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Drainage Basins
Drainage Basins
Published: 2014/12/17
Channel: Education Perfect Support Team
As Physical Geography - The Drainage Basin
As Physical Geography - The Drainage Basin
Published: 2015/03/11
Channel: A Level Revision
Drainage basin hydrological cycle
Drainage basin hydrological cycle
Published: 2016/08/13
Channel: Ceara Walshe
The Drainage Basin Song :)
The Drainage Basin Song :)
Published: 2012/11/28
Channel: jaklago6
Drainage Basin - The Features of a Drainage Basin - GCSE Geography
Drainage Basin - The Features of a Drainage Basin - GCSE Geography
Published: 2016/05/11
Channel: I'm Stuck - GCSE Revision
Drainage Systems for Landscape and Yard: Using Catch Basins to Capture Run-off
Drainage Systems for Landscape and Yard: Using Catch Basins to Capture Run-off
Published: 2010/02/19
Channel: NDS Stormwater Management
Rivers and Drainage Basins 1/3
Rivers and Drainage Basins 1/3
Published: 2011/02/07
Channel: Jon Bergmann
Drainage Basins
Drainage Basins
Published: 2013/02/05
Channel: Rick Moss
Features of Drainage Basins
Features of Drainage Basins
Published: 2016/06/28
Channel: Project TTv
What is DRAINAGE BASIN? What does DRAINAGE BASIN mean? DRAINAGE BASIN meaning & explanation
What is DRAINAGE BASIN? What does DRAINAGE BASIN mean? DRAINAGE BASIN meaning & explanation
Published: 2016/07/27
Channel: The Audiopedia
Rivers and Drainage Basins 3/3
Rivers and Drainage Basins 3/3
Published: 2011/02/07
Channel: Jon Bergmann
French drain How to Tips - Catch Basin Install
French drain How to Tips - Catch Basin Install
Published: 2016/03/04
Channel: Bellis Lawn & Gardens
Drainage Basin - Yosemite
Drainage Basin - Yosemite
Published: 2008/12/13
Channel: tungstenteacher
CATCH BASIN for Do It Yourself Project, by Apple Drains, Drainage Contractors, North Carolina
CATCH BASIN for Do It Yourself Project, by Apple Drains, Drainage Contractors, North Carolina
Published: 2012/04/29
Channel: appledrains
Drainage basin
Drainage basin
Published: 2017/03/27
Channel: Geography Situation
Human uses of a drainage basin
Human uses of a drainage basin
Published: 2015/04/28
Channel: Worksop Geography
How do I install an NDS catch basin for my drainage system?
How do I install an NDS catch basin for my drainage system?
Published: 2014/10/13
Channel: NDS Stormwater Management
Drainage basin
Drainage basin
Published: 2016/05/11
Channel: Geog Raphy
From the Ridge to the River: The Story of a Watershed circa 1940 USDA Soil Conservation
From the Ridge to the River: The Story of a Watershed circa 1940 USDA Soil Conservation
Published: 2014/12/14
Channel: Jeff Quitney
Roof Drain Trenching and Catch Basins  Discharge 4 Inch Pipe, How To Install Drainage
Roof Drain Trenching and Catch Basins Discharge 4 Inch Pipe, How To Install Drainage
Published: 2014/05/16
Channel: appledrains
Amazon Basin
Amazon Basin
Published: 2007/03/23
Channel: Kevin K
How to unclog a sink drain
How to unclog a sink drain
Published: 2009/08/10
Channel: Howdini
Drainage Basin Morphology
Drainage Basin Morphology
Published: 2011/03/16
Channel: CSDMSmovie
Drainage Basins
Drainage Basins
Published: 2015/01/16
Channel: Geological Sciences
Drainage Basins (Watersheds)
Drainage Basins (Watersheds)
Published: 2017/01/11
Channel: Mr. Clauss
2.  The drainage basin
2. The drainage basin
Published: 2014/09/15
Channel: Geog Raphy
Balancing the Basin
Balancing the Basin's water
Published: 2013/07/30
Channel: mdbamedia
Dark Drone - Drainage basin
Dark Drone - Drainage basin
