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The Real Creatures of Primeval: Dracorex
The Real Creatures of Primeval: Dracorex
Published: 2012/10/11
Channel: KCETOnline
Dino Dan Dracorex Promo
Dino Dan Dracorex Promo
Published: 2015/01/20
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DracoRex Tribute The Wreckage - Breaking Through
DracoRex Tribute The Wreckage - Breaking Through
Published: 2017/06/19
Channel: Indominus Kill
Dracorex Tribute
Dracorex Tribute
Published: 2009/06/05
Channel: dinox3raptor
Skillet - Rise. (Primeval, T-Rex, Spinosaurus and Dracorex).
Skillet - Rise. (Primeval, T-Rex, Spinosaurus and Dracorex).
Published: 2016/08/19
Channel: Video Clips With Famous Musics
Primeval: DracoRex
Primeval: DracoRex
Published: 2017/07/22
Channel: Oliver Markusek
Cretaceous Dinosaurs 3 - Dracorex, Feathered Dinosaurs & More - The Kids
Cretaceous Dinosaurs 3 - Dracorex, Feathered Dinosaurs & More - The Kids' Picture Show
Published: 2016/07/12
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dracorex vs kaposuchus
dracorex vs kaposuchus
Published: 2012/12/02
Channel: dinnaptor dino
Furious Dracorex Rampage!! || Zoo Tycoon 2: Episode #4 - Dinosaur Park
Furious Dracorex Rampage!! || Zoo Tycoon 2: Episode #4 - Dinosaur Park
Published: 2016/01/21
Channel: Seri! Pixel Biologist!
Safari Ltd. || Dracorex (2012) || Review
Safari Ltd. || Dracorex (2012) || Review
Published: 2016/03/03
Channel: SpinoDude Reviews
Dracorex Harry Potter dinosaur ?
Dracorex Harry Potter dinosaur ?
Published: 2015/08/06
Channel: The Sarcastic Raptor
Ask DG #104 -- Pterosaurs, Giganotosaurus, Nanotyrannus, Dracorex and  Arctodus
Ask DG #104 -- Pterosaurs, Giganotosaurus, Nanotyrannus, Dracorex and Arctodus
Published: 2010/08/22
Channel: Dino George LLC
Dracorex hogwartsia The intact skull of a dragon discovered in North America
Dracorex hogwartsia The intact skull of a dragon discovered in North America
Published: 2016/09/13
Channel: TheMisterySpot
The Dracorex
The Dracorex
Published: 2010/03/03
Channel: dracorexmania
Primeval Pictures: Dracorex (Series 3)
Primeval Pictures: Dracorex (Series 3)
Published: 2009/05/05
Channel: RickRaptor105
Ask DG #124 -- T-rex, Brachiosaurus, Pachycephalosaurus, Dracorex and Mastodons
Ask DG #124 -- T-rex, Brachiosaurus, Pachycephalosaurus, Dracorex and Mastodons
Published: 2010/11/09
Channel: Dino George LLC
Stygimoloch and Dracorex
Stygimoloch and Dracorex
Published: 2016/09/06
Channel: SpeedArt1480
Tyr gets PUMPED!
Tyr gets PUMPED!
Published: 2017/04/12
Channel: Draco Rex
Dracorex - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Dracorex - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Published: 2015/08/04
Channel: Wiz Science™
Dr. Draco Rex - Transformation
Dr. Draco Rex - Transformation
Published: 2013/03/27
Channel: The House of The Anti-Devils [Black Sleeper]
Dracorex - Primeval (Original Television Soundtrack)
Dracorex - Primeval (Original Television Soundtrack)
Published: 2011/11/21
Channel: DrBZR1
primeval dracorex
primeval dracorex
Published: 2016/11/30
Channel: Muhammad Rex
Velociraptor vs dracorex
Velociraptor vs dracorex
Published: 2017/08/21
Channel: battledroid 777
Primeval OST - Dracorex
Primeval OST - Dracorex
Published: 2011/11/06
Channel: SithlordJohn117
Spore - Primeval Dracorex
Spore - Primeval Dracorex
Published: 2009/07/10
Channel: zillatamer
Dragons skull (Dracorex)
Dragons skull (Dracorex)
Published: 2009/08/05
