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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Top-selling light-duty EV global markets by country or region as of December 2016.[1]

Electric car use by country is a measure of the adoption of electric vehicles around the world. The popularity of electric vehicles has been expanding rapidly due to their increased acceleration and range, government subsidies and environmental sensitivity. Electric vehicles (EVs) are divided into battery electric vehicles (BEVs) that run only on batteries and plug-in hybrids that combine battery power with internal combustion engines (PHEVs). As of the end of 2016:

  • Cumulative sales of highway legal EVs reached 2 million units, of which 38% were sold in 2016.[1]
  • Sales of light-duty EVs achieved a 0.86% market share of new car sales, up from 0.62% in 2015 and 0.38% in 2014.[2]
  • The global ratio between battery BEVs and PHEVs was 61:39,[2] up from 59:41 at the end of 2015.[3]
  • Cumulative sales of PHEVs totaled almost 800,000 units.[2]

Adoption of electric vehicles varied by country, affected by consumer demand, market prices and incentives. As of 2016:

  • China had the largest stock of highway legal light-duty plug-ins with cumulative sales of more than 645,000 EVs[1][4] or 43.0% of the global stock.[5] China's EV bus market reached 173,000 vehicles in 2015[3]
  • More than 637,000 light-duty passenger EVs had been registered in Europe, representing 31.4% of global sales. Sales in the European light-duty EV segment were led by Norway (135,000 units), followed by the Netherlands (113,000) and France (108,000).[1]
  • Norway had the highest market penetration per capita in the world, as well as the largest EV segment market share of new car sales (29.1%) with 135,000 plug-ins.[1] 5% of all vehicles on Norwegian roads were plug-ins.[5] Iceland had 9% EV penetration (as of July 2017). France was the largest European market for light-duty electric commercial vehicles or utility vans, forming almost half the market.[6] Denmark, witnessed its EV market penetration plunge to 0.1% as of July 2017 due to the end of subsidies.[7]
Comparison of concentration of registered EV cars per 1,000 people among top selling PEV countries and California, as of December 2016.

History[edit]

The global stock of plug-in vehicles between 2005 and 2009 consisted exclusively of BEV cars, totaling about 1,700 units in 2005, and almost 6,000 in 2009. The plug-in stock rose to about 12,500 units in 2010, of which 350 were PHEVs.[3][9] By comparison, during the Golden Age of the electric car at the beginning of the 20th century, the EV stock peaked at approximately 30,000 vehicles.[10] After the introduction of the Nissan Leaf and the Chevrolet Volt in late December 2010, the first mass-production EVs by major manufacturers, EV sales grew to about 50,000 units in 2011, to 125,000 in 2012, and almost 213,000 cars and utility vans in 2013. Sales totaled over 315,000 units in 2014, up 48% from 2013.[11] In March 2014, Norway became the first country where over 1 in every 100 passenger cars on the roads was a plug-in.

In five years, global sales of highway legal light-duty plug-in vehicles increased more than ten-fold, totaling more than 565,000 units in 2015 - an 80% increase from 2014, driven mainly by China and Europe.[11] About 775,000 EVs and vans were sold in 2016;[1] the global market share of the new light-duty plug-in segment reached 0.86% of in 2016, up from 0.62% in 2015 and 0.38% in 2014.[2]

Annual sales of light-duty plug-in vehicles in the world's top markets between 2011 and 2016.[11][5]
Date Milestone
1996 General Motors EV1[12]
1997 Toyota RAV4 EV[13]
December 2008 100th Tesla Roadster delivered[14]
December 2010 Nissan Leaf and Chevrolet Volt deliveries began[15]
December 2012 Annual global sales passed the 100,000 mark[3][11]
March 2014 Norway achieves 1% of cars as plug-ins[16]
December 2014 100,000th EV sold in Japan[3][17]
September 2015 Global EV sales passed 1 million units.[18]
December 2015 Annual global sales passed the 500,000 mark[3][11]
3% of passenger cars on Norwegian roads are plug-ins[19]
March 2016 500,000th new energy vehicle sold in China[20] (includes heavy-duty commercial vehicles)
200,000th EV sold in California[21]
100,000th EV sold in Norway[22]
May 2016 Global EV sales passed 1.5 million units[23]
500,000th EV sold in Europe[24]
August 2016 500,000th EV sold in the US[25]
September 2016 500,000th new energy passenger car sold in China[26]
Global BEV car/van sales passed 1 million.[27]
October 2016 100,000th EV sold in France[28][29]
November 2016 100,000th EV sold in the Netherlands[30]
December 2016 Global EV sales passed 2 million units[1]
5% of passenger cars on Norwegian roads are plug-ins[5]

Statistics[edit]

Light-duty EV stock and PEV market share of total new car sales
in the top ten PEV selling countries as of December 2015
Country PEV stock(1) PEV market share Sales
since
2015[31] 2014[32] 2013[33] 2015[31] 2014[32] 2013[33]
 United States ~410,000 291,332 172,000 0.66% 0.72% 0.62% 2008(2)
 China 258,328 83,198[17] 28,619 0.84%[34] 0.23% 0.08% 2008(2)
 Japan(4) 126,420[3] 108,248[17] 74,124 n.a. 1.06% 0.85% 2009(3)
 Netherlands 88,991 45,020[35] 28,673 9.74% 3.87% 5.37% 2009(3)
 Norway(5) 84,401[36][37] 43,442 20,486 22.39% 13.84% 5.60% 2003(3)
 France 74,294 43,605(6) 28,560(6) 1.2% 0.70% 0.65% 2010(3)
 United Kingdom 53,524 ~24,500[38] 9,982[38][39] 1.1% 0.59%[39] 0.16%[39] 2006(3)
 Germany 48,669[31][32] 25,205[40][41] 12,156[41] 0.73%[42] 0.43% 0.25% 2006(2)
 Canada 17,058[43] 10,658[44] 5,596[44] 0.35%[43] 0.27%[44] 0.18%[44] 2011(2)
 Sweden 16,996[32][45] 8,076[46] 3,138[46] 2.49%[45] 1.53%[47] 0.57% 2011(3)
Global Total
(since 2003)
1,235,000[31] 712,000[32] 405,000[32]
Light-duty EV stock and PEV market share of total new car sales
in selected regional markets
 Europe(7) 425,849[48][49][50] 233,022[48] n.a. 1.41%[49] 0.66%[51] 0.49%[52] 2010(2)
 California[53][54] 191,650 129,484 69,999 3.1% 3.2% 2.5% 2010(2)
EV stock for all class segments in China[55][56][57][58][59]
 China 444,447 113,355 38,592 2011(8)
Notes

(1) EV stock only includes cumulative sales or registrations of highway legal light-duty vehicles except where noted.
(2) Only includes passenger EVs. (3) Includes passenger EVs and BEV utility vans.
(4) Kei cars are not included for the Japanese market share estimate.[33] (5) Includes registrations of used imports.
(6) French registrations do not include PHEVs, which were accounted together with regular hybrids (HEVs).[60]
(7) European figures correspond to European Union member countries plus two EFTA countries (Norway and Switzerland)
(8) Includes passenger EVs and heavy-duty commercial vehicles such as buses and trucks.