Published: 2011/04/16
Channel: Polysix0
watershed delineation using DEM / spatial analyst in Arcgis
watershed delineation using DEM / spatial analyst in Arcgis
Published: 2014/08/16
Channel: geologie maroc
Drainage basin - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Drainage basin - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Published: 2015/09/02
Channel: Wiz Science™
Driveway Drainage, Channel Drain or Catch Basin?
Driveway Drainage, Channel Drain or Catch Basin?
Published: 2016/06/21
Channel: appledrains
Importance of Drainage Basins in Laundromats - HK Laundry Video
Importance of Drainage Basins in Laundromats - HK Laundry Video
Published: 2012/09/22
Channel: Karl Hinrichs
Watersheds and drainage divides
Watersheds and drainage divides
Published: 2015/10/14
Channel: FSNatureLIVE
AS level Geography- Drainage Basin Hydrological cycle (rivers)
AS level Geography- Drainage Basin Hydrological cycle (rivers)
Published: 2016/05/16
Channel: REVISE
Finish Strong Friday:  Drainage Basin Delineation with Autodesk Infraworks 360
Finish Strong Friday: Drainage Basin Delineation with Autodesk Infraworks 360
Published: 2017/01/12
Channel: Alan Gilbert
What is Integrated River Basin Management    YouTube
What is Integrated River Basin Management YouTube
Published: 2016/07/28
Channel: Abdullahi Hassan Hussein
Water Resources-Find the Area of a Drainage Basin
Water Resources-Find the Area of a Drainage Basin
Published: 2014/10/17
Channel: Civil Engineering Academy
Drainage Systems in South Africa
Drainage Systems in South Africa
Published: 2014/03/10
Channel: Mindset Learn
Lecture 1; River Drainage Basins, sediment; 9/18/01
Lecture 1; River Drainage Basins, sediment; 9/18/01
Published: 2013/10/11
Channel: CEE 263 Rivers and the Regional Environment, Fall 2001, Princeton Univ. Profs. Smith and Billington
Mark rivers and catchments / drainage basins on a DEM in ArcMap 10 2 1
Mark rivers and catchments / drainage basins on a DEM in ArcMap 10 2 1
Published: 2015/06/26
Channel: Dorothy McCarthy
1. Drainage Basin water cycle
1. Drainage Basin water cycle
Published: 2014/09/15
Channel: Geog Raphy
Lesson 2 Drainage Basin
Lesson 2 Drainage Basin
Published: 2012/10/14
Channel: BTGAlevelGeography
French Drain and Catch Basin in Dirt Driveway
French Drain and Catch Basin in Dirt Driveway
Published: 2012/11/10
Channel: appledrains
Dynamic drainage basins
Dynamic drainage basins
Published: 2011/06/29
Channel: Mit Geomorphology
Catch Basin Use and Set Up
Catch Basin Use and Set Up
Published: 2016/02/20
Channel: appledrains
The Hydrological Cycle and Drainage Basin Systems
The Hydrological Cycle and Drainage Basin Systems
Published: 2013/02/04
Channel: Rick Moss
AS Geography Revision - Drainage Basin Inputs, Outputs, Stores, and Flows
AS Geography Revision - Drainage Basin Inputs, Outputs, Stores, and Flows
Published: 2017/02/06
Channel: George's Geography
Drainage basin hydrological cycle
Drainage basin hydrological cycle
Published: 2016/10/28
Channel: Andy Reeves
Hydrology: Watershed Delineation Example
Hydrology: Watershed Delineation Example
Published: 2013/12/01
Channel: Simmy Sigma
Lesson 1:The Drainage Basin Hydrological Cycle
Lesson 1:The Drainage Basin Hydrological Cycle
Published: 2013/07/23
Channel: Emma Pritchard
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Example of a drainage basin. The dashed line is the main water divide of the hydrographic basin.
Animation of Latorița River drainage basin, Romania Modelare 3D pentru Bazinul Hidrografic al Paraului Latorita.gif

