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Introduction to the Document Object Model
Introduction to the Document Object Model
Published: 2009/09/21
Channel: Stefan Mischook
The DOM: What
The DOM: What's the Document Object Model?
Published: 2015/09/21
Channel: freeCodeCamp
JavaScript Tutorial for Beginners - 25 - Document Object Model
JavaScript Tutorial for Beginners - 25 - Document Object Model
Published: 2015/04/11
Channel: EJ Media
JavaScript and the DOM (Part 1 of 2)
JavaScript and the DOM (Part 1 of 2)
Published: 2016/05/02
Channel: DevTips
HTML-CSS-DOM
HTML-CSS-DOM
Published: 2014/10/03
Channel: Udacity
HTML5 Basics - The DOM (Part3)
HTML5 Basics - The DOM (Part3)
Published: 2013/09/30
Channel: DevTips
JavaScript DOM Crash Course - Part 1
JavaScript DOM Crash Course - Part 1
Published: 2017/09/12
Channel: Traversy Media
Understand HTML DOM in Hindi Urdu | Document Object Model | vishAcademy
Understand HTML DOM in Hindi Urdu | Document Object Model | vishAcademy
Published: 2017/06/21
Channel: vishAcademy
JavaScript tutorial: What is the Document Object Model? | lynda.com
JavaScript tutorial: What is the Document Object Model? | lynda.com
Published: 2013/07/01
Channel: LinkedIn Learning Solutions
JavaScript Tutorial For Beginners #32 - What is the DOM in JavaScript?
JavaScript Tutorial For Beginners #32 - What is the DOM in JavaScript?
Published: 2015/09/04
Channel: The Net Ninja
JavaScript Tutorial - Document Object Model (DOM)
JavaScript Tutorial - Document Object Model (DOM)
Published: 2013/01/14
Channel: WebTunings
XML and the DOM
XML and the DOM
Published: 2011/03/14
Channel: Peter WebExplorations
51011 - Understanding the DOM
51011 - Understanding the DOM
Published: 2016/03/18
Channel: OnTargetHTML5
What is the document object model (DOM)?
What is the document object model (DOM)?
Published: 2016/09/29
Channel: internet-class
JavaScript Lecture 10 - Document Object Model (DOM), DOM Tree of Objects with Example
JavaScript Lecture 10 - Document Object Model (DOM), DOM Tree of Objects with Example
Published: 2017/01/06
Channel: Easy Engineering Classes
Javascript Tutorial | Understanding the Document Object Model in JS
Javascript Tutorial | Understanding the Document Object Model in JS
Published: 2016/01/14
Channel: Avelx
Curso Básico de Javascript 13.- Introducción al DOM (Document Object Model)
Curso Básico de Javascript 13.- Introducción al DOM (Document Object Model)
Published: 2015/08/19
Channel: FalconMasters
A 10-minute very complete introduction to DOM(Document Object Model) with Javascript
A 10-minute very complete introduction to DOM(Document Object Model) with Javascript
Published: 2014/03/29
Channel: Hoven Trainings
Understanding the Document Object Model
Understanding the Document Object Model
Published: 2017/01/09
Channel: King
DOM Introduction
DOM Introduction
Published: 2012/04/03
Channel: DudeRocking
Introduction to html DOM document object model
Introduction to html DOM document object model
Published: 2016/01/19
Channel: Lisa Friedrichsen
Javascript Programming Tutorial | An Introduction To The DOM - Document Object Model
Javascript Programming Tutorial | An Introduction To The DOM - Document Object Model
Published: 2012/12/07
Channel: O'Reilly - Video Training
JavaScript, the Browser, and the DOM
JavaScript, the Browser, and the DOM
Published: 2016/10/11
Channel: Kirupa Chinnathambi
JavaScript Tutorial für Anfänger #22 - Das Document Object Model DOM
JavaScript Tutorial für Anfänger #22 - Das Document Object Model DOM
Published: 2016/10/18
Channel: The Morpheus Tutorials
An Introduction to the DOM (Document Object Model) in JavaScript
An Introduction to the DOM (Document Object Model) in JavaScript
Published: 2017/10/14
Channel: Zac Gordon
JavaScript Tutorial - DOM(Document Object Model) Tree - part 1