Top 10 countries by passenger EV market share of total new car sales between 2017 and 2013
Rank 2017 (July)[7][61] 2016[5][62] 2015[31][63] 2014[32] 2013[64]
Country Market
share (%)
Country Market
share (%)
Country Market
share (%)
Country Market
share (%)
Country Market
share (%)
1  Norway 34.7 %  Norway 29.1 %  Norway 22.39 %  Norway 13.84 %  Norway 6.10 %
2  Iceland 9.0 %  Netherlands 6.4 %  Netherlands 9.74 %  Netherlands 3.87 %  Netherlands 5.55%
3  Sweden 4.3 %  Iceland 4.6 %  Iceland[65] 2.93 %  Iceland[66] 2.71%  Iceland 0.94%
4  Belgium 2.3 %  Sweden 3.5 %  Sweden 2.62 %  Estonia[66] 1.57 %  Japan 0.91%
5   Switzerland 2.0 %   Switzerland 1.8 %  Denmark 2.29 %  Sweden[47] 1.53 %  France(2) 0.83%
6  Finland 2.0 %  Belgium 1.8 %   Switzerland 1.98 %  Japan 1.06 %  Estonia 0.73 %
7  Luxembourg 1.8 %  Austria 1.6 %  France 1.19 %  Denmark[67] 0.88%  Sweden[47] 0.71%
8  Netherlands 1.7 %  France 1.4 %  UK 1.07 %   Switzerland[68] 0.75 %  USA 0.60%
9  UK 1.7 %  UK 1.37 %  Austria[69] 0.90 %  USA 0.72 %   Switzerland 0.44%
10  France,  China 1.5 %  China 1.31 %  China[34] 0.84 %  France(2) 0.70%  Denmark 0.29%
Selected regional markets or autonomous territories
passenger EV market share between 2016 and 2013
 Hong Kong ~5 %  Hong Kong[70] 4.84 %  Hong Kong -  Hong Kong[70] 0.39%
 California[71] 3.5 %  California[54] 3.1 %  California[54] 3.2%  California[54] 2.5%
 Europe(1)[72] 1.3 %  Europe(1)[49] 1.41 %  Europe(1)[51] 0.66 %  Europe(1)[52] 0.49%
Notes: (1) European figures correspond to European Union member countries plus two EFTA countries (Norway and Switzerland)
2) The French market share corresponds to combined sales BEV passenger cars and utility vans only (PHEVs not included).


European countries by passenger EV total sales[7]
Country July '17 July '17 YTD July '16 YTD Growth (July '16-17) Growth (July YTD '16-17) 2017 BEV % of total PEVs July '17 PEV market share
 Norway 3968 31063 25045 34 % 24 % 53 % 34.7 %
 Germany 4211 26236 12005 142 % 119 % 45 % 1.3 %
 UK 3499 26928 22932 33 % 17 % 32 % 1.7 %
 France 1483 19941 17727 -6 % 12 % 73 % 1.5 %
 Sweden 1174 9413 6881 19 % 37 % 25 % 4.3 %
 Belgium 1179 8624 5276 118 % 63 % 18 % 2.3 %
 Austria 562 3928 2790 104 % 41 % 81 % 1.8 %
 Spain 608 3096 2066 141 % 50 % 49 % 0.4 %
 Netherlands 442 4375 5357 -43 % -18 % 84 % 1.7 %
 Italy 409 2675 1629 127 % 64 % 41 % 0.2 %
  Switzerland 365 3622 2896 4 % 25 % 61 % 2.0 %
 Portugal 377 2062 1000 155 % 106 % 46 % 1.4 %
 Iceland 335 1434 483 242 % 197 % 35 % 9.0 %
 Finland 233 1491 790 122 % 89 % 21 % 2.0 %
 Ireland 134 658 549 19 % 20 % 70 % 0.6 %
 Luxembourg 99 604 170 890 % 255 % 36 % 1.8 %
 Czech Republic 48 340 167 71 % 104 % 59 % 0.2 %
 Poland 27 290 143 80 % 103 % 82 % 0.1 %
 Slovenia 48 253 108 100 % 134 % 69 % 0.6 %
 Denmark 30 180 295 43 % -39 % 91 % 0.1 %
 Hungary 20 263 173 33 % 52 % 66 % 0.4 %
 Slovakia 22 202 22 633 % 818 % 51 % 0.4 %
 Romania 17 90 60 31 % 50 % 31 % 0.2 %
 Latvia N/A 56 30 N/A % 87 % 70 % 0.6 %
 Turkey 2 49 78 -92 % -37 % 69 % 0.0 %
 Greece 2 47 25 -50 % 88 % 23 % 0.1 %
 Estonia 7 42 53 133 % -21 % 48 % 0.3 %
 Cyprus N/A 37 23 N/A 61 % 73 % 0.4 %
 Lithuania 9 35 60 125 % -42 % 69 % 0.2 %
 Croatia N/A 14 61 N/A -77 % 14 % 0.0 %
 Bulgaria N/A 3 5 N/A -40 % N/A 0.0 %
 Malta N/A N/A 17 N/A N/A N/A N/A

Australia[edit]

