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HISTORY OF THE DOUGLAS AIRCRAFT COMPANY  WELCOME TO DOUGLAS  23324a
HISTORY OF THE DOUGLAS AIRCRAFT COMPANY WELCOME TO DOUGLAS 23324a
Published: 2016/06/22
Channel: PeriscopeFilm II
Douglas Aircraft Company Plants in Long Beach
Douglas Aircraft Company Plants in Long Beach
Published: 2012/05/30
Channel: crankyflier
Douglas Dc-10 vs McDonnell Douglas MD-11 vs Lockheed Tristar L1011
Douglas Dc-10 vs McDonnell Douglas MD-11 vs Lockheed Tristar L1011
Published: 2015/03/14
Channel: Cargospotter
Two Douglas DC-3 Dakotas
Two Douglas DC-3 Dakotas
Published: 2012/08/13
Channel: Historical Aviation Film Unit
Santa Monica & the Douglas Aircraft Company
Santa Monica & the Douglas Aircraft Company
Published: 2009/10/29
Channel: twilsen
Douglas Aircraft Company Jetliners - The 1958 DC-8 Public Relations Introduction
Douglas Aircraft Company Jetliners - The 1958 DC-8 Public Relations Introduction
Published: 2011/09/28
Channel: Aviation Explorer
THE DC-10 TAKES FLIGHT  MCDONNELL DOUGLAS CORPORATION PROMOTIONAL FILM  85114
THE DC-10 TAKES FLIGHT MCDONNELL DOUGLAS CORPORATION PROMOTIONAL FILM 85114
Published: 2016/07/07
Channel: PeriscopeFilm
Douglas Invader
Douglas Invader
Published: 2011/08/07
Channel: towtops
Douglas Aircraft Manufacturing - Assembly Line & Engineering 221732-03 | Footage Farm
Douglas Aircraft Manufacturing - Assembly Line & Engineering 221732-03 | Footage Farm
Published: 2013/03/18
Channel: footagefarm
McDonnell Douglas DC-10 Promo Film - 1970
McDonnell Douglas DC-10 Promo Film - 1970
Published: 2012/10/09
Channel: Classic Airliners & Vintage Pop Culture
Douglas DC-6 Introduced
Douglas DC-6 Introduced
Published: 2011/07/16
Channel: AIRBOYD
DOUGLAS A4 SKYHAWK LIGHT ATTACK AIRCRAFT  SALES FILM 80624
DOUGLAS A4 SKYHAWK LIGHT ATTACK AIRCRAFT SALES FILM 80624
Published: 2015/11/04
Channel: PeriscopeFilm
American Airlines MD 80 Documentary
American Airlines MD 80 Documentary
Published: 2016/07/09
Channel: Airlines TV
History of McDonnell Douglas 1
History of McDonnell Douglas 1
Published: 2010/04/16
Channel: Edward Becerra
Travis AFB, Douglas C-124, Old Shaky
Travis AFB, Douglas C-124, Old Shaky
Published: 2011/04/18
Channel: George Anderson
McDonnell Douglas MD-90 Promo Film - 1994
McDonnell Douglas MD-90 Promo Film - 1994
Published: 2014/04/29
Channel: Classic Airliners & Vintage Pop Culture
Side Chat Podcast - "Douglas Aircraft Company" Ep. 40
Side Chat Podcast - "Douglas Aircraft Company" Ep. 40
Published: 2015/03/30
Channel: Bo Time Gaming
Mcdonnell Douglas Aircraft Farewell - DC4 , DC8 , DC9 & DC10 - MD11 & MD80s
Mcdonnell Douglas Aircraft Farewell - DC4 , DC8 , DC9 & DC10 - MD11 & MD80s
Published: 2017/05/27
Channel: Maxojir
Douglas Aircraft Company
Douglas Aircraft Company
Published: 2015/07/17
Channel: Adam Szary
Bldg 84, Douglas Aircraft Co. Long Beach, CA
Bldg 84, Douglas Aircraft Co. Long Beach, CA
Published: 2014/03/02
Channel: John Prusa
1958 DOUGLAS DC-6 For Sale
1958 DOUGLAS DC-6 For Sale
Published: 2016/07/19
Channel: ControllerAircraft
The American Airlines DC-10 Aircraft - The Birth And Death Of A Trijet Legend - DC10 N101AA
The American Airlines DC-10 Aircraft - The Birth And Death Of A Trijet Legend - DC10 N101AA
Published: 2011/10/14
Channel: Aviation Explorer
Welcome to Douglas - Santa Monica California DC-8 23320a
Welcome to Douglas - Santa Monica California DC-8 23320a
Published: 2014/09/03
Channel: PeriscopeFilm
McDonnell Douglas MD-11 Climbing like a Rocket from Princess Juliana, St Maarten
McDonnell Douglas MD-11 Climbing like a Rocket from Princess Juliana, St Maarten
Published: 2013/10/12
Channel: pilotdynan
Douglas DC3 Dakota, 1985 BBC documentary.
Douglas DC3 Dakota, 1985 BBC documentary.
Published: 2016/05/09
Channel: RoryTrackrod
The Douglas X-3 Stiletto Jet Aircraft
The Douglas X-3 Stiletto Jet Aircraft
Published: 2017/01/19
Channel: Logic Earth
SANTA MONICA CALIFORNIA ROUTE 66 1940s HOME MOVIE w/ DOUGLAS AIRCRAFT FACTORY 72542
SANTA MONICA CALIFORNIA ROUTE 66 1940s HOME MOVIE w/ DOUGLAS AIRCRAFT FACTORY 72542
Published: 2015/05/18
Channel: PeriscopeFilm
Thor IRBM: Story of Thor (Ballistic Missile) 1960 Douglas Aircraft-USAF; Roy Neal; WS-115A
