Docufiction (or docu-fiction, often confused with docudrama) is the cinematographic combination of documentary and fiction. [1 ]
It is a
film genre which attempts to capture reality such as it is (as [2 ] direct cinema or cinéma vérité) and which simultaneously introduces unreal elements or fictional situations in narrative in order to strengthen the representation of reality using some kind of artistic expression.
More precisely, it is a documentary contaminated with fictional elements,
in [3 ] real time, filmed when the events take place, and in which someone – the [4 ] character – plays his own role in real life. Film genre in expansion, it is adopted by an increasing number of filmmakers.
new term docufiction appeared at the beginning of the 21st century. It is now commonly used in several languages and widely accepted for classification by international film festivals. [5 ] [6 ] [7 ] [8 ] [9 ] [10 ] [11 ] [12 ] [13 ] Either in cinema or television, docufiction is, anyway, a [14 ] film genre in full development during the first decade of this century.
The word docufiction is also sometimes used to refer to literary journalism (
creative nonfiction). [15 ]
Docudrama and mockumentary [ edit ]
docudrama is usually a fictional and dramatized recreation of factual events in form of a documentary, at a time subsequent to the "real" events it portrays. A docudrama is often confused with [16 ] docufiction when drama is considered interchangeable with fiction (both words meaning the same). Typically however, "docudrama" refers specifically to telefilms or other television media recreations that dramatize certain events often with actors.
mockumentary ( etymology: mock documentary) is also a film or television show in which fictitious events are presented in documentary format, sometimes a recreation of factual events after they took place or a comment on [17 ] current events, typically satirical or comedic. (see [18 ] genres: drama versus comedy and tragedy) or dramatic in nature. Portraying events at an ulterior time and basically using fictional [19 ] narrative such as docudrama, it should not be confused with docufiction as well.
Origins [ edit ]
The term involves a way of making films already practiced by such authors as
Robert Flaherty, one of the fathers of documentary, [20 ] and [21 ] Jean Rouch, later in the 20th century.
It also implicates the concept that
fiction and documentary are basic genres in film theory, due to the ontological status of the filmed [22 ] image as photography: the double (the image of the subject) is shown as being the same, as real image in documentary (as representation and reality ) but as simple representation in fiction: in fiction, an [23 ] actor stands for [24 ] another [25 ] person and the portrayed events are invented or manipulated. Being both, docufiction is a [26 ] hybrid genre, arising [27 ] ethical problems [23 ] [28 ] [29 ] [30 ] [31 ] [32 ] concerning [33 ] truth, since reality may be manipulated and confused with fiction (see Ethics at creative non-fiction).
In the domain of
visual anthropology, the innovating role of Jean Rouch allows one to consider him as the father of a subgenre called [34 ] ethnofiction. [35 ] This term means: [36 ] ethnographic documentary film with natives who play fictional roles. Making them play a role about themselves will help portray reality, which will be reinforced with [37 ] imagery. A non ethnographic documentary with fictional elements uses the same method and, for the same reasons, may be called docufiction.
First docufictions by country [ edit ]
by Moana Robert Flaherty, United States 1930:
Maria do Mar by [38 ] Leitão de Barros, Portugal 1932:
L'or des mers by [39 ] Jean Epstein, France 1948:
by La Terra Trema Luchino Visconti, Italy 1963:
( Pour la suite du monde Of Whales, the Moon and Men) by Pierre Perrault and Michel Brault, Canada 1981:
(fr) by Transes Ahmed El Maânouni, Morroco 1988:
(Death denied) by Mortu Nega Flora Gomes, Guiné-Bissau 1990:
by Close-up (film) Abbas Kiarostami, Iran 1991:
by Zombie and the Ghost Train Mika Kaurismäki, Finland (See review at NYT ) [40 ] 2002:
by City of God Fernando Meirelles and Kátia Lund, Brasil 2005:
by Underexposure Oday Rasheed, Iraq
Other notable docufictions (until 2000) [ edit ]
See more: at
(Categories) Docufiction films
See also [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
^ Reality and documentary – at Six Types Of Documentary, article by Girish Shambu (blog)
^ An Introduction to Genre Theory by Daniel Chandler at Aberystwyth University
^ Il difficile rapporto tra fiction e non fiction che si concretizza nella docu-fiction (The difficult relationship between fiction and non-fiction patent in docufiction ) - thesis in Italian by Laura Marchesi, Faculty of Communication Sciences (Università degli Studi di Pavia) at Tesionline, 2005/06
