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7 Worse Drug Overdoses Compilation - Don
7 Worse Drug Overdoses Compilation - Don't Do Drugs People
Published: 2016/11/30
Channel: Star Wixx
DRUG OVERDOSE CAUGHT ON CAMERA! Police Arrived
DRUG OVERDOSE CAUGHT ON CAMERA! Police Arrived
Published: 2017/10/30
Channel: Tou Yube
Teenage Drug Overdose - Brain Damage
Teenage Drug Overdose - Brain Damage
Published: 2010/04/14
Channel: MCAOTV
Overdose Crisis on the US-Canada Border: Steel Town Down
Overdose Crisis on the US-Canada Border: Steel Town Down
Published: 2018/02/15
Channel: VICE
MAJOR DRUG OVERDOSE
MAJOR DRUG OVERDOSE
Published: 2017/06/21
Channel: Rednecks Gone Wild
Man Overdoses at Traffic Light || ViralHog
Man Overdoses at Traffic Light || ViralHog
Published: 2017/04/12
Channel: ViralHog
What Happens During A Drug Overdose? | Serenity Recovery
What Happens During A Drug Overdose? | Serenity Recovery
Published: 2016/03/08
Channel: Serenity
What A Drug Overdose Is Like
What A Drug Overdose Is Like
Published: 2013/09/08
Channel: Rolo Tamase
10 CELEBRITIES Who Died From DRUG OVERDOSE
10 CELEBRITIES Who Died From DRUG OVERDOSE
Published: 2016/03/17
Channel: Epic 10 List
Symptoms of Drug Overdose
Symptoms of Drug Overdose
Published: 2017/10/26
Channel: ECPL Social
Zye Young On Near Death Experience From Drug Overdose Of Cocaine and Liquor, Shares Advice
Zye Young On Near Death Experience From Drug Overdose Of Cocaine and Liquor, Shares Advice
Published: 2017/12/04
Channel: DJ Smallz Eyes 2
Drug Overdose (2017)
Drug Overdose (2017)
Published: 2017/04/15
Channel: Caribbean Cultures
Opioid Addict
Opioid Addict's Mother Was Prepared For Her Daughter To Die Of Overdose | The Opioid Diaries | TIME
Published: 2018/02/22
Channel: TIME
Teens Film Parents Who Overdosed On Heroin
Teens Film Parents Who Overdosed On Heroin
Published: 2016/10/08
Channel: Blue Lives Matter
Father videoing his Daughter
Father videoing his Daughter's overdose and claims no one helped.
Published: 2016/09/12
Channel: The Caroline Circle
One Nation, Overdosed: Documentary On The Deadliest Drug Crisis In American History (Full) | MSNBC
One Nation, Overdosed: Documentary On The Deadliest Drug Crisis In American History (Full) | MSNBC
Published: 2017/11/09
Channel: MSNBC
grandson - Overdose
grandson - Overdose
Published: 2018/02/17
Channel: GrandsonVEVO
Drug Overdose Reveals Overwhelming Love
Drug Overdose Reveals Overwhelming Love
Published: 2018/01/31
Channel: The Official 700 Club
EXTREME DEAD BROTHER DRUG OVERDOSE PRANK
EXTREME DEAD BROTHER DRUG OVERDOSE PRANK
Published: 2017/03/04
Channel: KingKennyTv
Heroin overdose: Video shows couple passed out on Memphis sidewalk after snorting heroin - TomoNews
Heroin overdose: Video shows couple passed out on Memphis sidewalk after snorting heroin - TomoNews
Published: 2016/10/05
Channel: TomoNews US
Suspected Flagler drug dealer faces murder charge in overdose death
Suspected Flagler drug dealer faces murder charge in overdose death
Published: 2018/02/21
Channel: Daytona Beach News-Journal
Drug Overdose
Drug Overdose
Published: 2012/04/21
Channel: Megan Clark
Rocker Tom Petty died from accidental drug overdose
Rocker Tom Petty died from accidental drug overdose
Published: 2018/01/20
Channel: CBC News
Eminem Nearly Dies Because Of A Drug Overdose
Eminem Nearly Dies Because Of A Drug Overdose
Published: 2010/07/19
Channel: Stephen Wolstenholme
Loss of a son from drug overdose
Loss of a son from drug overdose
Published: 2017/07/30
Channel: Natasha Sherman
Room (2015) - ma
Room (2015) - ma's drug overdose (25)
Published: 2016/04/08
Channel: Room Scenes
Naloxone heroin overdose revival video: Woman comes back to life thanks to drug
Naloxone heroin overdose revival video: Woman comes back to life thanks to drug
Published: 2015/11/12
Channel: RTV6 The Indy Channel
Treating Drug Overdose and Poisoning
