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Edna Manley
Edna Manley
Published: 2014/06/09
Channel: Modern News
Kumina - Edna Manley College
Kumina - Edna Manley College
Published: 2011/09/12
Channel: desianb
Folk Dance | Edna Manley School of Dance, Jamaica
Folk Dance | Edna Manley School of Dance, Jamaica
Published: 2016/07/20
Channel: some mixed girl
Campus Vybz-Edna Manley 2015 03 27 SD PRT 2
Campus Vybz-Edna Manley 2015 03 27 SD PRT 2
Published: 2015/03/31
Channel: BOJ TV
Edna Manley Summer Programme 2017!
Edna Manley Summer Programme 2017!
Published: 2017/05/03
Channel: Edna Manley College EMCVPA
Christophe on Drums lunch hour concert
Christophe on Drums lunch hour concert
Published: 2012/10/06
Channel: Christophe Smith
AMAZING HEAD TO HEAD DRUM-OFF @ EDNA MANLEY SCHOOL OF MUSIC
AMAZING HEAD TO HEAD DRUM-OFF @ EDNA MANLEY SCHOOL OF MUSIC
Published: 2010/11/19
Channel: william Stewart
Art in Jamaica: KEMAR SWABY, Edna Manley School Class of 2010
Art in Jamaica: KEMAR SWABY, Edna Manley School Class of 2010
Published: 2011/03/17
Channel: beautyfullone01
Edna Manley Summer School
Edna Manley Summer School
Published: 2012/07/28
Channel: carleen2b
Edna Manley College final year show 2017 | Roaming yardy
Edna Manley College final year show 2017 | Roaming yardy
Published: 2017/06/14
Channel: Roaming Yardy
Edna Manley, Drum, Drummers, Drumming in Room 13
Edna Manley, Drum, Drummers, Drumming in Room 13
Published: 2013/11/13
Channel: Shalisha Turps
Edna Manley Summer School
Edna Manley Summer School
Published: 2012/07/28
Channel: carleen2b
Rico
Rico's Final year show ( Edna Manley school of music )
Published: 2011/12/12
Channel: cjfacey
The Aces dc at Edna manley .wmv
The Aces dc at Edna manley .wmv
Published: 2010/03/28
Channel: ACES946
Sunday Morning (Cover) - Edna Manley College (with Bass Solo)
Sunday Morning (Cover) - Edna Manley College (with Bass Solo)
Published: 2010/05/12
Channel: dabossfalyfe
Edna Manley concert performance 2016
Edna Manley concert performance 2016
Published: 2016/07/28
Channel: Andre Sinclair
Afia teaches Dance @ Edna Manley School for Performing Arts, 2014
Afia teaches Dance @ Edna Manley School for Performing Arts, 2014
Published: 2014/12/05
Channel: Afia Walking Tree
Edna Manley College Of The Visual & Performing Arts
Edna Manley College Of The Visual & Performing Arts
Published: 2016/03/11
Channel: Yello Media Group
Campus Vybz Throwback Edna Manley 2015 05 29 SD PRT 3
Campus Vybz Throwback Edna Manley 2015 05 29 SD PRT 3
Published: 2015/06/12
Channel: BOJ TV
Edna Manley Final Year Exhibition 2017
Edna Manley Final Year Exhibition 2017
Published: 2017/07/04
Channel: Panmedia Limited
Raging Fyah - Live at Edna Manley Part 1
Raging Fyah - Live at Edna Manley Part 1
Published: 2011/10/12
Channel: Raging Fyah
Edna Manley College School of Music Steel/Pan Band Orchestra
Edna Manley College School of Music Steel/Pan Band Orchestra
Published: 2014/04/16
Channel: Shalisha Turps
Ibo Cooper and Friends live at the Edna Manley College School Of Music 2011
Ibo Cooper and Friends live at the Edna Manley College School Of Music 2011
Published: 2011/10/22
Channel: Kenroy Mullings
Jammin Bob
Jammin Bob's Marley Heathen on Drums @Edna Manley College Rm 12
Published: 2016/02/13
Channel: RootsPercussionist
Natorialist- Your thoughts? The 2013 Edna Manley College Final Year Visual Arts Exhibition
Natorialist- Your thoughts? The 2013 Edna Manley College Final Year Visual Arts Exhibition
Published: 2013/07/10
Channel: Natorialist
EDNA MANLEY DRAMA SCHOOL FINAL YEAR SHOW HIGHLIGHT(short version)
EDNA MANLEY DRAMA SCHOOL FINAL YEAR SHOW HIGHLIGHT(short version)
Published: 2015/06/07
Channel: Hybrid Media Conceptsja
EarthKry Interview "Edna Manley College the music factory of Jamaica"
