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Dorothea Dix - The Face of the Mental Health Reform
Dorothea Dix - The Face of the Mental Health Reform
Published: 2014/05/07
Channel: Victoria Smith
Dorothea Dix
Dorothea Dix
Published: 2014/09/18
Channel: Boston History
Dorthea Dix and Prison Reform in the U.S.
Dorthea Dix and Prison Reform in the U.S.
Published: 2012/09/28
Channel: kyhistoricalsociety
Dorothea Dix Takes a Stand | Paige Gray | TEDxPascoCountySchools
Dorothea Dix Takes a Stand | Paige Gray | TEDxPascoCountySchools
Published: 2017/05/23
Channel: TEDx Talks
DOROTHEA DIX DOCUMENTARY
DOROTHEA DIX DOCUMENTARY
Published: 2016/02/29
Channel: Samantha Anderson
Dorothea Dix
Dorothea Dix
Published: 2014/09/23
Channel: marissaoranges
Dorothea Dix
Dorothea Dix
Published: 2014/03/26
Channel: Catherine Barna
Dorothea Dix- The Life of a Reformer
Dorothea Dix- The Life of a Reformer
Published: 2015/03/22
Channel: McKayla Witt
Dix Hill, Raleigh, NC
Dix Hill, Raleigh, NC
Published: 2012/04/04
Channel: live raleigh
Dorothea Dix Remix
Dorothea Dix Remix
Published: 2013/11/05
Channel: Rose Austin
Bloody Dorothea Dix Halloween costume stirs controversy
Bloody Dorothea Dix Halloween costume stirs controversy
Published: 2015/09/25
Channel: CBS North Carolina
Devoted, Determined, Dedicated: Dorothea Dix, Crusader for the Mentally Ill
Devoted, Determined, Dedicated: Dorothea Dix, Crusader for the Mentally Ill
Published: 2016/02/25
Channel: Felipe Villalobos
Dorothea Dix APUSH movie
Dorothea Dix APUSH movie
Published: 2015/11/18
Channel: Lauren Nguyen
Dorothea Dix, in Raleigh, NC, before it becomes a city park, 1/31/16
Dorothea Dix, in Raleigh, NC, before it becomes a city park, 1/31/16
Published: 2016/01/31
Channel: ComputerHeidi
Dorothea Dix (Mentally ill Activist) APUSH
Dorothea Dix (Mentally ill Activist) APUSH
Published: 2013/01/07
Channel: Kaitlyn S
Dorothea Dix: The Push for American Asylums
Dorothea Dix: The Push for American Asylums
Published: 2013/10/22
Channel: garfieldchiu3
Dorothea Dix Taking a Stand for The Mentally ill
Dorothea Dix Taking a Stand for The Mentally ill
Published: 2017/03/31
Channel: Ansley Gibson
Dorothea Dix
Dorothea Dix
Published: 2009/03/12
Channel: thatwhitekid3pppu
Dorothea Dix
Dorothea Dix
Published: 2014/07/24
Channel: Maureen Costello
dorothea dix encountering reform
dorothea dix encountering reform
Published: 2016/03/16
Channel: emani jessup
Dorothea Dix Documentary
Dorothea Dix Documentary
Published: 2015/01/22
Channel: Gabby LaRock
Drone Footage From Dorothea Dix, Raleigh, NC, April 29, 2016
Drone Footage From Dorothea Dix, Raleigh, NC, April 29, 2016
Published: 2016/04/29
Channel: ComputerHeidi
Dorothea Dix: Revolutionizing Asylums
Dorothea Dix: Revolutionizing Asylums
Published: 2013/01/05
Channel: Kolby Lykon
DOROTHEA DIX MOVIE
DOROTHEA DIX MOVIE
Published: 2015/12/15
Channel: marissa violet
Remembering Dorothea Dix
Remembering Dorothea Dix
Published: 2011/05/12
