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JAMAICAN / HAITIAN DUTTY BOUKMAN REAL REVOLUTIONARY 1791
JAMAICAN / HAITIAN DUTTY BOUKMAN REAL REVOLUTIONARY 1791
Published: 2017/05/05
Channel: Claude Sinclair
DUTTY BOUKMAN
DUTTY BOUKMAN'S PRAYER THAT WON HAITI'S REVOLUTION
Published: 2017/05/05
Channel: Claude Sinclair
Fatidic - Jamaican Revival [Dutty Bookman]
Fatidic - Jamaican Revival [Dutty Bookman]
Published: 2015/03/31
Channel: Dutty Bookman
Boukman
Boukman's Prayer that Started the Haitain Revolution - The Order of Ma'at.flv
Published: 2010/03/04
Channel: zo feray
Voodoo Mysteries. The Slave
Voodoo Mysteries. The Slave's Revolution | Culture - Planet Doc Full Documentaries
Published: 2014/02/22
Channel: Planet Doc Full Documentaries
Dr Khalid Muhammad and Dutty Boukman - Fight Back!
Dr Khalid Muhammad and Dutty Boukman - Fight Back!
Published: 2016/07/24
Channel: Yao-Hamisi Heru-Shango
The Revolution Dutty Boukman & Jaakay
The Revolution Dutty Boukman & Jaakay
Published: 2016/03/25
Channel: MyoTV
Dr. Edward Scobie - The Haitian Revolution Revisited: Lessons From Boukman and Dessalines (PT1)
Dr. Edward Scobie - The Haitian Revolution Revisited: Lessons From Boukman and Dessalines (PT1)
Published: 2013/03/03
Channel: Donnie Mossberg
Bookman
Bookman's Prayer
Published: 2016/01/30
Channel: Ahiti Ham
The Greatest Black Emancipation in History - The Haitian Revolution (1791-1803)
The Greatest Black Emancipation in History - The Haitian Revolution (1791-1803)
Published: 2016/04/21
Channel: Malcolm Hampton Newton
Boukman’s Prayer| Jean-Jacques Dessalines; Quotes Why Haiti chose INDEPENDENCE over TERRORISM~!
Boukman’s Prayer| Jean-Jacques Dessalines; Quotes Why Haiti chose INDEPENDENCE over TERRORISM~!
Published: 2017/08/15
Channel: Yusuf Glenn LIVE Show
Dr Edward Scobie - The Haitian Revolution Revisited: Lessons From Boukman and Dessalines (
Dr Edward Scobie - The Haitian Revolution Revisited: Lessons From Boukman and Dessalines (
Published: 2017/07/13
Channel: William King
Dr Edward Scobie - The Haitian Revolution Revisited: Lessons From Boukman and Dessalines (PT2)
Dr Edward Scobie - The Haitian Revolution Revisited: Lessons From Boukman and Dessalines (PT2)
Published: 2013/03/03
Channel: Donnie Mossberg
Haitian History with Professor Bayyinah Bello
Haitian History with Professor Bayyinah Bello
Published: 2013/12/23
Channel: Ankhobia
DJ Buntuyâv - Dutty Boukman
DJ Buntuyâv - Dutty Boukman's Judgement
Published: 2012/04/29
Channel: pandulche
Dutty Boukman Memorial in OKAP
Dutty Boukman Memorial in OKAP
Published: 2016/08/17
Channel: Thorobred Books LLC
Boukman Experians : KreyolFest 09
Boukman Experians : KreyolFest 09
Published: 2009/06/30
Channel: Jacobin Noir
JAMAICA LET
JAMAICA LET'S PRAY DUTTY BOOKMAN'S REVOLUTIONARY PRAYER
Published: 2017/07/13
Channel: Claude Sinclair
Fatidic - "I don
Fatidic - "I don't know what it means." [Dutty Bookman]
Published: 2015/03/31
Channel: Dutty Bookman
Boukman
Boukman's Prayer At Bois Caiman 1791
Published: 2017/01/27
Channel: OCHER NAGO
Boukman Eksperyans - Pèpè Yè [Video Kanaval 2015]
Boukman Eksperyans - Pèpè Yè [Video Kanaval 2015]
Published: 2015/02/09
Channel: plezikanaval
boukman experyans live 2017
boukman experyans live 2017
Published: 2017/05/19
Channel: MagHaiti channel
Dutty Bookman
Dutty Bookman
Published: 2012/09/29
Channel: CharlieVisconageShow
Boukman Eksperyans - Pawol Tafia  ( 1998 )
Boukman Eksperyans - Pawol Tafia ( 1998 )
Published: 2009/01/03
Channel: Emmanuel V