Channel: LivingSacrifice888
safari ltd dracorex review
safari ltd dracorex review
Published: 2015/11/25
Channel: The Prehistoric Channel
World Zoo! Dracorex!! - Episode #24
World Zoo! Dracorex!! - Episode #24
Published: 2015/06/04
Channel: Seri! Pixel Biologist!
Dracorex - pan of body
Dracorex - pan of body
Published: 2014/12/15
Channel: The Nature Box
Creation Bytes!: Dracorex Hogwartsia?
Creation Bytes!: Dracorex Hogwartsia?
Published: 2013/07/23
Channel: Creation Today Ministry
Dracorex Hogwartsia
Dracorex Hogwartsia
Published: 2017/01/15
Channel: theharrypottercat 101
hablando de dinosaurios loquendo :episodio 10 Dracorex
hablando de dinosaurios loquendo :episodio 10 Dracorex
Published: 2012/01/07
Channel: ElDavid iS BACK
Dracorex Dinosaur Model Review (Safari Ltd)
Dracorex Dinosaur Model Review (Safari Ltd)
Published: 2012/06/21
Channel: Everything Dinosaur
Hallan Craneo intacto de Dragon Dracorex
Hallan Craneo intacto de Dragon Dracorex
Published: 2016/03/23
Channel: LaGranjaHumanaMX
Perfect Mei Wall with Dracorex
Perfect Mei Wall with Dracorex
Published: 2016/05/31
Channel: Ashley
Prehistoric Facts Special #43: Dracorex
Prehistoric Facts Special #43: Dracorex
Published: 2015/03/23
Channel: Christopher Grall
เดินทางขุดไดโนเสาร์ ยุคน้ำแข็ง พันธ์ Dracorex
เดินทางขุดไดโนเสาร์ ยุคน้ำแข็ง พันธ์ Dracorex
Published: 2015/05/16
Channel: Dinosaur
Safari Ltd® Wild Safari® Dracorex Review by Everything Dinosaur
Safari Ltd® Wild Safari® Dracorex Review by Everything Dinosaur
Published: 2012/08/03
Channel: Safari Ltd®
Primeval: Original Television Soundtrack - Dracorex (Track 26)
Primeval: Original Television Soundtrack - Dracorex (Track 26)
Published: 2017/05/21
Channel: The Primeval Site
Introduction to Dracorex
Introduction to Dracorex
Published: 2012/04/14
Channel: dcang2203
Review #2-Safari Ltd Dracorex (2010)
Review #2-Safari Ltd Dracorex (2010)
Published: 2017/08/19
Channel: Braden Kennedy
Tribute To Stygimoloch & Dracorex
Tribute To Stygimoloch & Dracorex
Published: 2008/11/15
Channel: DinoDude38
Dracorex
Dracorex
Published: 2016/10/16
Channel: Professor Daytime - Topic
Tyrant - Pummeller + Dracorex power.
Tyrant - Pummeller + Dracorex power.
Published: 2011/06/30
Channel: C3realguy
Dracorex hogwartsia at The Children
Dracorex hogwartsia at The Children's Museum
Published: 2017/11/02
Channel: The Children's Museum of Indianapolis
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how to makuta dracorex
Published: 2010/08/17
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Draco Rex
Draco Rex
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Stygimoloch vs dracorex
Stygimoloch vs dracorex
Published: 2017/01/07
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Fear vs Dracorex Refresher (War Metal Tyrant)
Fear vs Dracorex Refresher (War Metal Tyrant)
Published: 2011/12/16
Channel: youkoffy
Dracorex
Dracorex
Published: 2017/01/28
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Dracorex
Temporal range: Late Cretaceous, 66 Ma
The Childrens Museum of Indianapolis - Dracorex skeletal reconstruction.jpg
Reconstructed skeleton, Children's Museum of Indianapolis
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Clade: Dinosauria
Order: Ornithischia
Family: Pachycephalosauridae
Subfamily: Pachycephalosaurinae
Tribe: Pachycephalosaurini
Genus: Dracorex
Bakker et al., 2006
Species: D. hogwartsia
Binomial name
Dracorex hogwartsia
Bakker et al., 2006