A drainage basin or catchment area is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water. The drainage basin includes all the surface water from rain runoff, snowmelt, and nearby streams that run downslope towards the shared outlet, as well as the groundwater underneath the earth's surface.[1] Drainage basins connect into other drainage basins at lower elevations in a hierarchical pattern, with smaller sub-drainage basins, which in turn drain into another common outlet.[2]

Other terms used to describe drainage basins are catchment, catchment basin, drainage area, river basin and water basin.[3] In North America, the term watershed is commonly used to mean a drainage basin, though in other English-speaking countries, it is used only in its original sense, to mean a drainage divide,[4] a ridge that separates adjacent drainage basins.

In closed ("endorheic") drainage basins the water converges to a single point inside the basin, known as a sink, which may be a permanent lake, a dry lake, or a point where surface water is lost underground.[5]

The drainage basin acts as a funnel by collecting all the water within the area covered by the basin and channelling it to a single point. Each drainage basin is separated topographically from adjacent basins by a perimeter, the drainage divide, making up a succession of higher geographical features (such as a ridge, hill or mountains) forming a barrier.

Drainage basins are similar but not identical to hydrologic units, which are drainage areas delineated so as to nest into a multi-level hierarchical drainage system. Hydrologic units are defined to allow multiple inlets, outlets, or sinks. In a strict sense, all drainage basins are hydrologic units but not all hydrologic units are drainage basins.[5]

Major drainage basins of the world[edit]

Map[edit]

Major continental divides, showing drainage into the major oceans and seas of the world.
Drainage basins of the principal oceans and seas of the world. Grey areas are endorheic basins that do not drain to the oceans.

Ocean basins[edit]

The following is a list of the major ocean basins:

Largest river basins[edit]

The five largest river basins (by area), from largest to smallest, are the basins of the Amazon (7M km2), the Congo (4M km2), the Nile (3.4M km2), the Río de la Plata (3.2M km2), and the Mississippi (3M km2). The three rivers that drain the most water, from most to least, are the Amazon, Ganga, and Congo rivers.[6]

Endorheic drainage basins[edit]

Endorheic drainage basins are inland basins that do not drain to an ocean. Around 18% of all land drains to endorheic lakes or seas or sinks. The largest of these consists of much of the interior of Asia, which drains into the Caspian Sea, the Aral Sea, and numerous smaller lakes. Other endorheic regions include the Great Basin in the United States, much of the Sahara Desert, the drainage basin of the Okavango River (Kalahari Basin), highlands near the African Great Lakes, the interiors of Australia and the Arabian Peninsula, and parts in Mexico and the Andes. Some of these, such as the Great Basin, are not single drainage basins but collections of separate, adjacent closed basins.

In endorheic bodies of standing water where evaporation is the primary means of water loss, the water is typically more saline than the oceans. An extreme example of this is the Dead Sea.

Importance of drainage basins[edit]

Geopolitical boundaries[edit]

Drainage basins have been historically important for determining territorial boundaries, particularly in regions where trade by water has been important. For example, the English crown gave the Hudson's Bay Company a monopoly on the fur trade in the entire Hudson Bay basin, an area called Rupert's Land. Bioregional political organization today includes agreements of states (e.g., international treaties and, within the U.S.A., interstate compacts) or other political entities in a particular drainage basin to manage the body or bodies of water into which it drains. Examples of such interstate compacts are the Great Lakes Commission and the Tahoe Regional Planning Agency.

Hydrology[edit]

Drainage basin of the Ohio River, part of the Mississippi River drainage basin

In hydrology, the drainage basin is a logical unit of focus for studying the movement of water within the hydrological cycle, because the majority of water that discharges from the basin outlet originated as precipitation falling on the basin. A portion of the water that enters the groundwater system beneath the drainage basin may flow towards the outlet of another drainage basin because groundwater flow directions do not always match those of their overlying drainage network. Measurement of the discharge of water from a basin may be made by a stream gauge located at the basin's outlet.

Rain gauge data is used to measure total precipitation over a drainage basin, and there are different ways to interpret that data. If the gauges are many and evenly distributed over an area of uniform precipitation, using the arithmetic mean method will give good results. In the Thiessen polygon method, the drainage basin is divided into polygons with the rain gauge in the middle of each polygon assumed to be representative for the rainfall on the area of land included in its polygon. These polygons are made by drawing lines between gauges, then making perpendicular bisectors of those lines form the polygons. The isohyetal method involves contours of equal precipitation are drawn over the gauges on a map. Calculating the area between these curves and adding up the volume of water is time consuming.

Isochrone maps can be used to show the time taken for runoff water within a drainage basin to reach a lake, reservoir or outlet, assuming constant and uniform effective rainfall.[7][8][9][10]

Geomorphology[edit]

Drainage basins are the principal hydrologic unit considered in fluvial geomorphology. A drainage basin is the source for water and sediment that moves from higher elevation through the river system to lower elevations as they reshape the channel forms.

Ecology[edit]

The Mississippi River drains the largest area of any U.S. river, much of it agricultural regions. Agricultural runoff and other water pollution that flows to the outlet is the cause of the hypoxic, or dead zone in the Gulf of Mexico.

Drainage basins are important in ecology. As water flows over the ground and along rivers it can pick up nutrients, sediment, and pollutants. With the water, they are transported towards the outlet of the basin, and can affect the ecological processes along the way as well as in the receiving water source.