Thor IRBM: Story of Thor (Ballistic Missile) 1960 Douglas Aircraft-USAF; Roy Neal; WS-115A
Published: 2016/03/05
Channel: Jeff Quitney
DOUGLAS DC-8 PASSENGER JET PROMOTIONAL FILM  "BIRTH OF A JET" 50164
DOUGLAS DC-8 PASSENGER JET PROMOTIONAL FILM "BIRTH OF A JET" 50164
Published: 2016/12/27
Channel: PeriscopeFilm
Douglas Company Plane Ages Dc1 to Dc11/Md11
Douglas Company Plane Ages Dc1 to Dc11/Md11
Published: 2016/05/17
Channel: Pewsquirrel Aviation
Great Planes | Douglas C 47 Dakota | Documentary
Great Planes | Douglas C 47 Dakota | Documentary
Published: 2015/09/27
Channel: Great Planes
Planes That Changed the World 2of3 Douglas DC3 720p HDTV x264 AAC MVGroup org
Planes That Changed the World 2of3 Douglas DC3 720p HDTV x264 AAC MVGroup org
Published: 2015/05/06
Channel: stefan
Douglas Aircraft Company
Douglas Aircraft Company
Published: 2017/08/10
Channel: Search Engine
Douglas F4D Skyray Aircraft Recognition 1957
Douglas F4D Skyray Aircraft Recognition 1957
Published: 2015/10/09
Channel: Fast Aviation Data
Warbird Heritage Foundation: Douglas Aircraft A-4B Skyhawk Demo
Warbird Heritage Foundation: Douglas Aircraft A-4B Skyhawk Demo
Published: 2014/11/21
Channel: David Jacobson
American Douglas DC-7 - "New York to Los Angeles" - 1954
American Douglas DC-7 - "New York to Los Angeles" - 1954
Published: 2014/04/20
Channel: Classic Airliners & Vintage Pop Culture
Legendary Aircraft Douglas A-1 Skyraider | Great Planes - AllMilitaryFiles
Legendary Aircraft Douglas A-1 Skyraider | Great Planes - AllMilitaryFiles
Published: 2016/10/03
Channel: AllMilitaryFiles
McDonnell Douglas MD-80 Promo Film - 1983
McDonnell Douglas MD-80 Promo Film - 1983
Published: 2014/04/28
Channel: Classic Airliners & Vintage Pop Culture
Douglas A-26 Invader Light Bomber Aircraft
Douglas A-26 Invader Light Bomber Aircraft
Published: 2015/11/23
Channel: Fast Aviation Data
McDonnell Douglas MD-83 Pilot waving at me using reverse thrust - Unique! Tivat Airport
McDonnell Douglas MD-83 Pilot waving at me using reverse thrust - Unique! Tivat Airport
Published: 2015/10/13
Channel: AirlinersHD
McDonnell-Douglas Aircraft Space Shuttle Concepts
McDonnell-Douglas Aircraft Space Shuttle Concepts
Published: 2012/02/06
Channel: NASA Langley CRGIS
Space vehicles and Apollo Program in development "The road to space" by Douglas Aircraft Co. (1964)
Space vehicles and Apollo Program in development "The road to space" by Douglas Aircraft Co. (1964)
Published: 2015/11/05
Channel: Dan Beaumont Space Museum
Douglas A-1 Skyraider Attack Aircraft
Douglas A-1 Skyraider Attack Aircraft
Published: 2014/05/23
Channel: Wings
Douglas B-19 Fly-Over Long Beach "Blackout" Factory (1941)
Douglas B-19 Fly-Over Long Beach "Blackout" Factory (1941)
Published: 2014/09/23
Channel: AIRBOYD
South African Airways (Sky Class Aviation) Douglas DC-4 flight
South African Airways (Sky Class Aviation) Douglas DC-4 flight
Published: 2014/09/22
Channel: sibtupolev
McDonnell Douglas MD-11 Promo Film #1 - 1991
McDonnell Douglas MD-11 Promo Film #1 - 1991
Published: 2013/12/19
Channel: Classic Airliners & Vintage Pop Culture
The Making of a DC-10 - McDonnell Douglas 40570 HD
The Making of a DC-10 - McDonnell Douglas 40570 HD
Published: 2015/04/21
Channel: PeriscopeFilm
Eddie Rickenbacker and a guest from Douglas Aircraft company celebrate a business...HD Stock Footage
Eddie Rickenbacker and a guest from Douglas Aircraft company celebrate a business...HD Stock Footage
Published: 2014/03/13
Channel: CriticalPast
ValuJet McDonnell Douglas MD-95 Promo Film - 1995
ValuJet McDonnell Douglas MD-95 Promo Film - 1995
Published: 2016/02/19
Channel: Classic Airliners & Vintage Pop Culture
Douglas F4D-1 Skyray Operating Procedures circa 1956 US Navy Pilot Training Film
Douglas F4D-1 Skyray Operating Procedures circa 1956 US Navy Pilot Training Film
Published: 2015/03/30
Channel: Jeff Quitney
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Douglas Aircraft Company
Industry Aerospace
Fate Merged with McDonnell Aircraft Corporation
Successor McDonnell Douglas
Founded 1921
Founder Donald Douglas
Defunct 1967
Headquarters Santa Monica, California, Long Beach, California
Products Aircraft