Beginning in mid-2009, a twelve-month field trial was conducted with the Mitsubishi i-MiEV with potential electric vehicle customers, such as government bodies and fleet operators.[73] The iMiEV remained the top selling electric vehicle in Australia through 2013.[74][75] The Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV, became Australia's top selling EV in 2014[76] and remained the leader into 2016 with 2,015 units sold since its introduction.[77] At the end of March 2015, Tesla Model S registrations totaled 119 in New South Wales and 54 in Victoria. Although no sales figures were reported for Tesla in other states, the combined sales of these two were enough for the Model S to rank as the top selling BEV car for the first quarter of 2015, ahead of the BMW i3 (46) and the Nissan Leaf (31).[78] As of December 2016, about 1,000 Leafs had been sold since its 2012 introduction .[79]

Chargepoint is the only major operator of a charging network in Australia.[80]

Belgium[edit]

Sales of electric cars rose from 97 units in 2009, to 116 in 2010, 425 in 2011, to 900 in 2012. Of the latter, only 350 units were sold to individuals.[81]

Government incentives[edit]

The Belgian government established purchase incentives for BEVs, ending in 2012.[82] Hybrids were not eligible.[83][84][85] A separate subsidy supported investments in public charging stations.[83]

Brazil[edit]

Nissan Leaf operating as a taxi at Santos Dumont airport as part of a demonstrations program in Rio de Janeiro.

As of September 2015 2,214 hybrid and electric vehicles were registered in the state of São Paulo[86] In March 2013, the first two Leafs were deployed in Rio de Janeiro to operate as taxis.[87] In September 2014 the BMW i3 became the first EV available for retail customers. As of June 2016, other retail plug-ins were the BMW i8 and the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV.[88]

Eco Vagas: parking spaces reserved for low emissions vehicles in Brasília.

Government incentives[edit]

Plug-ins and hybrids are subject to taxes adding up to more than 120% of the retail price.[89][90][91]

In May 2014 São Paulo City passed a municipal law to exempt EV, hybrids and fuel cell vehicles from the city's driving restriction scheme and purchase incentives.[92][86]

Canada[edit]

The Chevrolet Volt is the all-time top selling EV in Canada. Shown here is a fleet of Volts at a solar-powered charging station in Toronto.

Cumulative sales of EVs in Canada passed 20,000 units in May 2016.[93] The Chevrolet Volt was the top selling EV, with cumulative sales of 6,387 units through May 2015, representing over 30% of the total.[93][94][95]

Government incentives[edit]

Several electric cars charging in downtown Toronto. From farthest to closest, a Nissan Leaf, a Smart ED, and a Mitsubishi i MiEV.

Purchase and other incentives for new EVs were offered by the provinces of Ontario[96][97][98] Quebec[99][100][101] and British Columbia.[102][103]

In October 2016, Quebec passed legislation that obliges major carmakers to offer an increasing number of PHEV and BEV models, beginning with 3.5% in 2018 and rising to 15.5% in 2020, using a tradable credit system.

China[edit]

Sales of new energy vehicles in China by year between January 2011 and December 2016.[55][56][57][58][59][104]
As of December 2015, China ranked as the world's largest EV bus market with a stock of almost 173,000 vehicles.[3] Shown a BYD K9 bus in Shenzhen.
BYD e6 BEV taxi in Shenzhen, China.
The BYD Tang, released in June 2015, was the best-selling EV in China in 2016 with 31,405 units sold.[105]

EV sales totaled 951,447 units between January 2011 and December 2016. These figures include heavy-duty commercial vehicles such as buses and sanitation trucks.[4][104] Passenger EV from 2011-16 totaled 632,371 units.[3][106][107][4][108] [Figures in this section include only domestically-produced vehicles, except where noted]. Domestically-produced vehicles accounted for 96% of EV sales.[109] EVs included about 540,000 BEV vehicles (73.7%) and almost 193,000 PHEVs (26.3%).[20][110][111][112][113][114][115] Entry-level vehicles dominate the Chinese passenger EV market.[116]

about 289,000 vehicles were sold during the first nine months of 2016, up 100.6% year-on-year, consisting of 216,000 electrics and 73,000 plug-ins.[110][117] 209,359 passenger cars were sold in the first three quarters of 2016, up 122% year-on-year.[118] The plug-in segment totaled 1.08% of new car sales.[110][118]

Three BYD Auto models topped the Chinese ranking of best-selling new energy passenger cars in 2016. The BYD Tang PHEV SUV was the top selling EV (31,405), followed by the BYD Qin (21,868) and the BYD e6 (20,605).[105] Through 2016, the BYD Qin (68,655), remained the top selling plug-in.[119][120][121][105] BYD Auto was again the world's top selling plug-in manufacturer with over 100,000 units.[1][122] However, in terms of sales revenue, Tesla vehicle sales of US$6.35 billion topped BYD at US$3.88 billion.[123]

The global stock of EV buses was estimated to be about 173,000 units as of 2015, almost entirely in China. Of these, almost 150,000 were BEVs. The Chinese EV bus stock grew nearly sixfold over 2014.[3]

Government incentives[edit]

The Chinese government adopted in 2009 a plan to become one of the world leaders in producing EVs. The plan has four goals: create a world-leading industry; energy security; reduce urban air pollution; and to reduce carbon emissions.[124][125] In June 2012 the State Council published a plan to develop the domestic industry. The plan set a sales target of 500,000 new EVs by 2015 and 5 million by 2020.[126][127] Initial sales were much lower than expected, while most output was purchased for public fleets. New incentives were issued in 2014, with a sales target of 160,000 units for 2014.[128][129] This goal was also not achieved.

The Chinese government uses the term new energy vehicles (NEVs) to designate plug-ins and electrics. Only EVs are eligible for purchase incentives.[130] On June 1, 2010, the government announced a trial program to provide financial incentives in five cities.[131][132] A 2013 joint announcement by the National Development and Reform Commission and finance, science, and industry ministries offered a maximum of US$9,800 toward the purchase of a BEV passenger vehicle and up to US$81,600 for electric buses.[133]

In April 2016 the Traffic Management Bureau under the Ministry of Public Security announced special green license plates to facilitate preferential traffic policies.[134]

Chile[edit]

Mitsubishi i-MiEV in Chile

The Mitsubishi i-MiEV[135][136] was the first EV in Chile. The first public quick charging station was opened in April 2011.[137]

In August 2014 Mitsubishi replaced the i-Miev with the Outlander PHEV.[citation needed] Later that year BMW introduced their "i" range with the i3;[citation needed] Renault launched their Zero Emission (Z.E.) lineup, including the Fluence Z.E. sedan, the Kangoo utility van and Zoe city car. The French brand sold 22 electric vehicles in their first month in the Chilean market.[citation needed]

Colombia[edit]

The BEV Renault Twizy quadracycle is the top selling electric vehicle in Colombia.

