1
Down Quark
Down Quark
DATE: 2008/07/22::
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QUARK DOWN - ILLUSION HORIZON (CLIPE OFICIAL) [HD]
QUARK DOWN - ILLUSION HORIZON (CLIPE OFICIAL) [HD]
DATE: 2012/10/20::
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Quarks | Standard Model Of Particle Physics
Quarks | Standard Model Of Particle Physics
DATE: 2009/11/10::
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Quark Down - Claire (videoclipe oficial) [HD]
Quark Down - Claire (videoclipe oficial) [HD]
DATE: 2012/06/22::
5
Strange Charm: A Song about Quarks
Strange Charm: A Song about Quarks
DATE: 2010/10/20::
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The Down Quark
The Down Quark
DATE: 2010/09/29::
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Down Quark - Das Aerobicmodul 1
Down Quark - Das Aerobicmodul 1
DATE: 2013/05/15::
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What Are Quarks? (by Murray Gell-Mann) - Discovery Channel 100 Greatest Discoveries Physics
What Are Quarks? (by Murray Gell-Mann) - Discovery Channel 100 Greatest Discoveries Physics
DATE: 2012/12/09::
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Down Quark - Late Night Music (Demo)
Down Quark - Late Night Music (Demo)
DATE: 2012/10/06::
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dOWn qUArK - URKNALL Live Footage: Cool Expansion - Big Buttinsky Osnabrück 2013-09-27
dOWn qUArK - URKNALL Live Footage: Cool Expansion - Big Buttinsky Osnabrück 2013-09-27
DATE: 2013/10/04::
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DOWN QUARK 2012-10-12 live @ Big Buttinsky
DOWN QUARK 2012-10-12 live @ Big Buttinsky
DATE: 2012/10/22::
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Down Quark hebrew sub
Down Quark hebrew sub
DATE: 2008/12/27::
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The Down Quark
The Down Quark
DATE: 2011/09/08::
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Down Quark
Down Quark
DATE: 2009/07/31::
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Complicit - Down Quark (Original Mix)
Complicit - Down Quark (Original Mix)
DATE: 2015/02/07::
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Ratchet And Clank Walkthrough Ep.16 w/Angel - Your Going Down Quark!
Ratchet And Clank Walkthrough Ep.16 w/Angel - Your Going Down Quark!
DATE: 2013/10/13::
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Down Quark (Original Mix)
Down Quark (Original Mix)
DATE: 2014/11/17::
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Weak Nuclear Force Beta Decay of down quark
Weak Nuclear Force Beta Decay of down quark
DATE: 2009/08/27::
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Out Of Sight - From Quarks To Molecules
Out Of Sight - From Quarks To Molecules
DATE: 2009/09/26::
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4- Down Quark
4- Down Quark
DATE: 2013/05/28::
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Upside Down Quark - Cortster12 Original
Upside Down Quark - Cortster12 Original
DATE: 2012/12/18::
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Complicit - Down Quark (Tunnel Refuck Remix)
Complicit - Down Quark (Tunnel Refuck Remix)
DATE: 2015/02/07::
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Down Quark (Tunnel Refuck Remix)
Down Quark (Tunnel Refuck Remix)
DATE: 2015/03/21::
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Gravity Master 2 Custom Level - "Down Quark" Submitted by Jeff
Gravity Master 2 Custom Level - "Down Quark" Submitted by Jeff
DATE: 2014/02/04::
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Down Quark (Original Mix)
Down Quark (Original Mix)
DATE: 2015/03/21::
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I
I'm just a quark.
DATE: 2014/11/13::
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A down quark
A down quark's effect on the atomic palate.mov
DATE: 2010/06/16::
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Quark
Quark
DATE: 2014/07/24::
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Partículas Fundamentais: O Quark Down
Partículas Fundamentais: O Quark Down
DATE: 2013/07/16::
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3D Amplituhedron Neutron & Quark Color Charges
3D Amplituhedron Neutron & Quark Color Charges
DATE: 2014/08/04::
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The Bigger the Risk the Bigger the Win - Quark Deep Space Nine Torpedo Defiant Scene
The Bigger the Risk the Bigger the Win - Quark Deep Space Nine Torpedo Defiant Scene
DATE: 2014/02/05::
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Down`t Quark im Efeu
Down`t Quark im Efeu
DATE: 2011/08/31::
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Quark und Co   Leben mit dem Down Syndrom GERMAN DOKU
Quark und Co Leben mit dem Down Syndrom GERMAN DOKU
DATE: 2013/11/21::
34
The Quark song
The Quark song
DATE: 2011/06/07::
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Quark Down (Studio TEASER)
Quark Down (Studio TEASER)
DATE: 2012/03/11::
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Nuclear Fusion Quark Balloon Protons 2 NEWtron Bunny Gluon e+ neutrinos
Nuclear Fusion Quark Balloon Protons 2 NEWtron Bunny Gluon e+ neutrinos
DATE: 2010/10/23::
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DARK QUARK
DARK QUARK
DATE: 2014/01/22::
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08 CHARMED QUARK
08 CHARMED QUARK
DATE: 2010/04/29::
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Quark Down - Rock And Roll
Quark Down - Rock And Roll
DATE: 2012/09/11::
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"Down" Waltz from "Six Little Quark Waltzes"
"Down" Waltz from "Six Little Quark Waltzes"
DATE: 2015/01/14::
41
Protons and neutrons are made of Quarks
Protons and neutrons are made of Quarks
DATE: 2011/07/19::
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Quarks make proton and neutron History of the UNIVERSE p+ to carbon-12-2
Quarks make proton and neutron History of the UNIVERSE p+ to carbon-12-2
DATE: 2009/04/18::
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3D mapping brings down the curtains on QUARK
3D mapping brings down the curtains on QUARK'12.mp4
DATE: 2012/02/05::
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Electrons, Protons And Neutrons | Standard Model Of Particle Physics
Electrons, Protons And Neutrons | Standard Model Of Particle Physics
DATE: 2009/11/19::
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Dextems - Quark [Tamrecords]
Dextems - Quark [Tamrecords]
DATE: 2013/05/09::
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The Quark  Song
The Quark Song
DATE: 2009/06/21::
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Modern Quantum Theory Quark (a "song")
Modern Quantum Theory Quark (a "song")
DATE: 2010/12/08::
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PhysicsBootcampAddendumQ29(Particle Physics: Quark Makeup of Baryons).avi
PhysicsBootcampAddendumQ29(Particle Physics: Quark Makeup of Baryons).avi
DATE: 2012/01/12::
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Fundamental Particles
Fundamental Particles
DATE: 2014/04/30::
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Particle Physics Quark Properties
Particle Physics Quark Properties
DATE: 2013/05/03::
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RESULTS [51 .. 101]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Down antiquark)
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Down quark
Composition Elementary particle
Statistics Fermionic
Generation First
Interactions Strong, Weak, Electromagnetic force, Gravity
Symbol d
Antiparticle Down antiquark (d)
Theorized Murray Gell-Mann (1964)
George Zweig (1964)
Discovered SLAC (1968)
Mass 4.8+0.5
−0.3
 MeV/c2
[1]
Decays into Stable or Up quark + Electron + Electron antineutrino
Electric charge 13 e
Color charge yes
Spin 12
Weak isospin LH: −12, RH: 0
Weak hypercharge LH: 13, RH: −23