The Douglas Aircraft Company was an American aerospace manufacturer based in Southern California. It was founded in 1921 by Donald Wills Douglas, Sr. and later merged with McDonnell Aircraft in 1967 to form McDonnell Douglas. Douglas Aircraft Company largely operated as a division of McDonnell Douglas (MD) after the merger. MD later merged with Boeing in 1997.

History[edit]

1920s[edit]

The Douglas Aircraft Company was founded by Donald Wills Douglas, Sr. on July 22, 1921 in Santa Monica, California, following dissolution of the Davis-Douglas Company.[1] An early claim to fame was the first circumnavigation of the world by air in Douglas airplanes in 1924. In 1923, the U.S. Army Air Service was interested in carrying out a mission to circumnavigate the Earth for the first time by aircraft, a program called "World Flight".[2] Donald Douglas proposed a modified Douglas DT to meet the Army's needs.[3] The two-place, open cockpit DT biplane torpedo bomber had previously been produced for the U.S. Navy.[4] The DTs were taken from the assembly lines at the company's manufacturing plants in Rock Island, Illinois and Dayton, Ohio to be modified.[5]

The modified aircraft known as the Douglas World Cruiser (DWC), also was the first major project for Jack Northrop who designed the fuel system for the series.[6] After the prototype was delivered in November 1923, upon the successful completion of tests on 19 November, the Army commissioned Douglas to build four production series aircraft.[7] Due to the demanding expedition ahead, spare parts, including 15 extra Liberty L-12 engines, 14 extra sets of pontoons, and enough replacement airframe parts for two more aircraft were chosen. These were sent to airports along the route. The last of these aircraft was delivered to the U.S. Army on 11 March 1924.[4]

After the success of the World Cruiser, the Army Air Service ordered six similar aircraft as observation aircraft.[8][8][9] The success of the DWC established the Douglas Aircraft Company among the major aircraft companies of the world and led it to adopt the motto "First Around the World - First the World Around".[10]

Douglas adopted a logo that showed aircraft circling a globe, replacing the original winged heart logo. The logo evolved into an aircraft, a rocket, and a globe. It was later adopted by the McDonnell Douglas Corporation, and then became the basis of the current logo of the Boeing Company after their 1997 merger.[11]

Pre-war[edit]

The company is most famous for the "DC" ("Douglas Commercial") series of commercial aircraft, including what is often regarded as the most significant transport aircraft ever made: the Douglas DC-3, which was also produced as a military transport known as the C-47 Skytrain or "Dakota" in British service. Many Douglas aircraft had long service lives.

