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AFRİN
AFRİN'DEN SON DURUM ABDULLAH AĞAR AYRINTILI ANALİZ...
Published: 2018/02/18
Channel: OSMANLI KÜLLİYESİ
Ayşegül Aldinç - Durum Leyla (feat. Gökhan Türkmen)
Ayşegül Aldinç - Durum Leyla (feat. Gökhan Türkmen)
Published: 2016/02/04
Channel: netd müzik
Homemade Kebab Durum Style - Recipe #35
Homemade Kebab Durum Style - Recipe #35
Published: 2015/07/09
Channel: MTB Cooking (EN)
Afrin
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Published: 2018/02/15
Channel: Haber Portal
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DURUM MED ARMIN
Published: 2014/09/28
Channel: Armin
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METE YARAR AFRİNDE SON DURUM
Published: 2018/02/13
Channel: M.A.S
Durum Ekmek / Pain de Durum / Bread / الخبز الوضع
Durum Ekmek / Pain de Durum / Bread / الخبز الوضع
Published: 2015/06/29
Channel: delice du monde
Como enrollar Durum Kebab
Como enrollar Durum Kebab
Published: 2017/01/10
Channel: Alex Quintana Esteve
Türkiye Yunanistan İlişkileri Son Durum
Türkiye Yunanistan İlişkileri Son Durum
Published: 2018/02/17
Channel: Cüneyt Özdemir
Doner shtepie Receta ⬇️ Ev yapimi durum Tarif ⬇️
Doner shtepie Receta ⬇️ Ev yapimi durum Tarif ⬇️
Published: 2017/02/11
Channel: Ikizlerin Mutfagi
Afrin Zeytin dalı Harekatı 29 Gün Son Durum SURİYE HARİTASI
Afrin Zeytin dalı Harekatı 29 Gün Son Durum SURİYE HARİTASI
Published: 2018/02/17
Channel: Çıkla Bilgi
Afrin Zeytin Dalı Harekatı 30. Gün Son Durum SURİYE HARİTASI...!
Afrin Zeytin Dalı Harekatı 30. Gün Son Durum SURİYE HARİTASI...!
Published: 2018/02/18
Channel: Çıkla Bilgi
AFRİN ZEYTİN DALI OPERASYONU BÜLENT ÇULCUOĞLU BÖLGEDE SON DURUM TRT HABER
AFRİN ZEYTİN DALI OPERASYONU BÜLENT ÇULCUOĞLU BÖLGEDE SON DURUM TRT HABER
Published: 2018/02/18
Channel: M. Hüseyin Bağçeci
Afrin
Afrin'de Son Durum (12.02.2018)
Published: 2018/01/20
Channel: Lord VEZ'NAN
COMO HACER DURUM KEBAB CASERO , RECETA ECONOMICA
COMO HACER DURUM KEBAB CASERO , RECETA ECONOMICA
Published: 2013/10/08
Channel: Cocinando Juntos
18 ŞUBAT 2018 SON DURUM  ||  RUSYA : SURİYE ORDUSU AFRİN
18 ŞUBAT 2018 SON DURUM || RUSYA : SURİYE ORDUSU AFRİN ' E GİRECEK ! #afrin
Published: 2018/01/21
Channel: MustafaSerhatONLİNE
AFRİN ZEYTİN DALI OPERASYONU KERİM ULAK 24. GÜN SON DURUM DEĞERLENDİRMESİ
AFRİN ZEYTİN DALI OPERASYONU KERİM ULAK 24. GÜN SON DURUM DEĞERLENDİRMESİ
Published: 2018/02/12
Channel: M. Hüseyin Bağçeci
Afrin
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Published: 2018/01/23
Channel: Olay Oldu
Afrin Operasyonu Son Durum
Afrin Operasyonu Son Durum
Published: 2018/02/03
Channel: Cüneyt Özdemir
PIZZA DURUM
PIZZA DURUM
Published: 2017/03/12
Channel: Futte
Afrin Operasyonu Son Durum..! Suriye Haritası 26.Gün..! Zeytin Dalı Harekatı TSK-ÖSO
Afrin Operasyonu Son Durum..! Suriye Haritası 26.Gün..! Zeytin Dalı Harekatı TSK-ÖSO
Published: 2018/02/14
Channel: Çıkla Bilgi
Afrin
Afrin'de 27. GÜN Son Durum 15 Şubat 2018
Published: 2018/02/15
Channel: NEWS MEDYA
Ortadoğu
Ortadoğu'da Son Durum
Published: 2018/01/19
Channel: Cüneyt Özdemir
AFRİN
AFRİN'de 28. GÜN Son Durum 16 Şubat 2018
Published: 2018/02/16
Channel: NEWS MEDYA
Recette pour faire un Dürüm Feat Serhat More
Recette pour faire un Dürüm Feat Serhat More
Published: 2017/03/15
Channel: FastGoodCuisine
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3. Havalimanı İnşaatındaki Son Durum Havadan Görüntülendi