JavaScript Tutorial - DOM(Document Object Model) Tree - part 1
Published: 2013/04/20
Channel: WebTunings
Manipulating the Document Object Model in JavaScript
Manipulating the Document Object Model in JavaScript
Published: 2014/05/06
Channel: O'Reilly
HTML: The DOM (Document Object Model)
HTML: The DOM (Document Object Model)
Published: 2010/10/01
Channel: Educator.com
Основы javascript 16 - DOM (объектная модель документа)
Основы javascript 16 - DOM (объектная модель документа)
Published: 2013/09/22
Channel: loftblog
Document Object Model (DOM) Intro
Document Object Model (DOM) Intro
Published: 2012/04/12
Channel: UltimateNetworkable
Assigning event handlers in JavaScript using DOM object property
Assigning event handlers in JavaScript using DOM object property
Published: 2015/01/12
Channel: kudvenkat
JavaScript - Document Object Model/DOM (Lesson 5)
JavaScript - Document Object Model/DOM (Lesson 5)
Published: 2015/11/04
Channel: Tezo System 1
Document Object Model in javascript telugu part 1
Document Object Model in javascript telugu part 1
Published: 2017/07/05
Channel: Programming Tutorials In Telugu
html attribute vs dom property
html attribute vs dom property
Published: 2017/06/20
Channel: kudvenkat
JavaScript - 23. Introduction to HTML DOM
JavaScript - 23. Introduction to HTML DOM
Published: 2013/03/05
Channel: Loot Tutorial
HTML Básico: O que é o DOM (Document Object Model) | Tiago Aguiar
HTML Básico: O que é o DOM (Document Object Model) | Tiago Aguiar
Published: 2016/05/10
Channel: Tiago Aguiar
¿Qué es Document Object Model (DOM)?
¿Qué es Document Object Model (DOM)?
Published: 2015/12/09
Channel: Aula Formativa
Javascript Tutorial | Understanding the Document Object Model | Ep30
Javascript Tutorial | Understanding the Document Object Model | Ep30
Published: 2017/08/15
Channel: Avelx
JAVASCRIPT: DOCUMENT OBJECT MODEL (DOM)
JAVASCRIPT: DOCUMENT OBJECT MODEL (DOM)
Published: 2017/07/11
Channel: Playcode
JavaScript Lesson 13 DOM Manipulation
JavaScript Lesson 13 DOM Manipulation
Published: 2016/02/04
Channel: DoingITeasyChannel
JS Document Object | JavaScript Tutorial | Mr. Subba Raju
JS Document Object | JavaScript Tutorial | Mr. Subba Raju
Published: 2017/04/25
Channel: Naresh i Technologies
XML DOM | XML DOM Properties | XML DOM Methods in Hindi
XML DOM | XML DOM Properties | XML DOM Methods in Hindi
Published: 2017/03/21
Channel: Easy Engineering Classes
jQuery. Урок 3. Что такое Document Object Model
jQuery. Урок 3. Что такое Document Object Model
Published: 2015/11/11
Channel: Brainoteka Light
What is Document Object Model DOM
What is Document Object Model DOM
Published: 2015/06/21
Channel: Devender Naik
jQuery Tutorial #4 - DOM Traversal with jQuery
jQuery Tutorial #4 - DOM Traversal with jQuery
Published: 2014/06/10
Channel: LearnCode.academy
JQuery 16 - What is DOM? (Document Object Model)
JQuery 16 - What is DOM? (Document Object Model)
Published: 2017/01/20
Channel: Ankpro Training
¿Qué es el DOM, Document Object Model?
¿Qué es el DOM, Document Object Model?
Published: 2016/11/29
Channel: Francisco Arce
Document Object Model: Finding
Document Object Model: Finding
Published: 2012/04/12
Channel: UltimateNetworkable
Document Object Model: Page
Document Object Model: Page
Published: 2012/04/12
Channel: UltimateNetworkable
Javascript Tutorial 18 - Document Object Model (DOM)
Javascript Tutorial 18 - Document Object Model (DOM)
Published: 2012/01/22
Channel: programminghelporg
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Document Object Model
DOM-model.svg
Example of DOM hierarchy in an HTML document
First published October 1, 1998; 19 years ago (1998-10-01)
Latest version DOM4[1]
November 19, 2015; 23 months ago (2015-11-19)
Organization World Wide Web Consortium, WHATWG
Base standards WHATWG DOM Living Standard
W3C DOM4
Abbreviation DOM