Channel: PIWDC
Dorothea Dix & Treatment of the Insane
Dorothea Dix & Treatment of the Insane
Published: 2015/04/26
Channel: Lauren Urbanowski
Dorothea Dix Reform Project
Dorothea Dix Reform Project
Published: 2017/05/24
Channel: Luke Foering
The Dorothea Dix Award
The Dorothea Dix Award
Published: 2014/05/25
Channel: Paul Kiritsis
I Tell What I Have Seen - Dorothea Dix
I Tell What I Have Seen - Dorothea Dix
Published: 2016/06/05
Channel: Kat Amato
Dorothea Dix - Digital Literacy Project
Dorothea Dix - Digital Literacy Project
Published: 2014/04/26
Channel: lindmando
Dorothea Dix
Dorothea Dix
Published: 2012/06/06
Channel: MrDevaP
Inheritance - Dorothea Lynde Dix
Inheritance - Dorothea Lynde Dix
Published: 2014/10/04
Channel: A Room With A View
Dorothea Dix: The Quest for Better Conditions for the Mentally Disabled
Dorothea Dix: The Quest for Better Conditions for the Mentally Disabled
Published: 2015/03/09
Channel: ittybell02
Crazy – Dorothea Dix (Cover)
Crazy – Dorothea Dix (Cover)
Published: 2016/12/02
Channel: Luke De Guzman
Dorothea Dix Humanities Project
Dorothea Dix Humanities Project
Published: 2011/03/27
Channel: imthird1
dorothea Dix by Lexy Zambrano
dorothea Dix by Lexy Zambrano
Published: 2016/04/12
Channel: lexy Zambrano
Dorothea Dix
Dorothea Dix
Published: 2009/02/10
Channel: x3seezoo
Dorothea Dix SWK 741 University of South Carolina
Dorothea Dix SWK 741 University of South Carolina
Published: 2010/10/25
Channel: sade2107
Dorothea Dix APUSH project
Dorothea Dix APUSH project
Published: 2015/11/02
Channel: Trey Talbott
Dorothea Dix
Dorothea Dix
Published: 2017/03/08
Channel: Phillip Eddington
Dorothea Dix Park
Dorothea Dix Park
Published: 2017/05/21
Channel: Paul Bruckman
Dorothea Dix outcomes
Dorothea Dix outcomes
Published: 2013/11/15
Channel: Mary Rhea
Dorothea Dix and Asylum Reform
Dorothea Dix and Asylum Reform
Published: 2014/12/06
Channel: Aaron Hurd
NC HAGS Dorothea Dix Hospital Investigation #4 Remastered
NC HAGS Dorothea Dix Hospital Investigation #4 Remastered
Published: 2010/01/10
Channel: eddiereddie
dorothea dix movie
dorothea dix movie
Published: 2012/03/08
Channel: Dorotheadixmrboundy
National History Day: Dorothea Dix and the Asylum Movement
National History Day: Dorothea Dix and the Asylum Movement
Published: 2014/02/06
Channel: A & S
Dorothea Dix POV
Dorothea Dix POV
Published: 2013/06/18
Channel: Dustin Ramsay
Giant 7
Giant 7' RC Biplane (Pink Foam) Maiden Flight at Dorothea Dix in Raleigh, NC
Published: 2014/07/09
Channel: rdnymrcm
Dorothea Dix & Asylum Reformation
Dorothea Dix & Asylum Reformation
Published: 2014/04/11
Channel: Olivia Tobol
Dorothea Dix
Dorothea Dix
Published: 2016/01/12
Channel: Mrs. Burroughs
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Dorothea Lynde Dix
Dix-Dorothea-LOC.jpg
Born (1802-04-04)April 4, 1802
Hampden, Maine, US
Died July 18, 1887(1887-07-18) (aged 85)
Trenton, New Jersey, US
Occupation Social reformer
Parent(s) Joseph Dix
Mary Bigelow