EarthKry Interview "Edna Manley College the music factory of Jamaica"
Published: 2017/10/12
Channel: I NEVER KNEW TV
Raging Fyah - Live @ Edna Manley College. Step outta babylon/Irie Vibe.
Raging Fyah - Live @ Edna Manley College. Step outta babylon/Irie Vibe.
Published: 2011/10/19
Channel: Raging Fyah
My Edna Manley audition piece
My Edna Manley audition piece
Published: 2017/06/06
Channel: Jevoy Morgan
Edna Manley Jamaica Open Day Concert 2013
Edna Manley Jamaica Open Day Concert 2013
Published: 2013/04/11
Channel: stewie T
Edna Manley College summer school concert 2017
Edna Manley College summer school concert 2017
Published: 2017/08/02
Channel: Jamaica Life Media
Supligen Dancin Dynamites 2017 Auditions #3 - Edna Manley College
Supligen Dancin Dynamites 2017 Auditions #3 - Edna Manley College
Published: 2017/02/01
Channel: Esirom
Afia Walking Tree Teaches Dance at Edna Manley Sch For Performing Arts
Afia Walking Tree Teaches Dance at Edna Manley Sch For Performing Arts
Published: 2015/01/19
Channel: Afia Walking Tree
Edna Manley concert performance #2
Edna Manley concert performance #2
Published: 2016/07/28
Channel: Andre Sinclair
Romaine Motion Video : 1080 HD Edna Manley Time - Based Media
Romaine Motion Video : 1080 HD Edna Manley Time - Based Media
Published: 2013/10/04
Channel: Remliel Astro
Raging Fyah Live @ Edna Manley College Part 2. Far Away/Running Away/Judgement Day.
Raging Fyah Live @ Edna Manley College Part 2. Far Away/Running Away/Judgement Day.
Published: 2011/10/19
Channel: Raging Fyah
Edna Manley College of Arts Concert
Edna Manley College of Arts Concert
Published: 2016/11/07
Channel: Anthony Watson
Edna Manley Artscope 2009 - Piece 1
Edna Manley Artscope 2009 - Piece 1
Published: 2009/08/03
Channel: parseerror
Edna manley 2 Beres Hammond, SIzzla, Jr. Reid...m4v
Edna manley 2 Beres Hammond, SIzzla, Jr. Reid...m4v
Published: 2011/02/25
Channel: Genis Trani
Third year Recital at Edna Manley- Pianist- Jordan Storer May 8th 2017
Third year Recital at Edna Manley- Pianist- Jordan Storer May 8th 2017
Published: 2017/05/17
Channel: Storex Music
Patrick Baker   Edna Manley
Patrick Baker Edna Manley
Published: 2014/03/29
Channel: The Jamaica National Group
Anna- Kaye Morris, Lunch Hour, Edna Manley College
Anna- Kaye Morris, Lunch Hour, Edna Manley College
Published: 2013/09/29
Channel: OMtNI
Edna Manley College - Inansi
Edna Manley College - Inansi
Published: 2013/07/03
Channel: Panmedia Limited
Natorialist- Edna Manley College- Final Year Exhibition 2013 TRAILER
Natorialist- Edna Manley College- Final Year Exhibition 2013 TRAILER
Published: 2013/06/06
Channel: Natorialist
Saadaring - Jolly Boys at Edna Manley College
Saadaring - Jolly Boys at Edna Manley College
Published: 2013/08/27
Channel: JollyBoysMusic
PAUL BOGLE GRANDSON REVEALS THE MYSTERY OF EDNA MANLEY
PAUL BOGLE GRANDSON REVEALS THE MYSTERY OF EDNA MANLEY'S STATUE.
Published: 2016/10/25
Channel: Claude Sinclair
EDNA MANLEY PIANO PERFORMANCE
EDNA MANLEY PIANO PERFORMANCE
Published: 2013/04/25
Channel: Phillip Williams
Foolin around in class Pt.4 (Edna Manley Dance Studio)
Foolin around in class Pt.4 (Edna Manley Dance Studio)
Published: 2010/07/17
Channel: XxTicaBebeXx
Edna Manley Drawing Class Crit.
Edna Manley Drawing Class Crit.
Published: 2011/10/31
Channel: HMyreO Reid
Reajhaun
Reajhaun 'Dixie' Baptiste 1st Lunch Hour Concert @ Edna Manley
Published: 2011/03/19
Channel: futureworldpromo
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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The Most Honourable
Edna Swithenbank Manley
OM
Negro Aroused on waterfront.jpg
The sculpture Negro Aroused by Edna Manley on Kingston Waterfront
Born (1900-03-01)1 March 1900
Bournemouth, England
Died 2 February 1987(1987-02-02) (aged 86)
Spouse(s) Norman Manley (1921-1969)