Treating Drug Overdose and Poisoning
Published: 2016/09/09
Channel: Crozer-Keystone Health System
How Overdose Kills
How Overdose Kills
Published: 2016/03/22
Channel: Best Drug Rehabilitation
TV Patrol: Mark Cardona, nag-agaw buhay dahil sa drug overdose
TV Patrol: Mark Cardona, nag-agaw buhay dahil sa drug overdose
Published: 2016/08/22
Channel: ABS-CBN News
Mom-of-Three Died of an Apparent Drug Overdose After Night Out
Mom-of-Three Died of an Apparent Drug Overdose After Night Out
Published: 2015/10/06
Channel: Inside Edition
Drug Overdose | Best of Bondi Rescue
Drug Overdose | Best of Bondi Rescue
Published: 2013/03/27
Channel: BondiRescue
WOMAN RUSHED OUT OF ABANDONED HOUSE FROM DRUG OVERDOSE & MAN LAID OUT ON STREET CORNER
WOMAN RUSHED OUT OF ABANDONED HOUSE FROM DRUG OVERDOSE & MAN LAID OUT ON STREET CORNER
Published: 2017/07/03
Channel: Walter Gildersleeve
10 Famous People Ruined By Drugs
10 Famous People Ruined By Drugs
Published: 2016/07/06
Channel: TheTalko
What Happens to Body During A Drug Overdose?
What Happens to Body During A Drug Overdose?
Published: 2017/06/21
Channel: Being Science
Scotland
Scotland's drug deaths crisis
Published: 2018/02/19
Channel: Channel 4 News
Famous Celebrities Who Died From Drug Overdose ★ Celebrities Death From Drugs
Famous Celebrities Who Died From Drug Overdose ★ Celebrities Death From Drugs
Published: 2017/12/15
Channel: Top10 World
Detroit paramedics save couple after drug overdose
Detroit paramedics save couple after drug overdose
Published: 2017/09/04
Channel: WXYZ-TV Detroit | Channel 7
Drug overdose deaths at record high ‒ CDC
Drug overdose deaths at record high ‒ CDC
Published: 2017/02/27
Channel: RT America
Maricann is Expanding Production and Helping Prevent Drug Overdose
Maricann is Expanding Production and Helping Prevent Drug Overdose
Published: 2018/02/17
Channel: Midas Letter
Coronation Street - Daniel Drugs Overdose
Coronation Street - Daniel Drugs Overdose
Published: 2017/06/16
Channel: ReadySalted80
People of Walmart in West Virginia "Drug Overdose"
People of Walmart in West Virginia "Drug Overdose"
Published: 2016/09/30
Channel: Kyle Herwald
THIS MAN DIED FROM DRUG OVERDOSE, WENT TO HELL, AND THEN JESUS TOOK HIM TO HEAVEN!
THIS MAN DIED FROM DRUG OVERDOSE, WENT TO HELL, AND THEN JESUS TOOK HIM TO HEAVEN!
Published: 2016/01/17
Channel: Living For Christ
Tom Petty Died From Accidental Drug Overdose
Tom Petty Died From Accidental Drug Overdose
Published: 2018/01/20
Channel: Rock History Music
Drug  Overdose
Drug Overdose
Published: 2017/12/14
Channel: Anthony Leon-Gonzalez
Former
Former '16 and Pregnant' Star Valerie Fairman Dead of Apparent Drug Overdose
Published: 2016/12/22
Channel: Us Weekly
FENTANYL Overdose - Friends shocking reaction
FENTANYL Overdose - Friends shocking reaction
Published: 2017/09/20
Channel: Scarpacci The Series
I DIED ON A DRUG OVERDOSE & LEFT MY BODY, & GOD SPOKE TO ME - FRED SPICA (NDE) Christian Testimony
I DIED ON A DRUG OVERDOSE & LEFT MY BODY, & GOD SPOKE TO ME - FRED SPICA (NDE) Christian Testimony
Published: 2010/12/30
Channel: PreciousTestimonies
5 Celebrities Who Died Of An Overdose!
5 Celebrities Who Died Of An Overdose!
Published: 2016/06/13
Channel: Top 5s Finest
Drug Overdose at work, Being rushed to Emergency Room | StoryTime
Drug Overdose at work, Being rushed to Emergency Room | StoryTime
Published: 2017/04/06
Channel: Dee & Brandon ENT
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Drug overdose
US timeline. Drugs involved in overdose deaths.jpg
US yearly overdose deaths, and the drugs involved. Among the more than 64,000 deaths estimated in 2016, the sharpest increase occurred among deaths related to fentanyl and fentanyl analogs (synthetic opioids) with over 20,000 deaths.[1]
Classification and external resources
Specialty Toxicology
ICD-10 T36-T50
ICD-9-CM 960-979
DiseasesDB 3971
MeSH D062787