🐔La Prière du Poulet🐓BOUKMAN DUTTY🇭🇹
🐔La Prière du Poulet🐓BOUKMAN DUTTY🇭🇹
Published: 2016/11/10
Channel: La Prière du Poulet
Boukman
Boukman's Revenge
Published: 2017/07/31
Channel: VinceAbdulKabir
Bois Caïman and the Vodou Revolution
Bois Caïman and the Vodou Revolution
Published: 2009/12/16
Channel: AIDSinHaitiDoc
Boukman Eksperyans - Ti Pa Ti Pa
Boukman Eksperyans - Ti Pa Ti Pa
Published: 2008/11/28
Channel: Emmanuel V
Elise Kelly (IRIE FM),
Elise Kelly (IRIE FM), 'Soul to Soul' with Dutty Bookman [Part 7 of 8]
Published: 2013/03/15
Channel: Dutty Bookman
Dr Edward Scobie The Haitian Revolution Revisited Lessons From Boukman and Dessalines
Dr Edward Scobie The Haitian Revolution Revisited Lessons From Boukman and Dessalines
Published: 2017/07/26
Channel: THEBLACKWARRIOR777.
Boukman Eksperyans - Giyon Dyol Bokye ( Kanaval 1999 )
Boukman Eksperyans - Giyon Dyol Bokye ( Kanaval 1999 )
Published: 2012/01/09
Channel: Emmanuel V
Azor (Rasin Mapou de Azor): Boukman O - Yo dim se dyab
Azor (Rasin Mapou de Azor): Boukman O - Yo dim se dyab
Published: 2015/04/23
Channel: Ayi Edou
Papa Legba - Boukman Eksperyans
Papa Legba - Boukman Eksperyans
Published: 2010/01/14
Channel: Brisch
BOUKMAN 2014 FKZO Festival in Toronto!
BOUKMAN 2014 FKZO Festival in Toronto!
Published: 2014/08/06
Channel: kompagrooves
Boukman nan festi Sentwòz Leyogan
Boukman nan festi Sentwòz Leyogan
Published: 2017/08/23
Channel: HAITIAN CHRIS TV
Dutty Bookman (Manifesto|JA) at the Caribbean American Youth Leadership Forum 2011
Dutty Bookman (Manifesto|JA) at the Caribbean American Youth Leadership Forum 2011
Published: 2011/07/25
Channel: Dutty Bookman
Boukman nan bwa kayiman
Boukman nan bwa kayiman
Published: 2015/09/16
Channel: Stanley Pierre
Boukman Eksperyans Kanaval 2009
Boukman Eksperyans Kanaval 2009
Published: 2009/02/25
Channel: Emmanuel V
NUBIAN HISTORY PROGRAM THE HAITIAN REVOLUTION
NUBIAN HISTORY PROGRAM THE HAITIAN REVOLUTION
Published: 2014/03/07
Channel: THE LOTUS PLACE LOTUS
NISKAAA FEAT LOLO [ BOUKMAN EKSPERYANS ]
NISKAAA FEAT LOLO [ BOUKMAN EKSPERYANS ] 'VEVE LOKAL' [ OFFICIAL VIDEO]
Published: 2017/03/02
Channel: Music Haiti
RAS PECOS DA GENERAL  DUTTY BOOKMAN EARTHSTRONG
RAS PECOS DA GENERAL DUTTY BOOKMAN EARTHSTRONG
Published: 2015/11/10
Channel: Higher Vibrationz
DUTTY - AYITI   (Official Video) Haiti 2017
DUTTY - AYITI (Official Video) Haiti 2017
Published: 2017/01/15
Channel: BuzzFeeedsaOui Haitien
Carnaval Des Fleurs 2013 - Boukman Live
Carnaval Des Fleurs 2013 - Boukman Live
Published: 2013/10/28
Channel: Twoubadoukreyol
YaardCore and Dutty Bookman...DUBWISE DC @ Bossa 14.
YaardCore and Dutty Bookman...DUBWISE DC @ Bossa 14.
Published: 2015/10/13
Channel: Higher Vibrationz
STORM -   DUTTY BOOKMAN EARTHSTRONG @ BOSSA
STORM - DUTTY BOOKMAN EARTHSTRONG @ BOSSA
Published: 2015/11/10
Channel: Higher Vibrationz
Freedom Feat. Boukman-Solèy Leve [K-Naval 2012]
Freedom Feat. Boukman-Solèy Leve [K-Naval 2012]
Published: 2012/02/07
Channel: AGC ENTERTAINMENT
Boukman nan bwa kayiman
Boukman nan bwa kayiman
Published: 2016/02/04
Channel: Josue Leon
boukman
boukman
Published: 2009/08/28
Channel: clesidor
Haiti Football BOUKMAN EKSPERYANS
Haiti Football BOUKMAN EKSPERYANS
Published: 2013/06/16
Channel: EKLERE TA
Boukman (no war) Live
Boukman (no war) Live
Published: 2008/10/17
Channel: HAITI4LIFE
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Dutty Boukman
Born Jamaica
Died 7 November 1791
Nationality Haitian
Other names Boukman Dutty
Known for Catalyst to the Haitian Revolution