The down quark or d quark (symbol: d) is the second-lightest of all quarks, a type of elementary particle, and a major constituent of matter. Together with the up quark, it forms the neutrons (one up quark, two down quarks) and protons (two up quarks, one down quark) of atomic nuclei. It is part of the first generation of matter, has an electric charge of −13 e and a bare mass of 4.8+0.5
−0.3
 MeV/c2
.[1] Like all quarks, the down quark is an elementary fermion with spin-12, and experiences all four fundamental interactions: gravitation, electromagnetism, weak interactions, and strong interactions. The antiparticle of the down quark is the down antiquark (sometimes called antidown quark or simply antidown), which differs from it only in that some of its properties have equal magnitude but opposite sign.

Its existence (along with that of the up and strange quarks) was postulated in 1964 by Murray Gell-Mann and George Zweig to explain the Eightfold Way classification scheme of hadrons. The down quark was first observed by experiments at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in 1968.

History[edit]

In the beginnings of particle physics (first half of the 20th century), hadrons such as protons, neutrons, and pions were thought to be elementary particles. However, as new hadrons were discovered, the 'particle zoo' grew from a few particles in the early 1930s and 1940s to several dozens of them in the 1950s. The relationships between each of them was unclear until 1961, when Murray Gell-Mann[2] and Yuval Ne'eman[3] (independently of each other) proposed a hadron classification scheme called the Eightfold Way, or in more technical terms, SU(3) flavor symmetry.