South America's first BEV taxi fleet (made up of BYD e6) was launched at the beginning of 2013 in Bogotá. These taxis were exempted from the driving restriction scheme. The program is an effort to improve air quality and set an example.[138][139][140] In September 2013 45 taxis were delivered. The e6 fleet are part of Colombia's "BIOTAXIS Project."[141] Another three BYD e6s were sent to Colceincias, Bogota's Tech, Science and Innovation Administration.[140]

The BMW i3 was introduced in Colombia in 2014. The BEV Renault Twizy quadracycle was introduced in the Colombian market in June 2015.[142] Sales of the Outlander P-HEV were scheduled to begin in September 2015.[143]

As of June 2015, 126 EVs had been sold, mostly to corporate customers, and consisting of 43 BYD e6s (taxis), 35 Mitsubishi i-MiEVs, 25 BMW i3s, 19 Renault Twizys, and four Nissan Leafs.[143] 203 Twizys had been sold as of October 2015.[144]

Government incentives[edit]

In 2013 the government established promotional incentives. These include the exemption from the driving restriction scheme in place in Colombian cities such as Bogotá and Medellín. The government exempted BEV and PHEV cars from import duties for three years, with an annual quota of 750 cars of each type.[143]

Costa Rica[edit]

As of January 2015, the Costa Rican stock of electric drive vehicles consisted of 477 hybrid electric vehicles and 2,229 EVs. EV sales totaled 108 units in 2016.[145] The top selling model was the Outlander P-HEV with 60 units.[145]

In 2006 EVs were exempted from the consumption tax, while conventional vehicles faced a 30% rate. In October 2012, electric cars were exempted from San José's driving restriction.[146]

Mitsubishi i-MiEV purchased by the US embassy in Costa Rica.

The first electric car to go on sale was the REVAi, introduced in March 2009. The REVAi, powered by lead–acid batteries, sold 10 units.[147] The Mitsubishi i MiEV was launched in February 2011, with initial availability of 25 to 50 units.[148][149][150]

In January 2013 BYD Auto signed an agreement with the Costa Rican Ministry of Environment and Energy to deploy 200 BYD e6 electric cars for use as "green taxis." Retail sales of the BYD Qin plug-in began in Costa Rica in November.[151][152] Retail sales of the Outlander P-HEV began in March 2015.[153] The BMW i3 was released in September 2016.[154]

Government incentives[edit]

EVs were exempted from import duties and the government agreed to deploy charging stations in strategic locations in San José.[155]

Croatia[edit]

As of December 2016, 2067 electric cars had been sold in Croatia.[156][157] Of these, 224 were EVs, while the rest were hybrids.[156] As of September 2017, 201 free public charging stations operated in Croatia.[156]

Government incentives[edit]

In 2014 and 2015, the Croatian government initiated purchase incentives.[158][159] The subsidies were discontinued in 2016.[156]

Denmark[edit]

As of December 2015, around 4,000 electric cars had been sold in Denmark.[160] Denmark was the second largest European market for light-duty, plug-in commercial vehicles or utility vans, with over 2,600 plug-in vans sold that year, representing 8.5% of all vans sold . Most vans were PHEVs, accounting for almost all EU plug-in van sales.[6] As of July 2017, EV market penetration was around 0.1%.[7]

Government incentives[edit]

Denmark's numbers surged before the expiration of its purchase incentives, and plunged thereafter. In April 2017 the government announced a partial resumption of the credit,[161] while adding a new fund for fuel cell vehicles.

Estonia[edit]

Two Mitsubishi i-MiEVs in Estonia. The majority of electric cars in Estonia are i-MiEVs.

As of February 2015, 1,188 plug-in vehicles were registered.[citation needed]

Estonia was the first country to deploy an EV charging network with nationwide coverage, with fast chargers available along highways at a maximum distance of 40 to 60 km (25 to 37 mi).[162][163] As of December 2012, the nationwide network consisted of 165 fast chargers.[164][165][166]

In 2011, the government confirmed the sale to Mitsubishi of 10 million carbon dioxide credits in exchange for 507 i-MiEV electric cars. The deal included funding 250 fast charging stations and subsidies for the first 500 private buyers of any electric approved by the EU.[167][168] The first 50 i-MiEVs were delivered in October 2011, for use by municipal social workers.[169][170][171][172]

Government incentives[edit]

Estonia's figures are low compared to other advanced economies, attributed to lack of government incentives after the carbon credit scheme was exhausted.[173]

Finland[edit]

As of October 2016, about 2,250 EVs were registered.[174] Sales reached 854 in the first three quarters of 2016.[175] Plug-in sales were slowed over range concerns and high plug-in prices.[174]

In November 2016, the government set the goal of 250,000 plug-in cars and 50,000 biogas cars on the road by 2030.[174] These goals are part of the Finnish government efforts to comply with the 2015 Paris Agreement.[174]

Manufacturers[edit]

Many companies in Finland are involved in next-generation vehicle manufacturing, including Valmet Automotive (Fisker Karma and Garia A/S electric golf cart production)[176] Fortum (concept cars and infrastructure), Kabus[177] (hybrid buses; part of Koiviston Auto Oy), BRP Finland (part of Bombardier Recreational Products), Lynx (snowmobile), Patria (military vehicles), European Batteries[178] (Li-ion battery plant in Varkaus), Finnish Electric Vehicles[179] (battery control systems), ABB, Efore, Vacon (electric motor technology production), Ensto (production of charging units), Elcat (electric vehicle production since the 1980s), production of electric car accessories, Suomen Sähköauto Oy (produces small electric cars), Oy AMC Motors Ltd. (produces and designs small electric cars), Raceabout[180] (specialist electric sport car with very few sales), Gemoto skooters from Cabotec, Resonate's Gemini and Janus Scooters, Moto Bella Oy, Axcomotors, Randax and Visedo.

Research related to electric cars is in progress at the VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland and Tekes.[181]

Electric car organisations in Finland include the Electric Vehicle Association of Finland[permanent dead link] and Electric Vehicles Finland. A non-commercial electric car conversion organisation is called Electric Cars - Now![182] that converts Toyota Corollas into Li-ion battery-powered electric cars.