Dutty Boukman (also known as Boukman Dutty) (died 7 November 1791) was an African man, enslaved in Jamaica and later in Haiti. He is considered both a maroon leader and Vodou hougan (priest) and was an early leader of the Haitian Revolution.[3]

According to some contemporary accounts Boukman alongside Cécile Fatiman, a Vodou mambo, presided over the religious ceremony at Bois Caïman, in August 1791, that served as a catalyst of the 1791 slave revolt which marks the beginning of the Haitian Revolution.

Boukman was a key leader of the slave revolt in the Le Cap‑Français region in the north of the colony. He was killed by the French planters and colonial troops in 7 November 1791.[4][5]

Background[edit]

Dutty Boukman was a Holy Koran-educated slave born on the island of Jamaica. After he attempted to teach other slaves how to read, he was sold to a French plantation owner and placed as a commandeur (slave driver) and, later, a coach driver. His French name came from his English nickname, "Book Man," which some scholars, despite accounts suggesting that he was a Vodou houngan, have interpreted as meaning that he was a Muslim, since in many Muslim regions the term "man of the book" is a synonym for an adherent of the Islamic faith. One scholar suggests that it is likely that Boukman "was a Jamaican Muslim who had a Quran, and that he got his nickname from this."[6] Other scholars suggest that Boukman may have practiced a syncretic blend of traditional African religion and a form of Christianity.[7] Boukman was killed by the French in November 1791, just a few months after the beginning of the uprising.[8] The French then publicly displayed Boukman's head in an attempt to dispel the aura of invincibility that Boukman had cultivated.The fact that French authorities had to do this shows just how much of an impact Boukman made on the views of Haitian people during this time.

Ceremony at the Bois Caïman[edit]

According to some contemporaneous accounts, on or about 14 August 1791 Boukman presided over a ceremony at the Bois Caïman in the role of houngan (priest) together with priestess Cécile Fatiman. Boukman prophesied that the slaves Jean François, Biassou, and Jeannot would be leaders of a resistance movement and revolt that would free the slaves of Saint-Domingue. An animal was sacrificed, an oath was taken, and Boukman and the priestess exhorted the listeners to take revenge against their French oppressors and "[c]ast aside the image of the God of the oppressors." [9]

According to Gothenburg University researcher Markel Thylefors, "The event of the Bois Caïman ceremony forms an important part of Haitian national identity as it relates to the very genesis of Haiti."[10] This ceremony came to be characterized by various Christian sources as a "pact with the devil" that began the Haitian Revolution.[11]

According to the Encyclopedia of African Religion, "Blood from the animal was given in a drink to the attendees to seal their fates in loyalty to the cause of liberation of Saint-Domingue."[12] A week later, 1800 plantations had been destroyed and 1000 slaveholders killed.[13][14] Boukman was not the first to attempt a slave uprising in Saint-Domingue, as he was preceded by others, such as Padrejean in 1676, and François Mackandal in 1757. However, his large size, warrior-like appearance, and fearsome temper made him an effective leader and helped spark the Haitian Revolution.[15]

Legacy and Reference in Popular Culture[edit]

  • The band Boukman Eksperyans was named after him.
  • A fictionalized version of Boukman appears as the title character in American writer Guy Endore's novel Babouk, an anti-capitalist parable about the Haitian Revolution.
  • Haitians honored Boukman by admitting him into the pantheon of loa (guiding spirits).[16]
  • The Boukman ("Bouckmann") uprising is retold in the Lance Horner book The Black Sun.
  • "The Bookman" is one of several devil masquerade characters still performed in Trinidad Carnival.
  • Haitian community activist Sanba Boukman, assassinated on 9 March 2012, took his name from Boukman.
  • In the 2014 film Top Five, the main character, André Allen (played by Chris Rock), is in the midst of a promotional tour for a Boukman biopic called Uprize.[17]
  • In the Edwidge Danticat short story A Wall of Fire Rising, the character of Little Guy is cast as Boukman in his school play.
  • In Grimm (TV series), the episode titled "The Waking Dead" features a version of Boukman (referred as Baron Samedi), who is played by Reg E. Cathey.