Dorothea Lynde Dix (April 4, 1802 – July 18, 1887) was an American activist on behalf of the indigent mentally ill who, through a vigorous program of lobbying state legislatures and the United States Congress, created the first generation of American mental asylums. During the Civil War, she served as a Superintendent of Army Nurses.

Early life[edit]

Born in the town of Hampden, Maine, she grew up first in Worcester, Massachusetts. She was the first child of three born to Joseph Dix and Mary Bigelow, who had deep ancestral roots in Massachusetts Bay Colony.[1] Her father was an itinerant worker as a Methodist preacher.[2][a] At the age of twelve, she sought refuge with her wealthy grandmother, Dorothea Lynde (wife of Dr Elijah Dix)[3] in Boston to get away from her alcoholic parents and abusive father. About 1821 Dix opened a school in Boston, which was patronized by well-to-do families. Soon afterward she also began teaching poor and neglected children out of the barn of her grandmother's house, but she suffered poor health.[4] It has been suggested that Dorothea suffered from major depressive episodes, which contributed to her poor health.[5] From 1824 to 1830, she wrote mainly devotional books and stories for children. Her Conversations on Common Things (1824) reached its sixtieth edition by 1869.[6] Her book The Garland of Flora (1829) was, along with Elizabeth Wirt's Flora's Dictionary, one of the first two dictionaries of flowers published in the United States. Other books of Dix's include Private Hours, Alice and Ruth, and Prisons and Prison Discipline.[7]

After Dix's health forced her to relinquish her school, she began working out as a governess for the family of Dr. W. E. Channing. It was while working with this family that Dix traveled to St. Croix, where she first witnessed slavery as one of the evils of the world.[7] In 1831, she established a model school for girls in Boston, operating it until 1836, when she had another health breakdown.[3] Dix was encouraged to take a trip to Europe to help aid her health by her physician. When she was there she met the other reformers who inspired her to start working on equal rights for the mentally ill. These reformers were Elizabeth Fry, Samuel Tuke and William Rathbone with whom she lived during the duration of her trip in Europe.[8] In hopes of a cure, in 1836 she traveled to England, where she met the Rathbone family. They invited her as a guest to Greenbank, their ancestral mansion in Liverpool. The Rathbones were Quakers and prominent social reformers. At Greenbank, Dix met their circle of men and women who believed that government should play a direct, active role in social welfare. She was also introduced to the reform movement for care of the mentally ill in Great Britain, known as lunacy reform. Its members were making deep investigations of madhouses and asylums, publishing their studies in reports to the House of Commons.

Antebellum Career[edit]

Dix circa 1850-55

Reform movements for treatment of the mentally ill were related in this period to other progressive causes: abolitionism, temperance, and voter reforms. After returning to America, in 1840-41 Dix conducted a statewide investigation of care for the mentally ill poor in Massachusetts. In most cases, towns contracted with local individuals to care for mentally ill people who could not care for themselves and lacked family/friends to do so. Unregulated and underfunded, this system resulted in widespread abuse. Dix published the results in a fiery report, a Memorial, to the state legislature. "I proceed, Gentlemen, briefly to call your attention to the present state of Insane Persons confined within this Commonwealth, in cages, stalls, pens! Chained, naked, beaten with rods, and lashed into obedience."[9] Her lobbying resulted in a bill to expand the state's mental hospital in Worcester.

During the year 1844 Dix visited all the counties, jails and almshouses in New Jersey in a similar investigation. She prepared a memorial for the New Jersey Legislature, giving a detailed account of her observations and facts. Dix urgently appealed to the legislature to act and appropriate funds to construct a facility for the care and treatment of the mentally ill. She cited a number of cases to emphasize the importance of the state taking responsibility for this class of unfortunates. Dix's plea was to provide moral treatment for the mentally ill, which consisted of three values: modesty, chastity, and delicacy.[10]

She gave as an example a man respected as a legislator, and jurist, who came upon hard times in old age and became mentally ill. Dix found him lying on a small bed in a basement room of the county almshouse, absent necessary comforts. She wrote: "This feeble and depressed old man, a pauper, helpless, lonely, and yet conscious of surrounding circumstances, and not now wholly oblivious of the past — this feeble old man, who was he?" Many members of the legislature knew her pauper jurist. Joseph S. Dodd introduced her report to the Senate on January 23, 1845.

