Quarks | Standard Model Of Particle Physics
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
down quark or d quark (symbol: d) is the second-lightest of all quarks, a type of elementary particle, and a major constituent of matter. Together with the up quark, it forms the neutrons (one up quark, two down quarks) and protons (two up quarks, one down quark) of atomic nuclei. It is part of the first generation of matter, has an electric charge of − 1⁄ 3 e and a bare mass of 4.8. +0.5
−0.3 MeV/ c 2 Like all [1 ] quarks, the down quark is an elementary fermion with spin- , and experiences all four 1⁄ 2 fundamental interactions: gravitation, electromagnetism, weak interactions, and strong interactions. The antiparticle of the down quark is the down antiquark (sometimes called antidown quark or simply antidown), which differs from it only in that some of its properties have equal magnitude but opposite sign.
Its existence (along with that of the
up and strange quarks) was postulated in 1964 by Murray Gell-Mann and George Zweig to explain the classification scheme of Eightfold Way hadrons. The down quark was first observed by experiments at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in 1968.
History [ edit ]
In the beginnings of particle physics (first half of the 20th century),
hadrons such as protons, neutrons, and pions were thought to be elementary particles. However, as new hadrons were discovered, the ' particle zoo' grew from a few particles in the early 1930s and 1940s to several dozens of them in the 1950s. The relationships between each of them was unclear until 1961, when Murray Gell-Mann and [2 ] Yuval Ne'eman (independently of each other) proposed a hadron classification scheme called the [3 ] , or in more technical terms, Eightfold Way SU(3) flavor symmetry.
This classification scheme organized the hadrons into
isospin multiplets, but the physical basis behind it was still unclear. In 1964, Gell-Mann and [4 ] George Zweig [5 ] (independently of each other) proposed the [6 ] quark model, then consisting only of up, down, and strange quarks. However, while the quark model explained the Eightfold Way, no direct evidence of the existence of quarks was found until 1968 at the [7 ] Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. [8 ] [9 ] Deep inelastic scattering experiments indicated that protons had substructure, and that protons made of three more-fundamental particles explained the data (thus confirming the quark model). [10 ]
At first people were reluctant to identify the three-bodies as quarks, instead preferring
Richard Feynman's parton description, [11 ] [12 ] but over time the quark theory became accepted (see [13 ] ). November Revolution [14 ]
Despite being extremely common, the
bare mass of the down quark is not well determined, but probably lies between 4.5 and 5.3 . MeV/ c 2 [1 ] Lattice QCD calculations give a more precise value: 4.79. ±0.16 MeV/ c 2 [15 ]
When found in
mesons (particles made of one quark and one antiquark) or baryons (particles made of three quarks), the 'effective mass' (or 'dressed' mass) of quarks becomes greater because of the binding energy caused by the gluon field between quarks (see mass–energy equivalence). For example, the effective mass of down quarks in a proton is around 330 MeV/. Because the bare mass of down quarks is so small, it cannot be straightforwardly calculated because relativistic effects have to be taken into account. c 2
See also [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
^ a b c J. Beringer et al. ( Particle Data Group) (2013). "PDGLive Particle Summary 'Quarks (u, d, s, c, b, t, b', t', Free). '" Particle Data Group . Retrieved 2013-07-23.
^ M. Gell-Mann (2000) . "The Eightfold Way: A theory of strong interaction symmetry". In M. Gell-Mann, Y. Ne'eman. The Eightfold Way. Westview Press. p. 11. ISBN 0-7382-0299-1.
Original: M. Gell-Mann (1961). "The Eightfold Way: A theory of strong interaction symmetry". ( Synchroton Laboratory Report CTSL-20 California Institute of Technology).
^ Y. Ne'eman (2000) . "Derivation of strong interactions from gauge invariance". In M. Gell-Mann, Y. Ne'eman. The Eightfold Way. Westview Press. ISBN 0-7382-0299-1.
Original Y. Ne'eman (1961). "Derivation of strong interactions from gauge invariance". Nuclear Physics 26 (2): 222. Bibcode: 1961NucPh..26..222N. doi: 10.1016/0029-5582(61)90134-1.
^ M. Gell-Mann (1964). "A Schematic Model of Baryons and Mesons". Physics Letters 8 (3): 214–215. Bibcode: 1964PhL.....8..214G. doi: 10.1016/S0031-9163(64)92001-3.
^ G. Zweig (1964). "An SU(3) Model for Strong Interaction Symmetry and its Breaking". CERN Report No.8181/Th 8419.
^ G. Zweig (1964). "An SU(3) Model for Strong Interaction Symmetry and its Breaking: II". CERN Report No.8419/Th 8412.
^ B. Carithers, P. Grannis (1995). "Discovery of the Top Quark" (PDF). ( Beam Line SLAC) 25 (3): 4–16 . Retrieved 2008-09-23.
^ E. D. Bloom et al.; Coward, D.; Destaebler, H.; Drees, J.; Miller, G.; Mo, L.; Taylor, R.; Breidenbach, M. et al. (1969). "High-Energy Inelastic e– p Scattering at 6° and 10°". Physical Review Letters 23 (16): 930–934. Bibcode: 1969PhRvL..23..930B. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.23.930.
^ M. Breidenbach et al.; Friedman, J.; Kendall, H.; Bloom, E.; Coward, D.; Destaebler, H.; Drees, J.; Mo, L.; Taylor, R. (1969). "Observed Behavior of Highly Inelastic Electron–Proton Scattering". Physical Review Letters 23 (16): 935–939. Bibcode: 1969PhRvL..23..935B. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.23.935.
^ J. I. Friedman. "The Road to the Nobel Prize". Hue University . Retrieved 2008-09-29.
^ R. P. Feynman (1969). "Very High-Energy Collisions of Hadrons". Physical Review Letters 23 (24): 1415–1417. Bibcode: 1969PhRvL..23.1415F. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.23.1415.
^ S. Kretzer et al.; Lai, H.; Olness, Fredrick; Tung, W. (2004). "CTEQ6 Parton Distributions with Heavy Quark Mass Effects". Physical Review D 69 (11): 114005. arXiv: hep-ph/0307022. Bibcode: 2004PhRvD..69k4005K. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevD.69.114005.
^ D. J. Griffiths (1987). Introduction to Elementary Particles. John Wiley & Sons. p. 42. ISBN 0-471-60386-4.
^ M. E. Peskin, D. V. Schroeder (1995). An introduction to quantum field theory. Addison–Wesley. p. 556. ISBN 0-201-50397-2.
^ Cho, Adrian (April 2010). "Mass of the Common Quark Finally Nailed Down". Science Magazine.
Further reading [ edit ]