Published: 2017/09/13
Channel: İhlas Haber Ajansı
SON DAKİKA! Afrin
SON DAKİKA! Afrin'de son durum.. ABD'ye rest: Türkiye'yi iknaya gelmeyin
Published: 2018/02/11
Channel: HABER Ci
Afrin
Afrin'de son durum ! Afrin Operasyonu Başladı ! 2018
Published: 2018/01/20
Channel: Ÿakruna
Afrin
Afrin'de SON DURUM 24. GÜN 12 Şubat 2018
Published: 2018/02/12
Channel: NEWS MEDYA
"Москва в твоей тарелке": Durum-Durum
"Москва в твоей тарелке": Durum-Durum
Published: 2013/09/17
Channel: Москва 24
AFRİN`DEKİ SON DURUM  NEDİR? ZEYTİN DALI OPERASYONU
AFRİN`DEKİ SON DURUM NEDİR? ZEYTİN DALI OPERASYONU
Published: 2018/01/22
Channel: Yusuf Kayaalp
Afrin
Afrin'de 26. GÜN Son Durum 14 Şubat 2018
Published: 2018/02/14
Channel: NEWS MEDYA
Afrin
Afrin'de son durum... 13 Şubat 2018 / Haydar Ateş
Published: 2018/02/13
Channel: Halktv
Preparação de um Kebab - Durum
Preparação de um Kebab - Durum
Published: 2014/07/30
Channel: Kebab do Oriente
AFRİN ZEYTİN DALI OPERASYONU A HABER ATA GÜNDÜZ KURŞUN BÖLGEDE SON DURUM
AFRİN ZEYTİN DALI OPERASYONU A HABER ATA GÜNDÜZ KURŞUN BÖLGEDE SON DURUM
Published: 2018/02/14
Channel: M. Hüseyin Bağçeci
SON DURUM  TSK VE ÖSO ADIM ADIM AFRİN
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Published: 2018/02/09
Channel: OSMANLI KÜLLİYESİ
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Gereksiz Yere Utandığımız 10 Durum
Published: 2018/01/23
Channel: YAPYAP
Afrin
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Published: 2018/02/13
Channel: NEWS MEDYA
SON DURUM TSK ÖSO AFRİN
SON DURUM TSK ÖSO AFRİN'E İLERLİYOR FAHRİ ERENEL DEĞER...
Published: 2018/02/11
Channel: OSMANLI KÜLLİYESİ
Sådan laves kebabben i din durum - Madmagasinet
Sådan laves kebabben i din durum - Madmagasinet
Published: 2015/10/20
Channel: DR Nyheder
Afrin
Afrin'de Son Durum / Zeytin Dalı Harekatında 22.Gün / 10 Şubat 2018
Published: 2018/02/10
Channel: Haber Portal
2,5 ₺ Tavuk Dürüm vs 43 ₺ Tavuk Dürüm
2,5 ₺ Tavuk Dürüm vs 43 ₺ Tavuk Dürüm
Published: 2017/05/16
Channel: Onedio
El Bab
El Bab'da son durum
Published: 2017/05/27
Channel: TSK
TÜRKİYE
TÜRKİYE'NİN DEV GEMİSİ TCG ANADOLU'NUN MONTAJINA BAŞLANDI ( Son Durum 2018)
Published: 2018/02/06
Channel: HGV SAVUNMA
3. HAVALİMANI . En son durum (07 Şubat 2018)
3. HAVALİMANI . En son durum (07 Şubat 2018)
Published: 2018/02/07
Channel: Oyun Beyi
PET ODASI SON DURUM 18.2.2018
PET ODASI SON DURUM 18.2.2018
Published: 2018/02/18
Channel: OSMAN ABİ TV
AFRİN ZEYTİN DALI OPERASYONU KİLİS
AFRİN ZEYTİN DALI OPERASYONU KİLİS'TE SON DURUM A HABER ÖĞLE HABERLERİ
Published: 2018/02/14
Channel: M. Hüseyin Bağçeci
AFRİN ZEYTİN DALI OPERASYONU AKŞAM HABERLERİ BÖLGEDE SON DURUM A HABER
AFRİN ZEYTİN DALI OPERASYONU AKŞAM HABERLERİ BÖLGEDE SON DURUM A HABER
Published: 2018/02/13
Channel: M. Hüseyin Bağçeci
Zeytin Dalı Harekatı | Afrin Son Durum | Türkiye Savaşıyor !
Zeytin Dalı Harekatı | Afrin Son Durum | Türkiye Savaşıyor !
Published: 2018/01/25
Channel: Hamza Tas
AFRİN`DE Son Durum ve Ele Geçirilen Bölgeler
AFRİN`DE Son Durum ve Ele Geçirilen Bölgeler
Published: 2018/02/12
Channel: Yusuf Kayaalp
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Durum
Triticum durum.jpg
Durum wheat
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Clade: Commelinids
Order: Poales
Family: Poaceae
Subfamily: Pooideae
Genus: Triticum
Species: T. durum
Binomial name
Triticum durum
Desf.
Synonyms[1]