Dodd's resolution to authorize an asylum passed the following day. The first committee made their report February 25, appealing to the New Jersey legislature to act at once. Some politicians secretly opposed it due to taxes needed to support it. Dix continued to lobby for a facility, writing letters and editorials to build support. During the session she met with legislators and held group meetings in the evening at home. The act of authorization was taken up March 14, 1845, and read for the last time. On March 25, 1845, the bill was passed for the establishment of a state facility.[11][12]

Dix traveled from New Hampshire to Louisiana, documenting the condition of the poor mentally ill, making reports to state legislatures, and working with committees to draft the enabling legislation and appropriations bills needed. In 1846, Dix traveled to Illinois to study mental illness. While there, she fell ill and spent the winter in Springfield recovering. She submitted a report to the January 1847 legislative session, which adopted legislation to establish Illinois' first state mental hospital.[13]

The Dorothea Dix Museum on the grounds of the Harrisburg State Hospital

In 1848, Dix visited North Carolina, where she again called for reform in the care of mentally ill patients. Her first attempt to bring reform to North Carolina was denied. However, after a board member's wife requested, as a dying wish, that Dix's plea be reconsidered, the bill for reform was approved.[14] In 1849, when the (North Carolina) State Medical Society was formed, the legislature authorized construction of an institution in the capital, Raleigh, for the care of mentally ill patients. Dix Hill Asylum, named in honor of Dorothea Dix's father, was eventually opened in 1856.[15] One hundred years later, the Dix Hill Asylum was renamed the Dorothea Dix Hospital, in honor of her legacy.[16] A second state hospital for the mentally ill was authorized in 1875, Broughton State Hospital in Morganton, North Carolina; and ultimately, the Goldsboro Hospital for the Negro Insane was also built in the Piedmont area of the segregated state. Dix had a biased view that mental illness was related to conditions of educated whites, not minorities (Dix, 1847).[17]

She was instrumental in the founding of the first public mental hospital in Pennsylvania, the Harrisburg State Hospital. In 1853, she established its library and reading room.[18]

The culmination of her work was the Bill for the Benefit of the Indigent Insane, legislation to set aside 12,225,000 acres (49,473 km2) of Federal land (10,000,000 acres (40,000 km2) to be used for the benefit of the mentally ill and the remainder for the "blind, deaf, and dumb"). Proceeds from its sale would be distributed to the states to build and maintain asylums. Dix's land bill passed both houses of the United States Congress; but in 1854, President Franklin Pierce vetoed it, arguing that social welfare was the responsibility of the states. Stung by the defeat of her land bill, in 1854 and 1855 Dix traveled to England and Europe. She reconnected with the Rathbones and conducted investigations of Scotland's madhouses. This work resulted in formation of the Scottish Lunacy Commission to oversee reforms.[19]

Dix visited the British colony of Nova Scotia in 1853 to study its care of the mentally ill. During her visit she traveled the remote Sable Island to investigate reports of mentally ill patients being abandoned there. Such reports were largely unfounded. While on Sable, Dix assisted in a shipwreck rescue. Upon her return to Boston, she led a successful campaign to send upgraded life-saving equipment to the island.[20] The day after supplies arrived, a ship was wrecked on the island. Thankfully, because of Dix's work, 180 people were saved.[21]

From 1854 to 1854, Dix investigated the conditions of mental hospitals in Scotland, and found them to be in similar poor conditions. In 1857, after years of work and opposition, reform laws were finally passed.[21] Dix took up a similar project in the Channel Islands, finally managing the building of an asylum after thirteen years of agitation.[21] Extending her work throughout Europe, Dix continued on to the asylums of Rome. Once again finding disrepair and maltreatment, Dix sought an audience with Pope Pius IX. His Holiness was receptive to Dix's revelations, and visited the asylums himself to be shocked at their conditions. He thanked Dix for her work, saying in a second audience with her that "a woman and a Protestant, had crossed the seas to call his attention to these cruelly ill-treated members of his flock."[21]

Fountain for thirsty horses Dix gave to the city of Boston to honor the MSPCA

The Civil War[edit]

During the American Civil War, Dix was appointed Superintendent of Army Nurses by the Union Army, beating out Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell. She and others found that the qualities that made her a successful crusader—independence, single-minded zeal—were not effective in managing a large organization of female nurses under crisis conditions in a wide geographic area.