Douglas Aircraft designed and built a wide variety of aircraft for the U.S. military, including the Navy, Army Air Forces, Marine Corps, Air Force, and Coast Guard.

The company initially built torpedo bombers for the U.S. Navy, but it developed a number of different versions of these aircraft, including reconnaissance planes and airmail aircraft. Within five years, the company was building about 100 aircraft annually. Among the early employees at Douglas were Ed Heinemann, "Dutch" Kindelberger, and Jack Northrop, who later founded the Northrop Corporation.[12]

The company retained its military market and expanded into amphibian airplanes in the late 1920s, also moving its facilities to Clover Field at Santa Monica, California. The Santa Monica complex was so large, the mail girls used roller skates to deliver the intracompany mail. By the end of World War II, Douglas had facilities at Santa Monica, El Segundo, Long Beach, and Torrance, California, Tulsa and Midwest City, Oklahoma, and Chicago, Illinois.[13]

Machine tool operator at the Douglas Aircraft plant, Long Beach, California in World War II. After losing thousands of workers to military service, American manufacturers hired women for production positions, to the point where the typical aircraft plant's workforce was 40% female.[14]

In 1934, Douglas produced a commercial twin-engined transport plane, the Douglas DC-2, followed by the famous DC-3 in 1936. The wide range of aircraft produced by Douglas included airliners, light and medium bombers, fighter aircraft, transports, reconnaissance aircraft, and experimental aircraft.

World War II[edit]

Women at work on bomber, Douglas Aircraft Company, Long Beach, California in October 1942

During World War II, Douglas joined the BVD (Boeing-Vega-Douglas) consortium to produce the B-17 Flying Fortress. After the war, Douglas built another Boeing design under license, the B-47 Stratojet turbojet-powered bomber, using a government-owned factory in Marietta, Georgia.[13]

World War II was a major boost for Douglas. Douglas ranked fifth among United States corporations in the value of wartime production contracts.[15] The company produced almost 30,000 aircraft from 1942 to 1945, and its workforce swelled to 160,000. The company produced a number of aircraft including the C-47 Skytrain, the DB-7 (known as the A-20, Havoc or Boston), the SBD Dauntless dive bomber, and the A-26 Invader.[16][17][18]

Post-war[edit]

An ex-USAF C-47A Skytrain, the military version of the DC-3, on display in England in 2010. This aircraft flew from a base in Devon, England, during the Invasion of Normandy.

Douglas Aircraft suffered cutbacks at the end of the war, with an end to government aircraft orders and a surplus of aircraft. It was necessary to cut heavily into its workforce, letting go nearly 100,000 workers.

The United States Army Air Forces established 'Project RAND' (Research ANd Development)[19] with the objective of looking into long-range planning of future weapons.[20] In March 1946, Douglas Aircraft Company was granted the contract to research on intercontinental warfare.[20] Project RAND later become the RAND Corporation.

Douglas continued to develop new aircraft, including the successful four-engined Douglas DC-6 (1946) and its last propeller-driven commercial aircraft, the Douglas DC-7 (1953). The company had moved into jet propulsion, producing its first for the U.S. Navy — the straight-winged F3D Skyknight in 1948 and then the more "jet age" style F4D Skyray in 1951. Douglas also made commercial jets, producing the Douglas DC-8 in 1958 to compete with the new Boeing 707.

Douglas was a pioneer in related fields, such as ejection seats, air-to-air missiles, surface-to-air missiles, and air-to-surface missiles, launch rockets, bombs, and bomb racks.

The company was ready to enter the new missile business during the 1950s. Douglas moved from producing air-to-air rockets and missiles to entire missile systems under the 1956 Nike missile program and became the main contractor for the Skybolt air-launched ballistic missile program and the Thor ballistic missile program. Douglas also earned contracts from NASA, notably for designing the S-IVB stage of the Saturn IB and Saturn V rockets.

Mergers[edit]

In 1967, the company was struggling to expand production to meet demand for DC-8 and DC-9 airliners and the A-4 Skyhawk military attack aircraft. Quality and cash flow problems and DC-10 development costs, combined with shortages due to the Vietnam War, led Douglas to agree to a merger with McDonnell Aircraft Corporation to form McDonnell Douglas. Douglas Aircraft Company continued as a wholly owned subsidiary of McDonnell Douglas, but its space and missiles division became part of a new subsidiary called McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company.