Durum wheat[2] (/ˈdjʊrəm/), also called pasta wheat[3] or macaroni wheat (Triticum durum or Triticum turgidum subsp. durum),[4] is a tetraploid species of wheat.[5] It is the second most cultivated species of wheat after common wheat, although it only represents 5% to 8% of global wheat production.[6] It was developed by artificial selection of the domesticated emmer wheat strains formerly grown in Central Europe and the Near East around 7000 BC, which developed a naked, free-threshing form.[7] Like emmer, durum wheat is awned (with bristles). It is the predominant wheat that grows in the Middle East.

Durum in Latin means "hard", and the species is the hardest of all wheats. This refers to the resistance of the grain to milling, in particular of the starchy endosperm, implying dough made from its flour is weak or "soft". This makes durum favorable for semolina and pasta and less practical for flour, which requires more work than with hexaploid wheats like common bread wheats. Despite its high protein content, durum is not a strong wheat in the sense of giving strength to dough through the formation of a gluten network. Durum contains 27% extractable, wet gluten, about 3% higher than in common wheat (T. aestivum L.).[8]

Genealogy[edit]

Durum wheat is a tetraploid wheat, having 4 sets of chromosomes for a total of 28, unlike hard red winter and hard red spring wheats, which are hexaploid (6 sets of chromosomes) for a total of 42 chromosomes each.[9]

Durum wheat originated through intergeneric hybridization and polyploidization involving two diploid (having 2 sets of chromosomes) grass species: T. urartu (2n=2x=14, AA genome) and a B-genome diploid related to Aegilops speltoides (2n=2x=14, SS genome)[10] and is thus an allotetraploid (having 4 sets of chromosomes, from unlike parents) species.