Dix set guidelines for nurse candidates. Volunteers were to be aged 35 to 50 and plain-looking. They were required to wear unhooped black or brown dresses, with no jewelry or cosmetics. Dix wanted to avoid sending vulnerable, attractive young women into the hospitals, where she feared they would be exploited by the men (doctors as well as patients). Dix often fired volunteer nurses she hadn't personally trained or hired (earning the ire of supporting groups like the United States Sanitary Commission).

At odds with Army doctors, Dix feuded with them over control of medical facilities and the hiring and firing of nurses. Many doctors and surgeons did not want any female nurses in their hospitals. To solve the impasse, the War Department introduced Order No.351 in October 1863.[22] It granted both the Surgeon General (Joseph K. Barnes) and the Superintendent of Army Nurses (Dix) the power to appoint female nurses. However, it gave doctors the power of assigning employees and volunteers to hospitals. This relieved Dix of direct operational responsibility. As superintendent, Dix implemented the Federal army nursing program, in which over 3,000 women would eventually serve.[23] Meanwhile, her influence was being eclipsed by other prominent women such as Dr. Mary Edwards Walker and Clara Barton. She resigned in August 1865[22] and later considered this "episode" in her career a failure. Although thousands of Catholic nuns successfully served as Army nurses, Dix distrusted them; her anti-Catholicism undermined her ability to work with Irish and German nuns.[24]

But her even-handed caring for Union and Confederate wounded alike, assured her memory in the South. Her nurses provided what was often the only care available in the field to Confederate wounded. Georgeanna Woolsey, a Dix nurse, said, "The surgeon in charge of our camp...looked after all their wounds, which were often in a most shocking state, particularly among the rebels. Every evening and morning they were dressed." Another Dix nurse, Julia Susan Wheelock, said, "Many of these were Rebels. I could not pass them by neglected. Though enemies, they were nevertheless helpless, suffering human beings."[citation needed]

When Confederate forces retreated from Gettysburg, they left behind 5,000 wounded soldiers. These were treated by many of Dix's nurses. Union nurse Cornelia Hancock wrote about the experience: "There are no words in the English language to express the suffering I witnessed today...."[25]

She was well respected for her work throughout the war because of her dedication. This stemmed from her putting aside her previous work to focus completely on the war at hand. With the conclusion of the war her service was recognized formally. She was awarded with two national flags, these flags being for "the Care, Succor, and Relief of the Sick and wounded Soldiers of the United States on the Battle-Field, in Camps and Hospitals during the recent war."[26] Dix ultimately founded thirty-two hospitals, and influenced the creation of two others in Japan.[21]

Postwar life[edit]

At the end of the war, Dix helped raise funds for the national monument to deceased soldiers at Fortress Monroe.[21] Following the war, she resumed her crusade to improve the care of prisoners, the disabled, and the mentally ill. Her first step was to review the asylums and prisons in the South to evaluate the war damage to their facilities.

In 1881, Dix moved into the New Jersey State Hospital, formerly known as Trenton State Hospital, that she built years prior.[27] The state legislature had designated a suite for her private use as long as she lived. Although an invalid, she carried on correspondence with people from England, Japan, and elsewhere. Dix died on July 17, 1887. She was buried in Mount Auburn Cemetery in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Honors[edit]

Numerous locations are commemorated to Dix, including the Dix Ward in McLean Asylum at Somerville, Dixmont Hospital in Pennsylvania, and the Dorothea L. Dix House.[21]

See also[edit]

Works[edit]

She wrote a variety of other tracts on prisoners. She is also the author of many memorials to legislative bodies on the subject of lunatic asylums and reports on philanthropic subjects.

For young readers[edit]

  • . (1828) [1824], Conversations on Common Things, or, Guide to Knowledge, with Questions (3rd ed.), Boston: Monroe & Francis, retrieved 12 November 2010  Also Google Books. Note: other replications of this book are also available via Google Books.
  • Alice and Ruth
  • Evening Hours

and other books.