The term drug overdose (or simply overdose or OD) describes the ingestion or application of a drug or other substance in quantities greater than are recommended[2] or generally practiced.[3] An overdose may result in a toxic state or death.[3]

Classification[edit]

The word "overdose" implies that there is a common safe dosage and usage for the drug; therefore, the term is commonly only applied to drugs, not poisons, though even poisons are harmless at a low enough dosage. Drug overdoses are sometimes caused intentionally to commit suicide, parasuicide or as self-harm, but many drug overdoses are accidental, the result of intentional or unintentional misuse of medication. Intentional misuse leading to overdose can include using prescribed or unprescribed drugs in excessive quantities in an attempt to produce euphoria.

Usage of illicit drugs of unexpected purity, in large quantities, or after a period of drug abstinence can also induce overdose. Cocaine users who inject intravenously can easily overdose accidentally, as the margin between a pleasurable drug sensation and an overdose is small.[4] Unintentional misuse can include errors in dosage caused by failure to read or understand product labels. Accidental overdoses may also be the result of over-prescription, failure to recognize a drug's active ingredient, or unwitting ingestion by children.[5] A common unintentional overdose in young children involves multi-vitamins containing iron. Iron is a component of the hemoglobin molecule in blood, used to transport oxygen to living cells. When taken in small amounts, iron allows the body to replenish hemoglobin, but in large amounts it causes severe pH imbalances in the body. If this overdose is not treated with chelation therapy, it can lead to death or permanent coma. The term 'overdose' is often misused as a descriptor for adverse drug reactions or negative drug interactions due to mixing multiple drugs simultaneously.

Signs and symptoms[edit]

Toxidrome[6]
Symptoms BP HR RR Temp Pupils bowel sounds diaphoresis
anticholinergic ~ up ~ up dilated down down
cholinergic ~ ~ unchanged unchanged constricted up up
opioid down down down down constricted down down
sympathomimetic up up up up dilated up up
sedative-hypnotic down down down down ~ down down

Signs and symptoms of an overdose vary depending on the drug or toxin exposure. The symptoms can often be divided into differing toxidromes. This can help one determine what class of drug or toxin is causing the difficulties.

Symptoms of opioid overdoses include slow breathing, heart rate and pulse.[7] Opioid overdoses can also cause pinpoint pupils, and blue lips and nails due to low levels of oxygen in the blood. A person experiencing an opioid overdose might also have muscle spasms, seizures and decreased consciousness. A person experiencing an opiate overdose usually will not wake up even if their name is called or if they are shaken vigorously.

Causes[edit]

The drugs or toxins that are most frequently involved in overdose and death (grouped by ICD-10):

Diagnosis[edit]

A music fan who has had a drug overdose at the 2008 Woodstock Festival (Poland) is strapped into a wheeled cot by paramedics.

The substance that has been taken may often be determined by asking the person. However, if they will not, or cannot, due to an altered level of consciousness, provide this information, a search of the home or questioning of friends and family may be helpful.