Infrastructure[edit]

Basic charging infrastructure is available all over Finland, used for winter engine pre-warming. Because of its climate – cold winters and warm summers – Finland is considered a convenient "test laboratory" for electric cars.

France[edit]

Registration of plug-in vehicles in France by type of vehicle between 2010 and 2016.[183][184][185][186][187][188][189][190][191][192]

As of December 2016 108,065 light-duty plug-in vehicles had been registered, with growth continuing since 2010.[1] As of September 2016, France had 61,686 electric cars, 24,696 electric utility vans and 12,857 PHEVs.[28]

The Bolloré Bluecar, deployed for the Parisian Autolib' carsharing program, led highway-capable electric car registrations in France in 2012.[193]
The Renault Kangoo Z.E. is the country's all-time top selling BEV utility vehicle with over 15,000 units registered through September 2016.[28]
The Renault Zoe has led electric car sales in France since 2013, and is the country's all-time best selling EV with more than 30,000 units registered through September 2016.[183]

BEV car registrations in 2015 continued to be led by the Renault Zoe,[183] the electric utility van segment was led by the Kangoo Z.E.[191] and the PHEV segment was led by the Volkswagen Golf GTE.[190]

The Renault Zoe continued as the top selling EV with 8,163 units in 2016.[183]

Government incentives[edit]

Electric cars equipped with a range extender, such as the BMW i3 REx, are entitled to the €6300 bonus if emitting between 21 and 60 g/km of CO2.

In 2008 France established a bonus-malus system offering a purchase incentive for low emission cars and a penalty fee (malus), for the purchase of high-emission vehicles.[194] In 2015 the government introduced an additional bonus for BEV car purchasers who scrapped a diesel-powered car in circulation before 1 January 2001. As of September 2016, the scrappage bonus haD been granted for more than 10,000 purchases.[195]

Germany[edit]

Annual registration of plug-in cars in Germany by type of vehicle between 2010 and 2016.[40][42][196][197][198][199]

As of September 2016, 66,674 plug-in cars had been registered in Germany since 2010.[200] The country is Europe's largest passenger car market, but ranks only fifth in EVs.[24][200] About 80% of the EVs registered through September 2016 were registered since 2014.[40][42][201] In 2013 Germany reclassified PHEVs as electrics rather than conventional hybrids. As a result, the registrations figures for 2012 and older do not account for PHEVs.[202] As of November 2014, the country had 4,800 public charging stations.[203]

As of December 2013, the Smart electric drive led the EV segment in Germany with 2,952 units registered.[41]

During the first three quarters of 2016, PHEVs sales first surpassed BEVs . 17,074 units were registered, consisting of 7,678 BEVs and 9,396 PHEVs.[201]

The top selling model in 2016 was the Renault Zoe (1,836).[204][205]

Government incentives[edit]

Under its National Plattform for Electric Mobility, Chancellor Angela Merkel in 2010 set the goal of putting one million electric vehicles on German roads by 2020.[206][207] Initially, the government did not provide subsidies in favor of research.[206] The Bundestag passed the Electric Mobility Act in March 2015 that authorized local government to grant non-monetary incentives. The measures privilege battery-powered cars, fuel cell vehicles and some PHEVs, by granting local governments the authority to offer additional incentives.[208][209][210][211]

The introduction of the purchase bonus noticeably impacted sales only in September 2016, when registrations grew to 3,061 units.[201]

The Tesla Model S, and other premium car with a purchase price over €60,000 (US$67,800) are not eligible to the purchase bonus.

An incentive scheme was approved in April 2016 including purchase subsidies, charging stations and another federal government fleet purchases, with a target of 400,000 electric vehicles. Premium cars, such as the Tesla Model S and BMW i8, were not eligible.[212][213][214]

As of September 2016, BMW, Citroën, Daimler, Ford, Hyundai, Kia, Mitsubishi, Nissan, Peugeot, Renault, Toyota, Volkswagen, and Volvo had signed up to participate in the scheme.[215][216] The online application system to claim the bonus went into effect on 2 July 2016.[217]

Hong Kong[edit]

Tesla Roadster charging at Central Star Ferry carpark in Hong Kong.

As of September 2016, 6,298 plug-in vehicles were on the roads in Hong Kong,[218] up from 3,253 in October 2015.[219] The plug-in segment market share achieved 4.8% of new car sales in Hong Kong in 2015.[218]

As of October 2015, more than 1,200 public electric vehicle charging points were available.[219] More than a dozen models were available for retail customers.[219]

Sales of electric cars took off in Hong Kong with the Tesla Model S in 2014.[220][221] The tax waiver made the Model S competitive in the luxury car segment, at about half the price of other high-end models.[220] According to Tesla, as of September 2016, Hong Kong had the world's highest density of Tesla superchargers, giving most Model S owners a supercharger within a 20-minute drive.[222]

Government incentives[edit]

The Government offered purchase incentives to consumers, businesses and service providers were available from 2011 to 2017. The Government further allocated HK$180 million for bus companies to purchase 36 electric buses.[219]

Hungary[edit]

In November, 2016 1,473 PEVs were registered in Hungary.

Government incentives[edit]

The Hungarian government introduced its e-mobility plan in March, 2014. The Jedlik plan supported the domestic production of electric vehicles, expanding the necessary infrastructure and promoting the purchase of EVs with public incentives,[223] including 1,5 million HUF, initiated at the end of 2016.

Iceland[edit]

By 2016 1.8% of new vehicle registrations were BEVs.[224] August 2017's registrations of new BEVs were 2.5 times higher than the previous August.[225] By July 2017 9% of new vehicle sales were EVs, placing Iceland solidly as the world's second largest country in terms of EV market penetration.[7]

As of 2017, Orka Náttúrunar (ON) was working to complete a network of 50 kW CCS Combo/CHAdeMO stations along the Ring Road. Iceland remains the only major EV market without a Tesla Supercharger network.[226]

Government incentives[edit]

The government eliminated VAT (24%) and CO2-based fees (up to 65%) on new car purchases for EVs.[227]

India[edit]

As of December 2015, over 6,000 plug-in cars were registered, consisting of 4,350 BEV cars and 1,660 PHEVs.[3]

The Mahindra Reva e2o electric car was introduced in March 2013. It operates on lithium ion batteries with 100 km range for 4 hours of charging. Other companies were involved in making electric bikes,[228] such as Hero[229] and Ampere.[229]

In 2016, a new car, the Mahindra e-Verito, introduced a sedan class Ev at a cost of 9 to 10 lakh Indian rupees ex showroom.[citation needed]

Government incentives[edit]

The Indian government has no schemes/policy initiatives to encourage electric vehicles.