Notes[edit]

a. ^ Internet Archive currently lists seven copies of Francis Tiffany's book, of varying replication quality. The book was reprinted a number of times, and publishers may vary. However, the text is identical. Unfortunately, two of the easier to read versions uploaded to Internet Archive, namely this and this (the two bottom listings), are missing the title page, so were not utilised for the citation in this article. The information provided in the Internet Archive listings should never be used for citation, as they can contain inaccuracies (as can Google book listings). The uploaded, visible text itself should always be relied upon.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Notable Kin of Edmund Rice by Gary Boyd Roberts" (PDF). p.5 ERA Newsletter Fall 1999, Edmund Rice (1638) Association. Retrieved 23 June 2013. 
  2. ^ Tiffany, Francis (1890), The Life of Dorothea Lynde Dix, Boston & New York: Houghton, Mifflin & Co, p. 1, retrieved 12 November 2010  This sequence of events is described over several chapters, commencing page 180 (n206 in electronic page field). 
  3. ^ a b Chisholm 1911.
  4. ^ Holland, Mary G. (2002). Our Army Nurses: Stories from Women in the Civil War. Roseville: Edinborough Press. p. 76. ISBN 978-1-889020-04-4. 
  5. ^ Gollaher, D. (1995). Voice for the Mad. New York: The Free Press. p. 93. 
  6. ^  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Dix, Dorothea Lynde". Encyclopædia Britannica. 8 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 346. 
  7. ^ a b Holland, Mary G. (2002). Our Army Nurses: Stories from Women in the Civil War. Roseville: Edinborough Press. p. 77. ISBN 978-1-889020-04-4. 
  8. ^ Parry, Manon S. (2016-11-29). "Dorothea Dix (1802–1887)". American Journal of Public Health. 96 (4): 624–625. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2005.079152. ISSN 0090-0036. PMC 1470530Freely accessible. 
  9. ^ Dix, Dorothea L (1843), Memorial to the Legislature of Massachusetts 1843, p. 2, retrieved 12 November 2010 
  10. ^ {{Cite journal|last=Michel|first=Sonya|date=1994|title=Dorthea Dix; or, the Voice of the Maniac|journal=Discourse|volume=17|issue=2|pages=48-66|issn=15225321}
  11. ^ The Institutional Care of the Insane in the United States and Canada, 1916
  12. ^ "Trenton State Hospital - Asylum Projects". 
  13. ^ Briska, William (1997). The History of Elgin Mental Health Center: Evolution of a State Hospital. Crossroads Communications. p. 12. ISBN 0-916445-45-3. 
  14. ^ January 1849: Dorothea Dix Hospital.
  15. ^ Nineteenth-Century North Carolina.
  16. ^ January 1849: Dorothea Dix Hospital.
  17. ^ Vanessa Jackson, LCSW, Separate and Unequal: The Legacy of Racially Segregated Psychiatric Hospitals, 2007
  18. ^ "Harrisburg State Hospital", Historic Asylums, article hosted at Rootsweb. It was named in her honor and today serves also as a museum to the history of care for the mentally ill.
  19. ^ Tiffany, Francis (1890). This sequence of events is described over several chapters, commencing page 180 (n206 in electronic page field)
  20. ^ Thomas E. Appleton, "Dorothea Dix", USQUE AD MARE A History of the Canadian Coast Guard and Marine Services
  21. ^ a b c d e f g Holland, Mary G. (2002). Our Army Nurses: Stories from Women in the Civil War. Roseville: Edinborough Press. p. 78. ISBN 978-1-889020-04-4. 
  22. ^ a b c "Dorothea Dix". www.bookrags.com. 
  23. ^ Tsui, Bonnie (2006). She Went to the Field: Women Soldiers of the Civil War. Guilford: TwoDot. p. 123. ISBN 0762743840. 
  24. ^ Barbra Mann Wall, "Called to a Mission of Charity: The Sisters of St. Joseph in the Civil War, Nursing History Review (1998) Vol. 6, p85-113