Dracorex is a dinosaur genus of the family Pachycephalosauridae, from the Late Cretaceous of North America. The type (and only known) species is Dracorex hogwartsia, meaning "dragon king of Hogwarts". It is known from one nearly complete skull (the holotype TCMI 2004.17.1), as well as four cervical vertebrae: the atlas, third, eighth and ninth. These were discovered in the Hell Creek Formation in South Dakota by three amateur paleontologists from Sioux City, Iowa. The skull was subsequently donated to the Children's Museum of Indianapolis for study in 2004, and was formally described by Bob Bakker and Robert Sullivan in 2006.[1] However, Jack Horner et al. suspect that it is a juvenile Pachycephalosaurus and an analysis of pachycephalosaur fossils by a joint team from the University of California, Berkeley and the Museum of the Rockies has questioned the validity of two named genera of pachycephalosaur, Dracorex and Stygimoloch. According to the team, specimens of Dracorex and Stygimoloch might actually represent earlier growth stages of Pachycephalosaurus. As this article on the UC Berkeley website says, "The confusion is traced to their bizarre head ornaments, ranging from shields and domes to horns and spikes, which changed dramatically with age and sexual maturity, making the heads of youngsters look very different from those of adults."[2]

Description[edit]

Restoration.

Dracorex, a herbivore, had a skull with spiky horns, bumps, and a long muzzle. The species also sports well-developed supratemporal fenestrae and a heavily armored flat skull—lacking the characteristic pachycephalosaurid dome. Coupled with these two features is the excessive number of osteoderms in the form of irregular osteodermal crust: a number of nodes, larger hornlets, and spikes. Disregarding this, Dracorex is physically comparable to Stygimoloch.

In the Pachycephalosauridae, the Asian taxa include a number of (somewhat) flat-headed pachycephalosaurs (Homalocephale calathocercos, Goyocephale lattimorei, and Wannanosaurus yansiensis). However, prior to the discovery of Dracorex, the only semi-flat-headed pachycephalosaur from North America was Stegoceras validum (inclusive of Ornatotholus browni). Even then, the semi-flat-headed trait was only present in juveniles of the species.

The holotype skull

Aside from having a flat, nodal skull, the most prominent feature of Dracorex is the pair of huge and unrestricted superior temporal openings. The supratemporal fenestrae are much larger front-to-back and side-to-side than in Homalocephale, and larger than in Goyocephale. Only a fragmentary Wannanosaurus skull shows fenestrae as large as those of Dracorex. This fenestral architecture has been seen in ancient archosaurs, but not in other pachycephalosaurs.

Consequently, if unreduced superior fenestrae are morphologically primitive, then Dracorex is more primitive in the temporal region than any other known pachycephalosaur. However, Sullivan (2003, 2006) demonstrated that the oldest known pachycephalosaurs were, in fact, fully domed, and that the flat-headed morphology appeared later in the fossil record. This suggests that doming may be primitive for pachycephalosaurs and that a reversion to the non-domed, flat-headed state is a secondary (derived) character reversion, coupled with the re-opening of the supratemporal fenestrae. Indeed, while Stegoceras has been considered to be transitional between domed and flat-headed taxa, it may indicate the beginning of a character reversion to suppression of doming and opening of the supratemporal fenestrae in some taxa.

The excavated specimen was most likely a young adult. However, based on the beginning of ossification of the mid-cervical arch with the centrum, it was near maturity.[1] It was about 2.4 m (7.9 ft) long.[3]

Classification[edit]

Diagram showing Dracorex and Stygimoloch as growth stages of Pachycephalosaurus.