Edna Swithenbank Manley, OM (1 March 1900 – 2 February 1987) was a sculptor and contributor to Jamaican culture. She was the wife of Norman Manley, the founder of the Jamaican People's National Party. She is often considered the "mother of Jamaican art".[1]

Early life and education[edit]

Edna Manley was the daughter of English cleric Harvey Swithenbank and his Jamaican wife, Ellie Shearer. Her father died when Edna was nine, leaving his widow to raise their nine children by herself. Edna Manley was highly independent and spirited. She attended several art schools in a two-year period, as she sensed that these schools were incredibly limited in what they offered.

As a young woman, she took private art classes with the artist Maurice Harding. She went on to continue her art studies at the Regent Street Polytechnic as well as the Saint Martin's School of Art in London.

In 1921, she married her cousin, Norman Manley, and moved to Jamaica with him in 1922. They had two children, Michael Manley (a future prime minister) and Douglas Manley, a sociologist and minister in his brother's government.

Artistic life[edit]

The Diggers by Manley

Her move to Jamaica had a profound impact on her work. She abandoned studying zoology back in London, and her work took on a more "inspired formal elegance", according to Boxer. Manley's materials consisted mostly of native woods—she used yakka, mahogany, Guatemalan redwood, juniper cedar, and primavera. Some work dating from her first year on the island are "Beadseller", and "Listener". In describing "Beadseller", Boxer said, "It was as if in one fell swoop, nearly a hundred years of sculptural development had been bridged: in this, her first work done in Jamaica, Edna seems to have given expression to her ideas about contemporary British sculpture with which she had saturated herself prior to leaving England." Both pieces exhibited Manley's more progressive and cubist style.

Between 1925 and 1929, Manley softened some of her geometric forms, replacing them with more massive, rounded ones. Her son Michael was born during this time. "Market Women", a study of two voluptuous women sitting back to back, and "Demeter", a carving of the mythical Earth Mother, are indicative of Manley's late-1920s influence. The 1930s saw another change in her sculptural style. She tamed her early-1920s cubist lines with rounder influences, and produced a new, definitive style that lasted into the 1940s.

Jamaica was facing many political changes during the late 1930s and early 1940s. Members of the African diaspora were looking to do away with the aging colonial system that remained on the island. They were ready for a new social order, and voiced their displeasure with the colonial system by incurring strikes (along with riots), instigating food shortages, and promoting protest marches. Manley's work of the time reflected this civil unrest. Works like "Prophet", "Diggers", "Pocomania", and "Negro Aroused" "caught the inner spirit of our people and flung their rapidly rising resentment of the stagnant colonial order into vivid, appropriate sculptural forms," wrote poet M. G. Smith.

Her works were exhibited very frequently in England between 1927 and 1980. Her first solo exhibition in Jamaica was in 1937. The show marked a turning point in Jamaica's undeveloped art movement, and it prompted the first island-wide group show of Jamaican artists. Manley was also one of the founders of the new Jamaica School of Art. After premiering in Jamaica, her show opened in England, where it was received with much fanfare. It was the last time Manley's work would be shown in London for nearly 40 years.

Active for much of her life as an artist, she also taught at the Jamaica School of Art, now a component of the Edna Manley College of Visual and Performing Arts.

"Negro Aroused" - the art piece[edit]

While she was at London, Manley had discovered that the people of Jamaica had collected the money to buy her piece "Negro Aroused". Individuals pitched in whatever they could afford, purchasing the piece to begin a national art collection. She was highly moved by this act, partly because she claimed that it was such a difficult piece for her to create: "Negro Aroused,...was trying to create a national vision, and it nearly killed me, it was trying to put something into being that was bigger than myself and almost other than myself," Manley told Sculpture Review.

The original sculpture of "Negro Aroused" was created in 1935 and was first exhibited in 1937. From its exposure, "Negro Aroused" excited the public's imagination; it was acquired by public subscription and presented to the Institute of Jamaica to form a nucleus for an upcoming exhibition.

In 1977, work began to enlarge the sculpture and to create a monument to the workers of Jamaica and the Worker's Movement that was born in 1938. Edna Manley was commissioned to recreate the work in bronze, at a scale three to four times that of the original. She was assisted by several young sculptors. Prior to being shipped to New York for bronzing, the seven-foot version was destroyed in a warehouse fire.