Examination for toxidromes, drug testing, or laboratory test may be helpful. Other laboratory test such as glucose, urea and electrolytes, paracetamol levels and salicylate levels are typically done. Negative drug-drug interactions have sometimes been misdiagnosed as an acute drug overdose, occasionally leading to the assumption of suicide.[8]

Prevention[edit]

The distribution of naloxone to injection drug users and other opioid drug users decreases the risk of death from overdose.[9] The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that U.S. programs for drug users and their caregivers prescribing take-home doses of naloxone and training on its utilization are estimated to have prevented 10,000 opioid overdose deaths.[10] Healthcare institution-based naloxone prescription programs have also helped reduce rates of opioid overdose in the U.S. state of North Carolina, and have been replicated in the U.S. military.[11][12] Nevertheless, scale-up of healthcare-based opioid overdose interventions is limited by providers' insufficient knowledge and negative attitudes towards prescribing take-home naloxone to prevent opioid overdose.[13] Programs training police and fire personnel in opioid overdose response using naloxone have also shown promise in the US.[14]

Management[edit]

Activated carbon is a commonly used agent for decontamination of the gastrointestinal tract in overdoses.

Stabilization of the victim's airway, breathing, and circulation (ABCs) is the initial treatment of an overdose. Ventilation is considered when there is a low respiratory rate or when blood gases show the person to be hypoxic. Monitoring of the patient should continue before and throughout the treatment process, with particular attention to temperature, pulse, respiratory rate, blood pressure, urine output, electrocardiography (ECG) and O2 saturation.[15] Poison control centers and medical toxicologists are available in many areas to provide guidance in overdoses to both physicians and the general public.

Antidotes[edit]

Specific antidotes are available for certain overdoses. For example, Naloxone is the antidote for opiates such as heroin or morphine. Similarly, benzodiazepine overdoses may be effectively reversed with flumazenil. As a nonspecific antidote, activated charcoal is frequently recommended if available within one hour of the ingestion and the ingestion is significant.[16] Gastric lavage, syrup of ipecac, and whole bowel irrigation are rarely used.[16]

Epidemiology and statistics[edit]

Total yearly U.S. drug deaths. More than 64,000 Americans died from drug overdoses in 2016, including illicit drugs and prescription opioids--nearly double in a decade.[1]

More than 64,000 Americans died from drug overdoses in 2016.[1] Since 2000, the US drug overdose death rate has gone from 6.2 per 100,000 persons in 2000 to 14.7 per 100,000 in 2014.[17]

The National Center for Health Statistics report that 19,250 people died of accidental poisoning in the U.S. in the year 2004 (8 deaths per 100,000 population).[18]

In 2008 testimony before a Senate subcommittee, Leonard J. Paulozzi,[19] a medical epidemiologist at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention stated that in 2005 more than 22,000 American lives were lost due to overdoses, and the number is growing rapidly. Paulozzi also testified that all available evidence suggests that unintentional overdose deaths are related to the increasing use of prescription drugs, especially opioid painkillers.[20] However, the vast majority of overdoses are also attributable to alcohol. It is very rare for a victim of an overdose to have consumed just one drug. Most overdoses occur when drugs are ingested in combination with alcohol.[21]

Drug overdose was the leading cause of injury death in 2013. Among people 25 to 64 years old, drug overdose caused more deaths than motor vehicle traffic crashes. There were 43,982 drug overdose deaths in the United States in 2013. Of these, 22,767 (51.8%) were related to prescription drugs.[22]