This classification scheme organized the hadrons into isospin multiplets, but the physical basis behind it was still unclear. In 1964, Gell-Mann[4] and George Zweig[5][6] (independently of each other) proposed the quark model, then consisting only of up, down, and strange quarks.[7] However, while the quark model explained the Eightfold Way, no direct evidence of the existence of quarks was found until 1968 at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center.[8][9] Deep inelastic scattering experiments indicated that protons had substructure, and that protons made of three more-fundamental particles explained the data (thus confirming the quark model).[10]

At first people were reluctant to identify the three-bodies as quarks, instead preferring Richard Feynman's parton description,[11][12][13] but over time the quark theory became accepted (see November Revolution).[14]

Mass[edit]

Despite being extremely common, the bare mass of the down quark is not well determined, but probably lies between 4.5 and 5.3 MeV/c2.[1] Lattice QCD calculations give a more precise value: 4.79±0.16 MeV/c2.[15]

When found in mesons (particles made of one quark and one antiquark) or baryons (particles made of three quarks), the 'effective mass' (or 'dressed' mass) of quarks becomes greater because of the binding energy caused by the gluon field between quarks (see mass–energy equivalence). For example, the effective mass of down quarks in a proton is around 330 MeV/c2. Because the bare mass of down quarks is so small, it cannot be straightforwardly calculated because relativistic effects have to be taken into account.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c J. Beringer et al. (Particle Data Group) (2013). "PDGLive Particle Summary 'Quarks (u, d, s, c, b, t, b', t', Free)'". Particle Data Group. Retrieved 2013-07-23. 
  2. ^ M. Gell-Mann (2000) [1964]. "The Eightfold Way: A theory of strong interaction symmetry". In M. Gell-Mann, Y. Ne'eman. The Eightfold Way. Westview Press. p. 11. ISBN 0-7382-0299-1. 
    Original: M. Gell-Mann (1961). "The Eightfold Way: A theory of strong interaction symmetry". Synchrotron Laboratory Report CTSL-20 (California Institute of Technology). 
  3. ^ Y. Ne'eman (2000) [1964]. "Derivation of strong interactions from gauge invariance". In M. Gell-Mann, Y. Ne'eman. The Eightfold Way. Westview Press. ISBN 0-7382-0299-1. 
    Original Y. Ne'eman (1961). "Derivation of strong interactions from gauge invariance". Nuclear Physics 26 (2): 222. Bibcode:1961NucPh..26..222N. doi:10.1016/0029-5582(61)90134-1. 
  4. ^ M. Gell-Mann (1964). "A Schematic Model of Baryons and Mesons". Physics Letters 8 (3): 214–215. Bibcode:1964PhL.....8..214G. doi:10.1016/S0031-9163(64)92001-3. 
  5. ^ G. Zweig (1964). "An SU(3) Model for Strong Interaction Symmetry and its Breaking". CERN Report No.8181/Th 8419. 
  6. ^ G. Zweig (1964). "An SU(3) Model for Strong Interaction Symmetry and its Breaking: II". CERN Report No.8419/Th 8412. 
  7. ^ B. Carithers, P. Grannis (1995). "Discovery of the Top Quark" (PDF). Beam Line (SLAC) 25 (3): 4–16. Retrieved 2008-09-23. 
  8. ^ E. D. Bloom; Coward, D.; Destaebler, H.; Drees, J.; Miller, G.; Mo, L.; Taylor, R.; Breidenbach, M. et al. (1969). "High-Energy Inelastic ep Scattering at 6° and 10°". Physical Review Letters 23 (16): 930–934. Bibcode:1969PhRvL..23..930B. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.23.930. 
  9. ^ M. Breidenbach; Friedman, J.; Kendall, H.; Bloom, E.; Coward, D.; Destaebler, H.; Drees, J.; Mo, L.; Taylor, R. et al. (1969). "Observed Behavior of Highly Inelastic Electron–Proton Scattering". Physical Review Letters 23 (16): 935–939. Bibcode:1969PhRvL..23..935B. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.23.935. 
  10. ^ J. I. Friedman. "The Road to the Nobel Prize". Hue University. Retrieved 2008-09-29. 
  11. ^ R. P. Feynman (1969). "Very High-Energy Collisions of Hadrons". Physical Review Letters 23 (24): 1415–1417. Bibcode:1969PhRvL..23.1415F. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.23.1415. 
  12. ^ S. Kretzer; Lai, H.; Olness, Fredrick; Tung, W. et al. (2004). "CTEQ6 Parton Distributions with Heavy Quark Mass Effects". Physical Review D 69 (11): 114005. arXiv:hep-ph/0307022. Bibcode:2004PhRvD..69k4005K. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.69.114005. 
  13. ^ D. J. Griffiths (1987). Introduction to Elementary Particles. John Wiley & Sons. p. 42. ISBN 0-471-60386-4. 
  14. ^ M. E. Peskin, D. V. Schroeder (1995). An introduction to quantum field theory. Addison–Wesley. p. 556. ISBN 0-201-50397-2. 
  15. ^ Cho, Adrian (April 2010). "Mass of the Common Quark Finally Nailed Down". Science Magazine. 

Further reading[edit]

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