In 1982, Manley produced a third version, closer in size to the original, but it incorporated some subtle changes she had introduced in the destroyed sculpture.

In 1991, the sculpture was posthumously enlarged by utilizing the "scaling up" technique of bronze foundries for the enlargement of a sculpture. The third version was selected because it was closer in size to the destroyed version. The cost was met by public subscription.

Politics and art[edit]

Norman Manley entered politics, and founded the People's National Party in 1938. Although Edna Manley was hesitant at first, she quickly accepted her husband's place—and her own—in Jamaican politics. She also designed The Rising Sun logo for the People's National Party. The beginning of Jamaica's new government-—and the fall of colonialism-—was reflected in Manley's work, which at the time dealt with the cyclical, birth-and-death themes of the sun and moon. Her work was also heavily influenced by the nature that surrounded her at Nomdmi, the mountain retreat she had built with her husband.

The 1950s and 1960s were quiet times for Manley as an artist. Her husband became more involved with politics, becoming the chief minister of Jamaica in 1955. Manley's responsibilities as the wife of a politician left little time for art. In 1958, she designed the Flag of the West Indies Federation. In 1965, she created a statue of Paul Bogle to commemorate his partaking in Jamaica's Morant Bay Rebellion. The statue was highly controversial because it was inherently the very first Jamaican public statue that depicted a black man. Manley also returned, in her personal carvings, to the animal sculptures that she did as a young woman.

In 1969, Edna's husband (Norman Manley) had been laid to rest. He had helped Jamaica to achieve total independence from Britain and self-government by 1962. Manley's carvings during this period were very personal—-reflections on her husband's death, her pain, and sense of loss. She retreated to the mountains and created "Adios," a piece interpreted as lovers in a last embrace, and "Woman," an agonized woman in reclusion. The end of this grieving period was marked by her creation of the triumphant "Mountain Women". She had accepted the loss of her husband. "I felt that because my roots were here in Jamaica, I could survive," she told Americas.[clarification needed] "It was my return to the world after that period of intense grief."

After creating several more profound carvings, including "Faun", "Message" and "Journey", Manley gave her carving tools away to a young Jamaican sculptor and declared that she would never work with wood again. Instead, she worked with modeled terracotta or plaster casts. During the 1970s, the major themes of Manley's work were expressions of her "grandmother," or "old woman" image, of matriarchal society, and memories of her life with her husband Norman.

Manley continued to sculpt until her death in 1987. Although a great deal of her work was intensely personal, she created a body of sculpture that embodies Jamaican culture and spirit. English novelist Sir Hugh Walpole, a collector of her work, spoke at the opening of her 1937 London show. "There is a very strange and curious spirit there and Mrs. Manley has got within that strange spirit," he remarked. "There is in Jamaica a beauty that finds its expression through her, that comes partly from the Jamaican material she uses, partly from her own individuality, and partly also, I think, from the sort of sense of beauty that the different people of Jamaica themselves possess." For Manley, expressing the beauty of Jamaica was second nature. "I carve as a Jamaican for Jamaica," she told Americas, "trying to understand our problems and living near to the heart of our people."

Death[edit]

When Edna Manley died in 1987, she was accorded an official funeral and buried in the tomb of Norman Manley at the National Heroes Park, her work having earned her the unofficial title of "Mother of Jamaican Art".

Edna Manley College of the Visual & Performing Arts[edit]

Formerly the Jamaican School of Art, the school was renamed the Edna Manley College of the Visual & Performing Arts in 1995. The renaming of the institution was part of its reclassification as a tertiary institution. Edna Manley was selected in part because of her contributions to Jamaica's art, which included co-founding the school in 1950.

Works[edit]

Her works include: "Whisper"; "Into The Mist", "Before Thought ", "Moon", "Eve (Ceremonial Dance)",[2] "Into The Sun", "Growth", "The Ancestor", "The Mother", "Negro Aroused", "Pocomania", "Diggers", "Man and Woman", "Bead Sellers ", "The Trees are Joyful", "Rainbow Serpent", "Rising Sun", "Prophet", "Ghetto Mother", "Mountain Women" and others mentioned above.

Awards[edit]

Manley received numerous awards including:

Diaries[edit]

Her granddaughter Rachel Manley edited her diaries which were published in 1998.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ https://www.jstor.org/pss/1358304
  2. ^ Sheffield's Collections: Edna Manley.
  3. ^ Edna Manley: the Diaries; edited by Rachel Manley. London: André Deutsch, 3010 ISBN 0-233-98427-5

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