The Document Object Model (DOM) is a cross-platform and language-independent application programming interface that treats an HTML, XHTML, or XML document as a tree structure wherein each node is an object representing a part of the document. The objects can be manipulated programmatically and any visible changes occurring as a result may then be reflected in the display of the document.[2]

The principal standardization of DOM was handled by the World Wide Web Consortium, which last developed a recommendation in 2004. WHATWG took over development of the standard, publishing it as a living document. The W3C now publishes stable snapshots of the WHATWG standard.

History[edit]

The history of the Document Object Model is intertwined with the history of the "browser wars" of the late 1990s between Netscape Navigator and Microsoft Internet Explorer, as well as with that of JavaScript and JScript, the first scripting languages to be widely implemented in the layout engines of web browsers.

JavaScript was released by Netscape Communications in 1995 within Netscape Navigator 2.0. Netscape's competitor, Microsoft, released Internet Explorer 3.0 the following year with a reimplementation of JavaScript called JScript. JavaScript and JScript let web developers create web pages with client-side interactivity. The limited facilities for detecting user-generated events and modifying the HTML document in the first generation of these languages eventually became known as "DOM Level 0" or "Legacy DOM." No independent standard was developed for DOM Level 0, but it was partly described in the specifications for HTML 4.

Legacy DOM was limited in the kinds of elements that could be accessed. Form, link and image elements could be referenced with a hierarchical name that began with the root document object. A hierarchical name could make use of either the names or the sequential index of the traversed elements. For example, a form input element could be accessed as either document.formName.inputName or document.forms[0].elements[0].

The Legacy DOM enabled client-side form validation and the popular "rollover" effect.

In 1997, Netscape and Microsoft released version 4.0 of Netscape Navigator and Internet Explorer respectively, adding support for Dynamic HTML (DHTML) functionality enabling changes to a loaded HTML document. DHTML required extensions to the rudimentary document object that was available in the Legacy DOM implementations. Although the Legacy DOM implementations were largely compatible since JScript was based on JavaScript, the DHTML DOM extensions were developed in parallel by each browser maker and remained incompatible. These versions of the DOM became known as the "Intermediate DOM."

After the standardization of ECMAScript, the W3C DOM Working Group began drafting a standard DOM specification. The completed specification, known as "DOM Level 1", was recommended by W3C in late 1998. By 2005, large parts of W3C DOM were well-supported by common ECMAScript-enabled browsers, including Microsoft Internet Explorer version 6 (from 2001), Opera, Safari and Gecko-based browsers (like Mozilla, Firefox, SeaMonkey and Camino).

Standards[edit]

The W3C DOM Working Group published its final recommendation and subsequently disbanded in 2004. Development efforts migrated to the WHATWG, which continues to maintain a living standard.[3] In 2009, the Web Applications group reorganized DOM activities at the W3C.[4] In 2013, due to a lack of progress and the impending release of HTML5, the DOM Level 4 specification was reassigned to the HTML Working Group to expedite its completion.[5] Meanwhile, in 2015, the Web Applications group was disbanded and DOM stewardship passed to the Web Platform group.[6] Beginning with the publication of DOM Level 4 in 2015, the W3C creates new recommendations based on snapshots of the WHATWG standard.