  25. ^ Hancock, Cornelia (1937) South After Gettysburg: Letters of Cornelia Hancock from the Army of the Potomac, 1863-1865, University of Pennsylvania Press, Original from the University of Michigan, Digitized October 27, 2006.
  26. ^ a b "American National Biography Online: Dix, Dorothea Lynde". www.anb.org. Retrieved 2016-11-29. 
  27. ^ Dorothea Lynde Dix.
  28. ^ "Women Who Left Their "Stamps" on History". www.infoplease.com. 
  29. ^ "History of Dorothea Dix Psychiatric Center". DHHS Maine. Retrieved April 10, 2013. 
  30. ^ Dan Conlin, "A Transom from the Nova Scotia Sea School", Maritime Museum of the Atlantic, April 7, 2014
  31. ^ "Dix". Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. 
  32. ^ "Downtown". Boston Women's Heritage Trail. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Baker, Rachel. Angel of Mercy; The Story of Dorothea Lynde Dix. New York: Messner, 1955.
  • Brown, Thomas J. Dorothea Dix: New England Reformer. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1998.
  • Dix, Dorothea Lynde, and David L. Lightner. Asylum, Prison, and Poorhouse: The Writings and Reform Work of Dorothea Dix in Illinois. Carbondale, Ill: Southern Illinois University Press, 1999.
  • Gollaher, David (1995), Voice for the Mad: The Life of Dorothea Dix, New York: Free Press, ISBN 978-0-02-912399-7  Alternative ISBN 0-02-912399-2 
  • Lowe, Corinne. The Gentle Warrior, A Story of Dorothea Lynde Dix. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1948.
  • Marshall, Helen E. Dorothea Dix: Forgotten Samaritan. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina press, 1937.
  • Norman, Gertrude. Dorothea Lynde Dix. Lives to remember. New York: Putnam, 1959.
  • Rothman, David J; Marcus, Steven; Kiceluk, Stephanie A (editors) (2003), "Dorothea L. Dix (1802-1887): On Behalf of the Insane Poor", in ., Medicine and Western Civilization, New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, pp. 352–359, ISBN 0-8135-2189-0, retrieved 12 November 2010  Paperback ISBN 0-8135-2190-4 
  • Schlaifer, Charles, and Lucy Freeman. Heart's Work: Civil War Heroine and Champion of the Mentally Ill, Dorothea Lynde Dix. New York: Paragon House, 1991.
  • Tiffany, Francis (1890), The Life of Dorothea Lynde Dix, Boston & New York: Houghton, Mifflin & Co, retrieved 12 November 2010  See Internet Archive for other listings of this book 
  • Wilson, Dorothy Clarke. Stranger and Traveler: The Story of Dorothea Dix, American Reformer. Boston: Little, Brown, 1975.
  • Wikisource-logo.svg Wilson, James Grant; Fiske, John, eds. (1900). "Dix, Dorothea Lynde". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton. 
  • Wood, Alice Davis. Dorothea Dix and Dr. Francis T. Stribling: An Intense Friendship, Letters 1849-1874. [S.l.]: Xlibris, 2008.

For young readers[edit]

  • Colman, Penny. Breaking the Chains: The Crusade of Dorothea Lynde Dix. White Hall, Va: Shoe Tree Press, 1992.
  • Herstek, Amy Paulson. Dorothea Dix: Crusader for the Mentally Ill. Historical American biographies. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow Publishers, 2001.
  • Malone, Mary, and Katharine Sampson. Dorothea L. Dix: Hospital Founder. A Discovery biography. New York: Chelsea Juniors, 1991.
  • Muckenhoupt, Margaret. Dorothea Dix: Advocate for Mental Health Care. Oxford portraits. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.
  • Schleichert, Elizabeth, and Antonio Castro. The Life of Dorothea Dix. Pioneers in health and medicine. Frederick, Md: Twenty-First Century Books, 1992.
  • Witteman, Barbara. Dorothea Dix: Social Reformer. Let freedom ring. Mankato, Minn: Bridgestone Books, 2003.

External links[edit]

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