Indonesia[edit]

The government supported some trial models made by Tucuxi. Conversion of some vehicles to electric drivetrains was introduced during the APEC Meeting in October 2013.

Ireland[edit]

Sales of electric cars in Ireland increased more than four times in 2014 from a low base.[230]

Government incentives[edit]

The government committed to making 10% of all vehicles by 2020 (a projected 230,000 vehicles).[231] Government officials reached agreements with French car maker Renault and its partner Nissan. As of September 2014, purchase incentives became available.[232]

Italy[edit]

BMW i3 patrol car of the Italian police at Vatican City.

As of December 2015 over 6,100 plug-in cars were registered, consisting of 4,580 BEV cars and 1,550 PHEVs.[3]

Government incentives[edit]

The government discontinued incentives in 2014 amid a limited public charging infrastructure and tepid reception. Further, many Italian houses were equipped with electric contracts allowing only 3 kW of peak consumption, making home charging of electric cars impractical.[233][234][235]

The top EV in 2015 was the Nissan Leaf (390 units sold).[236]

Japan[edit]

As of December 2016, the Nissan Leaf is the top selling EV in Japan, with 72,494 units sold since December 2010.[237] Shown a Leaf taxi at the Kumamoto Prefecture.

As of December 2016, the stock of light-duty plug-in vehicles reached about 147,500.[5] Sales totaled 24,660 units in 2015, consisting of 10,420 all-electrics and 14,190 PHEVs.[3] Declining EV sales growth reflected the governmental and domestic carmaker decision to promote hydrogen fuel cell vehicles instead.[238][239]

The Japanese electric vehicle charging infrastructure climbed from 60 public stations (2010)[240] to 1,381 (2012).

Sales[edit]

The Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV was the top selling EV in Japan in 2015.[241]

Mitsubishi introduced multiple electrics: the Mitsubishi i MiEV, (2009),[240][242] the Mitsubishi Minicab MiEV (2011),[243] a truck version of the Minicab MiEV[244] and the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV (2013).[245] As of December 2014, Mitsubishi had sold 36,386 light-duty plug-ins.[243][246]

The Nissan Leaf launched in 2010.[247][248] The Toyota Prius PHEV launched in January 2012, selling 19,100 units through September 2014.[249] Tesla Model S deliveries began in September 2014.[250]

Leaf sales in 2016 were 14,795 units.[237] Nissan had sold 72,494 units cumulatively through 2016, making the Leaf Japan's best-selling plug-in.[237] Sales of the Outlander PHEV fell sharply from April 2016 as a result of Mitsubishi's fuel mileage scandal.[251] Sales totaled 34,830 units through August 2016.[252]

Government incentives[edit]

In May 2009 the Japanese Diet passed the "Green Vehicle Purchasing Promotion Measure".[253] The program provided purchasing subsidies for cars, mini and keis, trucks and buses, including an extra subsidy for purchases trading in a sufficiently old used car.[253][254] The program ended on March 31, 2010.[255][256]

Mexico[edit]

A Nissan Leaf charging at a public charge station in Colonia Condesa, Mexico City.

In October 2009 Nissan reached an agreement with the Mexico City government, purchasing 500 Leafs for use of government and corporate fleets. In exchange, recharging infrastructure was to be deployed by the city government.[257][258] The first 100 Leafs (destined for the taxi fleet) were delivered in 2011.[259][260][261]

As of February 2013, about 70 Leafs were deployed as taxis, 50 in Aguascalientes and 20 in Mexico City.[262][263]

Retail Leaf sales began in June 2014.[264] Retail deliveries of the BMW i3 began 2014.[265][266]

The second generation Volt[267] and Tesla Model S began in 2015.[268]

Government incentives[edit]

As of October 2012, no government purchase incentives were available. However, electric cars are exempted from Mexico City's driving restriction scheme.[263]

Netherlands[edit]

Registration of highway-capable plug-in vehicles in the Netherlands between 2009 and 2016. PHEVs have an 87% market share of the Dutch passenger EV segment, the largest market share of any country in the world.[269][270][271]

As of 2016, 113,636 EVs were registered, consisting of 98,903 range-extended and PHEVs, 13,105 electrics, and 1,628 electric light utility vans. Adding buses, trucks, motorcycles, quadricycles, tricycles, fuel cell electric vehicles (30), mopeds (3,775), electric bicycles (32,496), and microcars (258) brings the total to 151,752.[271] The market was dominated by PHEVs (87%) as of the end of 2016.[271][30]

EV sales fell sharply during 2016 after changes in the tax rules.[30] Sales during the first half of 2016 were down 64% from the same period in 2015.[272] By July 2017, EVs had only 1.7% market penetration.[7]

As of December 2016 the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV is the all-time top selling EV in the Netherlands with 25,984 units registered.[271]

42,367 plug-in cars were sold in 2015. The top 5 were all PHEVs, led by the Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV. The Tesla Model S continued as the top selling electric car with 1,842 units.[273]

9,185 passenger EVs were registered in the first three quarters of 2016. As of December 2016 the Outlander P-HEV was the top-selling EV with 25,984 units, followed by the Volvo V60 PHEV (15,804), Volkswagen Golf GTE (10,691), Volkswagen Passat GTE (7,773), Mercedes-Benz C 350 e (6,226), and the Tesla Model S (6,049).[271]

Government incentives[edit]

From January 1, 2016, BEV vehicles continue to pay a 4% registration fee, but for a PHEV the fee rises from 7% to 15% if its CO2 emissions do not exceed 50 g/km. The rate for a conventional internal combustion car is 25% of its book value.[274][275]

The Tesla Model S, released in the Dutch market in September 2013, is the country's top selling BEV car ever.[30]

The Dutch government set a target of 15,000 electric vehicles in 2015, 200,000 in 2020 and 1 million in 2025.[269][276]

The government exempted selected vehicles from registration fee and road taxes.[277][278][279] The exemption from the registration tax ended in 2013.[280]

Battery electric vehicles have special access to parking spaces in Amsterdam, queues for which can otherwise reach up to 10 years.[281] Free charging is offered in public parking spaces.[282] Other factors contributing to the rapid adoption of EVs are the Netherlands' small size, which reduces range anxiety; a long tradition of environmental activism; high gasoline prices (US$8.50 per gallon as of January 2013); and some EV leasing programs that provide free or discounted gasoline-powered vehicles for covering long distances.