  • DOM Level 1 provided a complete model for an entire HTML or XML document, including the means to change any portion of the document.
  • DOM Level 2 was published in late 2000. It introduced the getElementById function as well as an event model and support for XML namespaces and CSS.
  • DOM Level 3, published in April 2004, added support for XPath and keyboard event handling, as well as an interface for serializing documents as XML.
  • DOM Level 4 was published in 2015. It is a snapshot of the WHATWG living standard.[7]

Applications[edit]

Web browsers[edit]

To render a document such as an HTML page, most web browsers use an internal model similar to the DOM. The nodes of every document are organized in a tree structure, called the DOM tree, with the topmost node named as "Document object". When an HTML page is rendered in browsers, the browser downloads the HTML into local memory and automatically parses it to display the page on screen.

JavaScript[edit]

When a web page is loaded, the browser creates a Document Object Model of the page, which is an object oriented representation of an HTML document, that acts as an interface between JavaScript and the document itself and allows the creation of dynamic web pages:[8]

  • JavaScript can add, change, and remove all of the HTML elements and attributes in the page.
  • JavaScript can change all of the CSS styles in the page.
  • JavaScript can react to all of the existing events in the page.
  • JavaScript can create new events within the page.

Implementations[edit]

Because DOM supports navigation in any direction (e.g., parent and previous sibling) and allows for arbitrary modifications, an implementation must at least buffer the document that has been read so far (or some parsed form of it).[citation needed]

Layout engines[edit]

Web browsers rely on layout engines to parse HTML into a DOM. Some layout engines, such as Trident/MSHTML, are associated primarily or exclusively with a particular browser, such as Internet Explorer. Others, including Blink, WebKit, and Gecko, are shared by a number of browsers, such as Google Chrome, Opera, Safari, and Firefox. The different layout engines implement the DOM standards to varying degrees of compliance.

Libraries[edit]

DOM implementations:

  • libxml2
  • MSXML
  • Xerces is a collection of DOM implementations written in C++, Java and Perl
  • XML for <SCRIPT> is a JavaScript-based DOM implementation[9]
  • PHP.Gt DOM is based on libxml2 and brings DOM level 4 compatibility[10] to the PHP programming language
  • Domino is a Server-side (Node.js) DOM implementation based on Mozilla's dom.js. Domino is used in the MediaWiki stack with Visual Editor.

APIs that expose DOM implementations:

  • JAXP (Java API for XML Processing) is an API for accessing DOM providers
  • Lazarus (Free Pascal IDE) contains two variants of the DOM - with UTF-8 and ANSI format

Inspection tools:

References[edit]

  1. ^ All versioning refers to W3C DOM only.
  2. ^ "Document Object Model (DOM)". http://www.w3.org/: W3C. Retrieved 2012-01-12. The Document Object Model is a platform- and language-neutral interface that will allow programs and scripts to dynamically access and update the content, structure and style of documents. 
  3. ^ "DOM Standard". Retrieved 23 September 2016. 
  4. ^ "W3C Document Object Model". Retrieved 23 September 2016. 
  5. ^ (plh@w3.org), Philippe Le Hegaret. "New Charter for the HTML Working Group from Philippe Le Hegaret on 2013-09-30 (public-html-admin@w3.org from September 2013)". Retrieved 23 September 2016. 
  6. ^ "PubStatus - WEBAPPS". Retrieved 23 September 2016. 
  7. ^ "W3C DOM4". Retrieved 23 September 2016. 
  8. ^ "JavaScript HTML DOM". Retrieved 23 September 2016. 
  9. ^ "XML for <SCRIPT> Cross Platform XML Parser in JavaScript". Retrieved 23 September 2016. 
  10. ^ "The modern DOM API for PHP 7 projects". 

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]

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