Dracorex may actually be an individual of the closely related Stygimoloch and/or Pachycephalosaurus in which the dome and horns are not well-developed, either because the animal was a juvenile or a female. This consideration was supported at the 2007 annual meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology.[4] Jack Horner of Montana State University presented evidence, from analysis of the skull of the single existing Dracorex specimen, that this dinosaur may well be a juvenile form of Stygimoloch. In addition, he presented data that indicates that both Stygimoloch and Dracorex may be juvenile forms of Pachycephalosaurus. Horner and M.B. Goodwin published their findings in 2009, showing that the spike/node and skull dome bones of all three 'species' exhibit extreme plasticity, and that both Dracorex and Stygimoloch are known only from juvenile specimens, while Pachycephalosaurus is known only from adult specimens. These observations, in addition to the fact that all three forms lived in the same time and place, lead them to conclude that Dracorex and Stygimoloch may have simply been juvenile Pachycephalosaurs that had lost their spikes and grew domes as they aged.[5] The researchers were unable to destructively sample the Dracorex skull,[2] and had to use a cast of the skull for descriptive purposes.[5] A 2010 study by Nick Longrich and colleagues also supported the hypothesis that all flat-skulled pachycephalosaurs were juveniles, suggesting that flat-skulled forms, like Goyocephale and Homalocephale, represent juveniles of dome-skulled adults.[6]

Name[edit]

Size comparison of Dracorex (red) and a human

The name Dracorex hogwartsia was inspired by young visitors to the Children's Museum of Indianapolis as a tribute to both dragons (Dracorex means "dragon king"), which the animal resembled, as well as the Harry Potter series of books by J.K. Rowling (hogwartsia for the Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry, the fictional school from the popular series). The writer declared:

I am absolutely thrilled to think that Hogwarts has made a small (claw?) mark upon the fascinating world of dinosaurs. I happen to know more on the subject of palaeontology than many might credit, because my eldest daughter was Utahraptor-obsessed and I am now living with a passionate Tyrannosaurus rex-lover, aged three. My credibility has soared within my science-loving family, and I am very much looking forward to reading Dr. Bakker's paper describing 'my' dinosaur, which I can't help visualising as a slightly less pyromaniac Hungarian Horntail.[7]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Bakker, R. T., Sullivan, R. M., Porter, V., Larson, P. and Saulsbury, S.J. (2006). "Dracorex hogwartsia, n. gen., n. sp., a spiked, flat-headed pachycephalosaurid dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation of South Dakota." in Lucas, S. G. and Sullivan, R. M., eds., Late Cretaceous vertebrates from the Western Interior. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 35, pp. 331–345. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-17. Retrieved 2011-06-04. 
  2. ^ a b Sanders, Robert (30 October 2009). "New analyses of dinosaur growth may wipe out one-third of species". University of California at Berkeley. Retrieved 25 March 2010. 
  3. ^ Holtz, Thomas R. Jr. (2011) Dinosaurs: The Most Complete, Up-to-Date Encyclopedia for Dinosaur Lovers of All Ages, Winter 2010 Appendix.
  4. ^ Erik Stokstad,"SOCIETY OF VERTEBRATE PALEONTOLOGY MEETING: Did Horny Young Dinosaurs Cause Illusion of Separate Species?", Science Vol. 18, 23 Nov. 2007, p. 1236; http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/318/5854/1236
  5. ^ a b Horner J.R. and Goodwin, M.B. (2009). "Extreme cranial ontogeny in the Upper Cretaceous Dinosaur Pachycephalosaurus." PLoS ONE, 4(10): e7626. Online full text
  6. ^ Longrich, N.R., Sankey, J. and Tanke, D. (2010). "Texacephale langstoni, a new genus of pachycephalosaurid (Dinosauria: Ornithischia) from the upper Campanian Aguja Formation, southern Texas, USA." Cretaceous Research, . doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2009.12.002
  7. ^ "Dinosphere at The Children's Museum of Indianapolis". The Children's Museum of Indianapolis. 30 October 2009. Archived from the original on 3 February 2008. Retrieved 16 May 2012. 

External links[edit]

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