Pat Robertson's "Pact with the Devil" allegation[edit]

In the wake of the 2010 Haiti earthquake, veteran Christian radio and television personality Pat Robertson claimed that Haiti had been "cursed by one thing after another" since the late 18th century and, in an apparent reference to the Bois Caïman ceremony, revived the allegation that Haitians had sworn a "pact to the devil."[18][19] This view was criticized by urban legend expert Rich Buehler, who claimed that Robertson's statement was incorrect on a variety of historical points, and propagated a common claim that vodou is Satanic in nature.[20]

Several Mainline and evangelical[21] Christian voices criticized Robertson's remarks as misleading, untimely and insensitive.[22][23][24][25]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sylviane Anna Diouf, Servants of Allah p.152
  2. ^ Sylviane Anna Diouf and Sylviane Kamara. Servants of Allah: African Muslims Enslaved in the AmericasNew York University Press, 1998, p. 153
  3. ^ Edmonds, Ennis B.; Gonzalez, Michelle A. (2010-06-01). Caribbean Religious History: An Introduction. NYU Press. ISBN 9780814722503. 
  4. ^ Girard, Philippe R. (2010). "Haitian Revolution". In Leslie, Alexander. Encyclopedia of African American History. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9781851097692. 
  5. ^ Poujol-Oriol, Paulette (2005). "Boukman". In Appiah, Kwame Antony; Gates, Henry Louis, Jr. Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195170559. 
  6. ^ Sylviane Anna Diouf and Sylviane Kamara. Servants of Allah: African Muslims Enslaved in the AmericasNew York University Press, 1998, p. 153
  7. ^ Dubois, Laurent. Avengers of the New World (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 2004), 101.
  8. ^ Sylviane Anna Diouf, Servants of Allah p.152
  9. ^ Charles Arthur and Michael Dash (eds.) Libète: A Haiti Anthology (Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener Publishers, 1999), 36.
  10. ^ Thylefors, Markel (March 2009) "'Our Government is in Bwa Kayiman:' a Vodou Ceremony in 1791 and its Contemporary Signifcations" Archived 22 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Stockholm Review of Latin American Studies, Issue No. 4
  11. ^ Lowell Ponte Haiti: Victim of Clinton's Old Black Magic FrontPage Magazine 20 February 2004
  12. ^ Molefi Kete Asante and Ama Mazama. Encyclopedia of African religion, Volume 1 Sage Publications, p. 131.
  13. ^ Sylviane Anna Diouf, Servants of Allah p. 152
  14. ^ John Mason. African Religions in The Caribbean: Continuity and Change
  15. ^ John K. Thornton. I Am the Subject of the King of Congo: African Political Ideology and the Haitian Revolution. Millersville University of Pennsylvania
  16. ^ Haitian Bicentennial Committee Archived 26 August 2007 at the Wayback Machine. (2004)
  17. ^ Orr, Niela. Critic's Notebook: Hollywood, Obama and the Boxing-In of Black Achievers ‘‘The Hollywood Reporter’’. December 18, 2014.
  18. ^ "Pat Robertson calls quake 'blessing in disguise'". The Washington Post. 13 January 2010. 
  19. ^ Robertson statement
  20. ^ Ireland, Michael (17 January 2010). "Urban Legend Expert Debunks Haitian ‘Pact with the Devil‘". ASSIST News Service. Archived from the original on 21 January 2010. Retrieved 5 April 2010. 
  21. ^ "Pat Robertson on Disasters: Consistently Wrong" Thursday, 14 January 2010, 1:01 PM by John Mark Reynolds
  22. ^ [1] Denny Burk - Associate Professor of New Testament and Dean of Boyce College (undergraduate arm of the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary) in Louisville, Kentucky
  23. ^ https://twitter.com/albertmohler/status/7724222162
  24. ^ http://weblogs.baltimoresun.com/news/faith/2010/01/guest_post_a_message_for_pat_r.html
  25. ^ http://pastorchrisowens.wordpress.com/2010/01/14/my-two-words-for-pat-robertson-shut-up/
  • For an insightful article on the function of religion in the Haitian Revolution, see “The Rhetoric of Prayer: Dutty Boukman, The Discourse of “Freedom from Below,” and the Politics of God” by Celucien L. Joseph, Journal of Race, Ethnicity, and Religion 2:9 (June 2011):1-33.

External links[edit]

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