Modern use of artificial fertilizers, containing nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, has affected the mouths of drainage basins. The minerals are carried by the drainage basin to the mouth, and may accumulate there, disturbing the natural mineral balance. This can cause eutrophication where plant growth is accelerated by the additional material.

Resource management[edit]

Because drainage basins are coherent entities in a hydro-logical sense, it has become common to manage water resources on the basis of individual basins. In the U.S. state of Minnesota, governmental entities that perform this function are called "watershed districts". In New Zealand, they are called catchment boards. Comparable community groups based in Ontario, Canada, are called conservation authorities. In North America, this function is referred to as "watershed management". In Brazil, the National Policy of Water Resources, regulated by Act n° 9.433 of 1997, establishes the drainage basin as the territorial division of Brazilian water management.

When a river basin crosses at least one political border, either a border within a nation or an international boundary, it is identified as a transboundary river. Management of such basins becomes the responsibility of the countries sharing it. Nile Basin Initiative, OMVS for Senegal River, Mekong River Commission are a few examples of arrangements involving management of shared river basins.

Management of shared drainage basins is also seen as a way to build lasting peaceful relationships among countries.[11]

Catchment factors[edit]

The catchment is the most significant factor determining the amount or likelihood of flooding.

Catchment factors are: topography, shape, size, soil type, and land use (paved or roofed areas). Catchment topography and shape determine the time taken for rain to reach the river, while catchment size, soil type, and development determine the amount of water to reach the river.

Topography[edit]

Generally, topography plays a big part in how fast runoff will reach a river. Rain that falls in steep mountainous areas will reach the primary river in the drainage basin faster than flat or lightly sloping areas (e.g., > 1% gradient).

Shape[edit]

Shape will contribute to the speed with which the runoff reaches a river. A long thin catchment will take longer to drain than a circular catchment.

Size[edit]

Size will help determine the amount of water reaching the river, as the larger the catchment the greater the potential for flooding. It also determined on the basis of length and width of the drainage basin.

Soil type[edit]

Soil type will help determine how much water reaches the river. Certain soil types such as sandy soils are very free-draining, and rainfall on sandy soil is likely to be absorbed by the ground. However, soils containing clay can be almost impermeable and therefore rainfall on clay soils will run off and contribute to flood volumes. After prolonged rainfall even free-draining soils can become saturated, meaning that any further rainfall will reach the river rather than being absorbed by the ground. If the surface is impermeable the precipitation will create surface run-off which will lead to higher risk of flooding; if the ground is permeable, the precipitation will infiltrate the soil.

Land use[edit]

Land use can contribute to the volume of water reaching the river, in a similar way to clay soils. For example, rainfall on roofs, pavements, and roads will be collected by rivers with almost no absorption into the groundwater.

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ "drainage basin". The Physical Environment. University of Wisconsin–Stevens Point. Archived from the original on March 21, 2004. 
  2. ^ "What is a watershed and why should I care?". university of delaware. Retrieved 2008-02-11. 
  3. ^ Lambert, David (1998). The Field Guide to Geology. Checkmark Books. pp. 130–13. ISBN 0-8160-3823-6. 
  4. ^ "Recommended Watershed Terminology". watershed.org. Retrieved 2011-08-26. 
  5. ^ a b "Hydrologic Unit Geography". Virginia Department of Conservation & Recreation. Retrieved 21 November 2010. 
  6. ^ Encarta Encyclopedia articles on Amazon River, Congo River, and Ganges Published by Microsoft in computers.
  7. ^ Bell, V. A.; Moore, R. J. (1998). "A grid-based distributed flood forecasting model for use with weather radar data: Part 1. Formulation" (PDF). Hydrology and Earth System Sciences. Copernicus Publications. 2: 265–281. doi:10.5194/hess-2-265-1998. 
  8. ^ Subramanya, K (2008). Engineering Hydrology. Tata McGraw-Hill. p. 298. ISBN 0-07-064855-7. 
  9. ^ "EN 0705 isochrone map". UNESCO. Archived from the original on November 22, 2012. Retrieved March 21, 2012. 
  10. ^ "Isochrone map". Webster's Online Dictionary. Retrieved March 21, 2012. 
  11. ^ http://www.strategicforesight.com/inner-articles.php?id=310#.WA9Ia-V97GI

References[edit]

  • DeBarry, Paul A. (2004). Watersheds: Processes, Assessment and Management. John Wiley & Sons.

External links[edit]

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