New Zealand[edit]

A Fast Charge station for electric vehicles in Wellington, New Zealand
Registrations of electric and PHEVs in New Zealand[283]
Model/carmaker Total in fleet
as of Q2 2017
CYTD to
Q2 2017
2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011
Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV 85 188 143 197 1 - -
Nissan Leaf 420 636 217 101 24 11 1
BMW, various models 54 137 53 9 - - -
Audi, various models 8 27 30 - - - -
Tesla, various models 51 26 26 2 - - -
Renault, various models 3 41 - - - - -
Others 193 416 32 19 13 19 16
Total 3467 814 1471 501 328 38 30 17
Note: CYTD sales through Q2 2017 (only part of the quarter, approximately end of April). Data for years 2012 and 2011 is based on data provided directly by the New Zealand Ministry of Transport (not available in a public document). Data broken down by manufacturer/model for 2010 and prior years is not shown here. All data includes vehicles registered in New Zealand that have been imported as "new" and as "used" vehicles (the majority of used imports originates in Japan). "Others" includes Volvo XC-90, Nissan E-NV 200, Toyota Prius PHEV, Porsche Cayenne, Hyundai Ioniq, Holden Volt (especially pre-2013), Mitsubishi I-MiEV (especially pre-2013), Loyds Paxster (Neighbourhood EV), and various other models in small numbers.

As of May 2017, about 3,400 light-duty EVs were registered. The fleet includes used imports from Japan and the UK (the majority).[283]

Government incentives[edit]

The New Zealand Government launched an Electric Vehicle Programme in May 2016, in order to encourage EV uptake.[284]

Norway[edit]

Registration of EVs in Norway by year between 2004 and 2016. Includes PHEVs and BEV cars and vans. Used import are included.[36][285][286]

As of December 2016, 135,276 light-duty EVs had been registered.[1] Norway's fleet of electric cars is one of the world's cleanest, because 98% of its power comes from hydropower.[287][288] Norway has the world's largest EV ownership per capita.[289][290][291][292] As of July 2016 21.5 EVs were registered per 1,000 people.[293][294]

Combined sales of new and used EVs captured a market share of 29.1% in 2016,[295] rising to 37.5% in January 2017.[296] Also in January 2017 the EV segment surpassed combined conventional internal combustion engine sales, achieving a combined market share of 51.4% of new car sales.[297][298] Norway was the first country in the world to have BEVs top the new car sales monthly ranking.

The Tesla Model S was the top-selling new car four times, and the Nissan Leaf twice.[299]

As of November 2016, the Nissan Leaf was the EV with the most units (19,150).[300] Adding used imports from neighboring countries, 27,115 Leafs were there.[301][300]

Government incentives[edit]

Norway offered incentives to help reach the goal of 50,000 zero emission vehicles by 2018. Electrics are exempt from all non-recurring vehicle fees, making electric cars price competitive with conventional cars.[302] BEVs are exempt from the annual road tax, public parking fees and toll payments (including domestic ferries), as well as given access to bus lanes. These incentives were to be in effect until the end of 2017 or until the goal was achieved.[291] PHEVs have a smaller market than BEVs because they are not eligible for the same incentives.[302][303][304] In 2013 the government reduced taxes for to improve PHEV sales.[304][305]

The goal of 50,000 electric cars on Norwegian roads was reached on 20 April 2015. The plate "EL 60000" was granted to the 50,000th electric car registered. The special electric vehicle EL series began with "EL 10000."[306]

The 50,000 vehicle target was reached on 20 April 2015 at[306][307] a cost of up to 4 billion krone (around US$640 million).[308]

The Government decided to continue the incentives through 2017, although the Parliament phased out some of the incentives.[309][310]

In 2016, the government proposed its National Transport Plan 2018-2029 (NTP) with the goal that all new cars, buses and light commercial vehicles in 2025 should be zero emission vehicles. By 2030, heavy-duty vans, 75% of new long-distance buses, and 50% of new trucks must be zero emission vehicles.[311][312][313]

Philippines[edit]

The country's first electric was launched at Silliman University by Insular Technologies in August 2007.[314][315] In some major cities such as Makati, electric Jeepneys are used as well as electric tricycles (rickshaws). The Eagle G-Car is a Philippine BEV car (at a cost as low as $3,000-$6,000).[316] E-Jeepneys were a venture of Renewable Independent Power Producer Inc., which sprang from Greenpeace and other groups, and Solarco, which in turn is a part of GRIPP.[317]

Poland[edit]

In 2009 Poland began developing charging station infrastructure in Gdańsk, Katowice, Kraków, Mielec and Warsaw with EU funds.

A Mitsubishi i-MiEV charging at an e+ charging station. e+ is a Polish provider of electric cars and infrastructure.[318]

Manufacturers[edit]

The biggest organization in Poland in the area of electric vehicles is Klaster Green Stream.[319]
The Polish company 3xE - samochody elektryczne (3xE - electric cars) offer electric vehicle conversions of small city cars such as the Smart ForTwo, Citroën C1, Fiat Panda, Peugeot 107, Audi A2. The converted cars have a range of about 100 km (60 mi), using lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO
4
) batteries
and brushless DC electric motors.[320]

Portugal[edit]

In 2015 the stock of EVs reached about 2,000, consisting of 1,280 BEV cars and 720 PHEVs. EV sales totaled 1,305 units in 2015, up 260% from 2014.