^ , Docufiction in the Digital Age – Thesis by Tay Huizhen, National University of Singapore
^ What is docufiction? – See Section II, pages 37 to 75 (four chapters) of the thesis by Prof. Theo Mäusli
^ Indie Matra Bhumi ( The Motherland) – Cannes Film Festival
^ Ablel Ferrara’s docufiction – Venice Film Festival
^ The Savage Eye: White Docu-Fiction & Black Reality at Tribeca Film Festival
^ Brian De Palma's On His Iraq Docu-Fiction Comeback at The Huffington Post – Toronto Film Festival and Venice Film Festival
^ Darius Mehrjui’s film Diamond 33 – Venice Film Festival
^ New Film Events – London Short Film Festival
^ Oscilloscope 'Howl' for Off Beat Docu-Fiction Sundance Selection at Ion Cinema
^ Docufiction at several film festivals
^ See: Hybrids (fiction/nonfiction films) at External links
^ Tate Triennial 2009: Altermodern - 'Docufiction'
^ See Docudrama: the real (his)tory Confusion of genres – Page 2 on the thesis by Çiçek Coşkun (New York University School of Education)
^ From "mock + documentary" - definition at The Free Dictionary
^ A television programme or film which takes the form of a serious documentary in order to satirize its subject. - definition at The Free Dictionary and Dictionary.com
^ Definition at Merrian-Webster dictionary: greatly affecting people's emotions
^ Definition of documentary – New Frontiers in American documentary (American Studies at The University of Virginia)
^ The Impulse of Documentary-Fiction - Paper at Transart Institute
^ The Gap: Documentary Truth between Reality and Perception – article by Randolph Jordan referring «the increasing lack of distinction between documentary and fiction film» at Hors Champ
^ a b Open-ended Realities - article by Luciana Lang at Latineos
^ Semiotics at Book Regs
^ Semiotics for Beginners by Daniel Chandler at Aberystwyth University
^ (NON)FICTION AND THE VIEWER: RE-INTERPRETING THE DOCUMENTARY FILM – Paper by Tammy Stone, Avila University
^ See hybrid genre – page 50, thesis on docufiction by Prof. Theo Mäusli
^ The appeal of hybrid documentary forms in West Africa at Project Muse
^ Ethics and Documentary Filmmaking – Article by Marty Lucas at Center for Social Media (American University in Washington, D.C)
^ On Ethics and Documentary: A Real and Actual Truth – Article by Garnet C. Butchart at Cultural Studies Program, Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario, Canada, published University of South Florida
^ What to Do About Documentary Distortion? Toward a Code of Ethics – Article by Bill Nichols at Documentary.org
^ Documentary Film Prompts-Ethics in Documentary/Fiction vs. Documentary – Paper by Ardavon Naimi at University of Texas at Dallas
^ Ethics and Filmmaking in Developing Countries at Unite For Sight
^ Jean Rouch 1917-2004, A Valediction - Article by Michael Eaton at Rouge
^ Glossary at MAITRES_FOUS.NET
^ Jean Rouch and the Genesis of Ethnofiction, thesis by Brian Quist, Long Island University
^ "Ethnofiction: drama as a creative research practice in ethnographic film." Journal of Media Practice 9, no. 3(2008), eScholarID:1b5648, article by Johannes Sjöberg
^ See Maria do Mar at IMdb
^ See L'Or des mers at IMdb
^ Zombie and the Ghost Train (1991)Review/Film Festival; How a Zombie Became One With Alcohol and Self-Pity
^ "Chicago Cinema Forum". Cine-file.info. 2007-08-29 . Retrieved 2012-08-29.
^ India: Matri Bhumi – Article by Doug Cummings at F i l m j o u r n e y (March 18th, 2007)
^ Digitally cleaned 'India, Matri Bhumi' screened at Vienna film festival – Article at IBN Live
^ Christopher, Rob (2007-08-29). "Q: What Do You Call a Movie That's Getting Its Chicago Premiere 48 Years After Being Made?". Chicagoist . Retrieved 2012-08-29.
^ The Human Pyramid at IMdb
^ See Acto da Primavera
^ See Trevico-Torino (viaggio nel Fiat-Nam at IMdb
^ See Gente da Praia da Vieira
^ Trás-os-Montes at Harvard Film Archive
^ António Reis and Margarida Cordeiro at UCLA
^ Rep Pick: Ana – Review by Aaron Cutler at The L Magazine
Sources and bibliography [ edit ]
(English) Paget, Derek (1998). No Other Way to Tell It. Dramadoc/docudrama on television. Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-0-7190-4533-2.
(English) Rosenthal, Alan (199). Why Docudrama? : Fact-Fiction on Film and TV. Carbondale & Edwardsville: Southern Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-8093-2186-5.
(English) Lipkin, Steven N., ed. (2002). Real Emotional Logic. Film and Television Docudrama As Persuasive Practice. Carbondale: Southern Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-8093-2409-5.
(English) Docudrama: the real (his)tory thesis by Çiçek Coşkun (New York University School of Education)
External links [ edit ]