McDonnell Douglas later merged with its rival Boeing in 1997.[21] Boeing combined the Douglas Aircraft Company with the Boeing Commercial Airplanes division, ending more than 75 years of Douglas Aircraft Company history. The last Long Beach-built commercial aircraft, the Boeing 717 (third generation version of the Douglas DC-9), ceased production in May 2006. By 2011, the Boeing C-17 Globemaster III was the last aircraft being assembled at the Long Beach facility; the final C-17 was assembled in late 2015.[22]

Aircraft[edit]

Passengers disembarking from a SAS DC-6

Other aircraft[edit]

Missiles and spacecraft[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Parker 2013, pp. 5, 7–10, 13–14.
  2. ^ Haber 1995, p. 73.
  3. ^ Sobel 1974, p. 309.
  4. ^ a b Rumerman, Judy. "The Douglas World Cruiser - Around the World in 175 Days." U.S. Centennial of Flight Commission, 2003.
  5. ^ Wendell 1999/2000, p. 356.
  6. ^ Boyne 1982, p. 80.
  7. ^ "Douglas World Cruiser Transport." Archived 2012-06-25 at the Wayback Machine. Boeing. Retrieved: 7 July 2012.
  8. ^ a b Francillon 1979, p. 75.
  9. ^ Swanborough and Bowers 1963, p. 548.
  10. ^ Haber 1995, pp. 72–73.
  11. ^ "Trademarks and Copyrights: Boeing logo." Archived 2012-06-21 at the Wayback Machine. Boeing Trademark Management Group, Boeing. Retrieved: 5 July 2012.
  12. ^ Parker, Dana T. Building Victory: Aircraft Manufacturing in the Los Angeles Area in World War II, pp. 13-48, 77, 93, 107, Cypress, CA, 2013.
  13. ^ a b Parker 2013, pp. 13, 25, 35.
  14. ^ Parker 2013, pp. 2, 8.
  15. ^ Peck, Merton J. & Scherer, Frederic M. The Weapons Acquisition Process: An Economic Analysis (1962) Harvard Business School p.619
  16. ^ Herman 2012, pp. 3–13, 335–337.
  17. ^ Parker 2013, pp. 7–8, 13, 25, 35.
  18. ^ Borth 1945, pp. 13–33.
  19. ^ RAND History and Mission. Accessed 13 April 2009.
  20. ^ a b Johnson, Stephen B. (2002). The United States Air Force and the culture of innovation 1945-1965. Diane Publishing Co. p. 32. 
  21. ^ Boeing Chronology, 1997–2001 Archived January 2, 2013, at the Wayback Machine., Boeing
  22. ^ Boeing. "Last C-17 Built in Long Beach". Retrieved 29 December 2015. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Borth, Christy. Masters of Mass Production. Indianapolis, Indiana: Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1945.
  • Boyne, Walter J. The Aircraft Treasures Of Silver Hill: The Behind-The-Scenes Workshop Of The National Air And Space Museum. New York: Rawson Associates, 1982. ISBN 0-89256-216-1.
  • Cunningham, Frank. Sky Master: The Story of Donald Douglas and the Douglas Aircraft Company. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: Dorrance and Company, 1943. OCLC 14152627
  • Donald, David, ed. Encyclopedia of World Aircraft. Etobicoke, Ontario, Canada: Prospero Books, 1997. ISBN 1-85605-375-X.
  • Francillon, René J. McDonnell Douglas Aircraft Since 1920: Volume I. London: Putnam, 1979. ISBN 0-87021-428-4.
  • Haber, Barbara Angle. The National Air and Space Museum. London: Bison Group, 1995. ISBN 1-85841-088-6.
  • Herman, Arthur. Freedom's Forge: How American Business Produced Victory in World War II. New York: Random House, 2012. ISBN 978-1-4000-6964-4.
  • Parker, Dana T. Building Victory: Aircraft Manufacturing in the Los Angeles Area in World War II. Cypress, California: Dana T. Parker Books, 2013. ISBN 978-0-9897906-0-4.
  • Sobel, Robert. "Donald Douglas: The Fortunes of War". The Entrepreneurs: Explorations Within the American Business Tradition. New York: Weybright & Talley, 1974. ISBN 0-679-40064-8.
  • Swanborough, F. Gordon. and Peter M. Bowers. United States Military Aircraft since 1909. London: Putnam, 1963. OCLC 722531
  • Wendell, David V. "Getting Its Wings: Chicago as the Cradle of Aviation in America." Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society, Volume 92, No. 4, Winter 1999/2000, pp. 339–372.

External links[edit]

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