The 22,767 deaths relating to prescription drug overdose in 2013, 16,235 (71.3%) involved opioid painkillers, and 6,973 (30.6%) involved benzodiazepines. Drug misuse and abuse caused about 2.5 million emergency department (ED) visits in 2011. Of these, more than 1.4 million ED visits were related to prescription drugs. Among those ED visits, 501,207 visits were related to anti-anxiety and insomnia medications, and 420,040 visits were related to opioid analgesics.[23]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Overdose Death Rates Archived 2015-11-28 at the Wayback Machine.. By National Institute on Drug Abuse.
  2. ^ Definitions Archived 2011-02-27 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 20 September 2014.
  3. ^ a b "Stairway to Recovery: Glossary of Terms" Archived 2011-07-09 at the Wayback Machine..
  4. ^ Study on fatal overdose Archived 2012-01-19 at the Wayback Machine. in New-York City 1990-2000, visited May 11, 2008
  5. ^ "What to do with leftover medicines". Medicines Talk, Winter 2005. Available at "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-10-24. Retrieved 2010-01-06. 
  6. ^ Goldfrank, Lewis R. (1998). Goldfrank's toxicologic emergencies. Norwalk, CT: Appleton & Lange. ISBN 0-8385-3148-2. 
  7. ^ Chandler, Stephanie. "Symptoms of an opiate overdose". Live Strong. Archived from the original on 18 April 2012. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  8. ^ "Column - Fatal Drug-Drug Interaction As a Differential Consideration in Apparent Suicides" Archived 2008-02-23 at the Wayback Machine..
  9. ^ Piper TM; Stancliff S; Rudenstine S; et al. (2008). "Evaluation of a naloxone distribution and administration program in New York City". Subst Use Misuse. 43 (7): 858–870. doi:10.1080/10826080701801261. PMID 18570021. 
  10. ^ "Community-Based Opioid Overdose Prevention Programs Providing Naloxone — United States, 2010". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. December 2010. Archived from the original on 2017-09-09. 
  11. ^ Albert S, Brason FW 2nd, Sanford CK, Dasgupta N, Graham J, Lovette B. (June 2011). "Project Lazarus: community-based overdose prevention in rural North Carolina". Pain Medicine. 12 Suppl 2: S77–85. doi:10.1111/j.1526-4637.2011.01128.x. PMID 21668761. 
  12. ^ Beletsky L, Burris S, Kral AH (July 2009). "Closing Death's Door: Action Steps to Facilitate Emergency Opioid Drug Overdose Reversal in the United States". Center for Health Law, Policy and Practice, Temple University School of Law. doi:10.2139/ssrn.1437163. SSRN 1437163Freely accessible. 
  13. ^ Beletsky L, Ruthazer R, Macalino GE, Rich JD, Tan L, Burris S (January 2007). "Physicians' knowledge of and willingness to prescribe naloxone to reverse accidental opiate overdose: challenges and opportunities". Journal of Urban Health. 84 (1): 126–36. doi:10.1007/s11524-006-9120-z. PMC 2078257Freely accessible. PMID 17146712. 
  14. ^ Lavoie D. (April 2012). "Naloxone: Drug-Overdose Antidote Is Put In Addicts' Hands". Huffington Post. Archived from the original on 2012-05-18. 
  15. ^ Longmore, Murray; Ian Wilkinson; Tom Turmezei; Chee Kay Cheung (2007). Oxford Handbook of Clinical Medicine. United Kingdom: Oxford. ISBN 0-19-856837-1. 
  16. ^ a b Vanden Hoek, TL; Morrison, LJ; Shuster, M; Donnino, M; Sinz, E; Lavonas, EJ; Jeejeebhoy, FM; Gabrielli, A (Nov 2, 2010). "Part 12: cardiac arrest in special situations: 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care". Circulation. 122 (18 Suppl 3): S829–61. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.110.971069. PMID 20956228. 
  17. ^ Increases in Drug and Opioid Overdose Deaths — United States, 2000–2014. Archived 2017-03-04 at Archive.is Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). January 1, 2016 article.
  18. ^ Referral Page - FASTSTATS - Accidents or Unintentional Injuries Archived 2017-07-15 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 20 September 2014.
  19. ^ CDC Expert, Leonard J. Paulozzi, MD, MPH Archived 2014-02-20 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 20 September 2014.
  20. ^ CDC Washington Testimony March 5, 2008 Archived July 15, 2017, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 20 September 2014.
  21. ^ "The Persistent, Dangerous Myth of Heroin Overdose" Archived 2015-03-23 at the Wayback Machine..
  22. ^ "Understanding the Epidemic | Drug Overdose | CDC Injury Center" Archived 2017-09-09 at the Wayback Machine..
  23. ^ "Prescription Opioid Overdose Data | Drug Overdose | CDC Injury Center" Archived 2017-01-18 at the Wayback Machine..
  24. ^ Data Overview. Drug Overdose. CDC Injury Center Archived 2017-08-13 at the Wayback Machine.. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Further reading[edit]

  • Nelson, Lewis H.; Flomenbaum, Neal; Goldfrank, Lewis R.; Hoffman, Robert Louis; Howland, Mary Deems; Neal A. Lewin (2015). Goldfrank's toxicologic emergencies. New York: McGraw-Hill, Medical Pub. Division. ISBN 0-07-143763-0. 
  • Olson, Kent C. (2004). Poisoning & drug overdose. New York: Lange Medical Mooks/McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-8385-8172-2. 

External links[edit]

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