Uses[edit]

Commercially produced dry pasta, or pasta secca, is made almost exclusively from durum semolina.[11] Most home made fresh pastas (pasta fresca), such as orecchiette and tagliatelle, also use durum wheat or a combination of soft and hard wheats.

Husked but unground, or coarsely ground, it is used to produce the semolina in the couscous of North Africa and the Levant. It is also used for Levantine dishes such as tabbouleh, kashk, kibbeh, bitfun and the bulgur for pilafs. In North African cuisine and Levantine cuisine, it forms the basis of many soups, gruels, stuffings, puddings and pastries.[12] When ground as fine as flour, it is used for making bread. In the Middle East, it is used for flat round breads, and in Europe and elsewhere, it can be used for pizza or torte. Couscous is a Middle Eastern dish made from small, boiled balls of durum wheat.[13] The Israeli variant of couscous involves larger pearls of durum called ptitim in Hebrew.[14]

Durum flour and semolina are good for making pasta because it does not create doughs hard to shape, e.g. into sheets. Technically, the dough is relatively plastic, contrasting with the strong elastic doughs obtained from bread flours. The French language differentiates strength (force) from hardness (dureté), resolving a contradiction present in English language presentations: durum is rich in gluten but that is not readily available as the endosperm is hard to break to release that gluten. Durum wheat is thus less used in breadmaking. Its protein content is almost as high as that of hard spring or winter wheat and so is its gluten content, necessary for bread to rise. Although 100 percent durum wheat breads do exist (such as pagnotte di Enna or "rimacinato" bread from Sicily, as well as Altamura bread from Apulia and Matera bread from Basilicata) in most instances bread doughs contain only a portion of durum wheat and are supplemented substantially with commercial white flours, often those higher in gluten necessary to offset the poor contribution of durum flour to the gluten network. Pure durum wheat breads are often dense, containing little air bubbles, with relatively little elastic structure (continuum). The uncooked dough splits easily and is easier to shape, as for instance to make pies or pastas.

The use of wheat to produce pasta was described as early as the 10th century by Ibn Wahshīya of Cairo. The North Africans called the product itrīya, from which Italian sources derived the term tria (or aletría in the case of Spanish sources) during the 15th century.[12]

In the Midwestern United States, durum wheat is used almost exclusively for making pasta products such as spaghetti and macaroni.[9]

Production[edit]

Most of the durum grown today is amber durum, the grains of which are amber-colored and larger than those of other types of wheat. Durum has a yellow endosperm, which gives pasta its color. When durum is milled, the endosperm is ground into a granular product called semolina. Semolina made from durum is used for premium pastas and breads. There is also a red durum, used mostly for livestock feed.

The cultivation of durum generates greater yield than other wheats in areas of low precipitation (3–5 dm). Good yields can be obtained by irrigation, but this is rarely done. In the first half of the 20th century, the crop was widely grown in Russia.[15] Durum is one of the most important food crops in West Asia. Although the variety of the wheat there is diverse, it is not extensively grown there, and thus must be imported.[16] West amber durum produced in Canada is used mostly as semolina/pasta, but some is also exported to Italy for bread production.[17]

In the Middle East and North Africa, local bread-making accounts for half the consumption of durum. Some flour is even imported. On the other hand, many countries in Europe produce durum in commercially significant quantities.[18]

Area under cultivation and production of durum wheat[19][page needed]
Region Area (1000 ha) Production (1000 tonnes)
Western Europe 2,490 5,730
North America 2,960 5,756
South America 102 196
Middle East 4,462 6,950
North Africa 3,290 3,214
Others 3,756 3,540
World 17,060 25,360

Processing and protein content[edit]

Durum wheat is subject to four processes: cleaning, tempering, milling and purifying. First, durum wheat is cleaned to remove foreign material and shrunken and broken kernels. Then it is tempered to a moisture content, toughening the seed coat for efficient separation of bran and endosperm. Durum milling is a complex procedure involving repetitive grinding and sieving. Proper purifying results in maximum semolina yield and the least amount of bran powder.[20]

To produce bread, durum wheat is ground into flour. The flour is mixed with water to produce dough. The quantities mixed vary, depending on the acidity of the mixture. The dough is mixed with yeast and lukewarm water, and then fermented for hours.

