in America
Theory at Yale: The Strange Case of Deconstruction in America
Published: 2016/03/10
Channel: NYUHumanities
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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In formal linguistics, discourse representation theory (DRT) is a framework for exploring meaning under a formal semantics approach. One of the main differences between DRT-style approaches and traditional Montagovian approaches is that DRT includes a level of abstract mental representations (discourse representation structures, DRS) within its formalism, which gives it an intrinsic ability to handle meaning across sentence boundaries. DRT was created by Hans Kamp in 1981.[1] A very similar theory was developed independently by Irene Heim in 1982, under the name of File Change Semantics (FCS).[2] Discourse representation structures can be used to implement natural language understanding software.[3]

Discourse representation structures[edit]

DRT uses discourse representation structures (DRS) to represent a hearer's mental representation of a discourse as it unfolds over time. There are two critical components to a DRS:

  • A set of discourse referents representing entities which are under discussion.
  • A set of DRS conditions representing information that has been given about discourse referents.

Consider Sentence (1) below:

(1) A farmer owns a donkey.

The DRS of (1) can be notated as (2) below:

(2) [x,y: farmer(x), donkey(y), owns(x,y)]

What (2) says is that there are two discourse referents, x and y, and three discourse conditions farmer, donkey, and owns, such that the condition farmer holds of x, donkey holds of y, and owns holds of the pair x and y.

Informally, the DRS in (2) is true in a given model of evaluation if and only if there are entities in that model which satisfy the conditions. So, if a model contains two individuals, and one is a farmer, the other is a donkey, and the first owns the second, the DRS in (2) is true in that model.

Uttering subsequent sentences result in the existing DRS being updated.

(3) He beats it.

Uttering (3) after (1) results in the DRS in (2) being updated as follows, in (4) (assuming a way to disambiguate which pronoun refers to which individual).

(4) [x,y: farmer(x), donkey(y), own(x,y), beat(x,y)]

Successive utterances of sentences work in a similar way, although the process is somewhat more complicated for more complex sentences such as sentences containing negation, and conditionals.

Donkey anaphora[edit]

In one sense, DRT offers a variation of first-order predicate calculus — its forms are pairs of first-order formulae and the free variables that occur in them. In traditional natural language semantics, only individual sentences are examined, but the context of a dialogue plays a role in meaning as well. For example, anaphoric pronouns such as he and she rely upon previously introduced individual constants in order to have meaning. DRT uses variables for every individual constant in order to account for this problem. A discourse is represented in a discourse representation structure (DRS), a box with variables at the top and the sentences in the formal language below in the order of the original discourse. Sub-DRS can be used for different types of sentences.

One of the major advantages of DRT is its ability to account for donkey sentences (Geach 1962) in a principled fashion:

(5) Every farmer who owns a donkey beats it.

Sentence (5) can be paraphrased as follows: Every farmer who owns a donkey beats the donkey that he/she owns. Under a Montagovian approach, the indefinite a donkey, which is assumed to be inherently an existential quantifier, ends up becoming a universal quantifier, an unwelcome result because the change in quantificational force cannot be accounted for in any principled way.

DRT avoids this problem by assuming that indefinites introduce discourse referents (DRs) which are stored in the mental representation and are accessible (or not, depending on the conditions) to expressions like pronouns and other anaphoric elements. Furthermore, they are inherently non-quantificational, and pick up quantificational force depending upon the context.

On the other hand, genuine quantifiers (e.g., 'every professor') bear scope. An 'every-NP' triggers the introduction of a complex condition of the form K1 → K2, where K1 and K2 are sub-DRSs representing the restriction and the scope of the quantification respectively.

Unlike true quantifiers, indefinite NPs just contribute a new DR (together with some descriptive material in terms of conditions on the DR), which is placed in a larger structure. This larger structure can be the top-level DRS or some sub-DRS according to the sentence-internal environment of the analyzed NP — in other words, a level which is accessible to an anaphor that comes later.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kamp, Hans and Reyle, U. 1993. From Discourse to Logic. Kluwer, Dordrecht.
  2. ^ Javier Gutiérrez-Rexach (2003). Semantics: Noun phrase classes. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-415-26635-2. 
  3. ^ Juan Carlos Augusto; Reiner Wichert; Rem Collier; David Keyson, Albert A. Salah and Ah-Hwee Tan (23 November 2013). Ambient Intelligence: 4th International Joint Conference, AmI 2013, Dublin, Ireland, December 3-5, 2013. Proceedings. Springer. ISBN 978-3-319-03647-2. 

External links[edit]

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