The quality of the bread produced depends on the viscoelastic properties of gluten, the protein content and protein composition.[8][18] Containing about 12% total protein in defatted flour compared to 11% in common wheat, durum wheat yields 27% extractable, wet gluten compared to 24% in common wheat.[8]

Health concerns[edit]

Because durum wheat contains gluten,[8] it is unsuitable for people with gluten-related disorders such as celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity and wheat allergy.[21]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". Retrieved 28 August 2014. 
  2. ^ "Triticum durum". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 3 February 2016. 
  3. ^ "BSBI List 2007". Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2015-01-25. Retrieved 2014-10-17. 
  4. ^ "Triticum durum". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 11 December 2017. 
  5. ^ "Wheat". Archived from the original on 2014-03-30. 
  6. ^ http://www.world-grain.com/articles/news_home/World_Grain_News/2017/10/Global_durum_wheat_use_trendin.aspx?ID=%7B04F7D478-8010-49E7-A30E-60F63024D10D%7D&cck=1
  7. ^ "Triticum (genus)". Biodiversity explorer. Archived from the original on 2008-10-10. 
  8. ^ a b c d Zilić S, Barać M, Pešić M, Dodig D, Ignjatović-Micić D (2011). "Characterization of proteins from grain of different bread and durum wheat genotypes". Int J Mol Sci. 12 (9): 5878–94. doi:10.3390/ijms12095878. PMC 3189758Freely accessible. PMID 22016634. 
  9. ^ a b Wishart 2004, p. 56, Wheat.
  10. ^ Kubaláková, Marie; et al. (June 2005), "Chromosome Sorting in Tetraploid Wheat and Its Potential for Genome Analysis", Genetics, NIH, 170: 823–9, doi:10.1534/genetics.104.039180, PMC 1450420Freely accessible, PMID 15802508 .
  11. ^ Sicignano, A.; Di Monaco, R.; Masi, P.; Cavella, S. (2015). "From raw material to dish: pasta quality step by step". Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 95 (13): 2579–2587. doi:10.1002/jsfa.7176. PMID 25783568. 
  12. ^ a b Watson 2008, pp. 20–3.
  13. ^ Shulman, Martha Rose (23 February 2009b). "Couscous: Just Don't Call It Pasta". The New York Times. Retrieved 11 December 2017. 
  14. ^ Abby Callard (22 March 2010). "Newly Obsessed With Israeli Couscous". Smithsonian Magazine Online. Retrieved 11 December 2017. 
  15. ^ Bushuk & Rasper 1994, p. 170.
  16. ^ Brown et al. 1989, p. 95.
  17. ^ Bushuk & Rasper 1994, p. 34.
  18. ^ a b Matz 1999, pp. 23–5.
  19. ^ Bushuk & Rasper 1994.
  20. ^ Donnelly & Ponte 2000, p. 650.
  21. ^ Tovoli F, Masi C, Guidetti E, Negrini G, Paterini P, Bolondi L (Mar 16, 2015). "Clinical and diagnostic aspects of gluten related disorders". World J Clin Cases. 3 (3): 275–84. doi:10.12998/wjcc.v3.i3.275. PMC 4360499Freely accessible. PMID 25789300. 

Sources[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Cohen, Daniel (2006). Globalization and its enemies. MIT Press. .
  • Griggs, C Wilfred; Amitai-Preiss, Reuven; Morgan, David (2000). The Mongol Empire and Its Legacy. Brill Publishers. .
  • Taylor, Julie (2005). Muslims in Medieval Italy: The Colony at Lucera. Lexington Books. 

External links[edit]

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