The top selling model was the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV (229).[321]

BMW i3 charging in Coimbra, Portugal

In 2009 Portugal worked with Renault and Nissan to create a national charging network.[322]

Government incentives[edit]

In 2010 the government offered purchase incentives for the first 5,000 EVs and a separate scrappage incentive.[323] EVs were exempted from the vehicle registration tax.[85] These incentives were discontinued at the end of 2011.[324]

Russia[edit]

As of July 2016 722 EVs were registered. Registrations were led by the Mitsubishi i-MiEV.[325]

Singapore[edit]

As of October 2016, 129 EVs were registered. BMW was the EV segment leader.[218] Adoption was slowed by high purchase prices, lack of public charging infrastructure and unclear national policies. As of October 2016, 74 public charging stations were operating.[218]

Government incentives[edit]

The government offered purchase incentives, although the country's taxation scheme made EVs more expensive than a conventional car. EVs face a carbon surcharge and a scrap rebate, along with the annual road tax.[218]

South Africa[edit]

As of December 2015, about 290 plug-in cars were registered, all in 2015.[3] The Nissan Leaf was introduced in October 2013.

Manufacturing[edit]

GridCars is a Pretoria-based company promoting Commuter Cars, based on the TREV from Australia. The concept is to build ultra-light EVs, lessening demand on battery requirements, and making the vehicle more affordable.[326] The Joule, designed by Cape Town-based Optimal Energy,[327] made its debut at the 2008 Paris Motor Show, with a maximum range of 300 km (190 mi).[328]

Government incentives[edit]

The country does not have government incentives or subsidies to promote EVs,[329] although new internal combustion engine vehicles face a surcharge based on engine capacity.[330]

South Korea[edit]

Registration of highway-capable plug-in cars by model in South Korea between 2012 and 2013[331]
Model Total
Sales
2012–2013
Sales
2013
Sales
2012
Kia Ray EV 929 398 531
Samsung SM3 Z.E. 294 277 17
Chevrolet Spark EV 40 40
Total registrations 1,263 715 548

As of October 2016, about 7,200 plug-in cars had been sold.[3][332] 2,896 EVs were sold during the first ten months of 2016, up 12% year-on-year.[332]

As of 2014, all electric models on sale were manufactured by local firms.[citation needed] The top selling models during 2015 were the Kia Soul EV (657) and the Samsung SM3 Z.E. (640).[333] The Hyundai Ioniq Electric was released in July 2016.[334]

Government incentives[edit]

The government offers a purchase subsidy for electric cars. Starting in 2016, the EV purchase tax surcharge was reduced, although EV drivers see various fees.[335]

Spain[edit]

EV registrations in Spain by year between 2010 and 2014.[336][337][338][339]

The stock of plug-in cars reached almost 6,000 plug-in as of 2015, consisting of 4,460 BEV cars and 1,490 PHEVs.[3] The top selling model in 2015 was the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV (389).[340]

Peugeot iOn electric car in Bilbao.

3,129 EVs were sold in Spain during the first three quarters of 2016. Sales continued to grow at an accelerated pace, up 79% from the same period in 2015.

Government incentives[edit]

In 2011 the national government initiated EV purchase incentives.[341] Aragón, Asturias, Baleares, Madrid, Navarra, Valencia, Castilla-La Mancha, Murcia, Castile and León offered additional incentives.[85]

Sri Lanka[edit]

As of September 2015, 2,072 electric cars had been registered, led by the Nissan Leaf. EV sales experienced a record month in September 2015 with 471 units registered, up from only 15 in September 2014.[342]

Sales of the Nissan Leaf began in 2013.[343]

Government incentives[edit]

No government incentives promote EVs. Electric vehicle tax increased from 5% to 50% through the new government's Interim Budget.[citation needed]

Sweden[edit]

EV registrations in Sweden by year between 2011 and 2016.[45][46][47][344][345][346]

As of December 2016, 30,525 EVs had been registered since 2011, consisting of 21,181 PHEVs, 7,985 BEV cars and 1,359 BEV utility vans.[45][46][47][344][345][346] The market is dominated by PHEVs, representing 69.4% of EV registrations through 2016.[45][47][345][346] EVs increased their market share to 3.5% in 2016.[5]

As of 2016 the top selling EV was the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV with 7,506 units. The Renault Kangoo Z.E. continued as the all-time the leader in the commercial utility EV segment with 1,024 units.[45][47][345][346]

Government incentives[edit]

Effective January 2012 Sweden offered subsidies for the purchase and operation of 5,000 electric cars and other "super green cars" with low/no carbon emissions.[347][277] The program was belatedly renewed through 2015[46] and again for 2016 with the addition of subsidies for electric buses.[348]

Switzerland[edit]

As of April 2016, over 12,000 EVs had been registered since 2012.[24] During the first quarter of 2016, 1,479 EV were registered, consisting of 773 BEV cars (up 37.5% from 1Q 2015), and 706 PHEVs (up 44.1% from 1Q 2015).[349] Registrations of plug-in cars totaled 6,288 units in 2015, up 133.9% from 2,668 in 2014.[350]

Deliveries of the Mitsubishi i MiEV.[351] the Nissan Leaf were launched in 2011.[352][353]

Government incentives[edit]

The government offers no subsidies or incentives for purchasing EVs.[354] Cantons can propose special discounts on annual taxes depending on the car's efficiency label and range from 100% rebate (e.g. Solothurn) to 0%.[355]

Ukraine[edit]

Nissan Leaf in Kharkiv - EcoTaxi, 2016

As of 2016, 3,161 EVs and hybrids were registered in Ukraine.[356] Registrations were led by the Nissan Leaf with 647 units.[325]

About 90% of EVs in Ukraine are used imports. During the first eight months of 2016, Ukrainians imported twice as many as in 2015.[357] Imports grew to 1,550 units during the first eight months of 2016.[358]

In August 2016, Ukrainian officials started to refuse the registration of American EVs, citing the need for certification by European rules. To comply with the certification requirements, the cars must be converted from US to European standards, which includes the replacement of a windshield, headlights and other parts, at a substantial cost.[357]

United Kingdom[edit]

Registration of EVs in the UK between January 2011 and December 2016.[39][359][360][361][362][363]

More than 100,000 EVs had been registered through March 2017, including about 4,500 electric commercial vans.[5][364][365] As of October 2016, the UK had 11,903 public charging 4,215 stations, of which 696 were rapid chargers.[366]

The REVAi/G-Wiz i electric car charging at an on-street station in London.

36,907 EVs were registered in 2016. Registrations consisted of 10,264 BEV cars, up 3.3% from 2015, and 26,643 PHEVs, up 41.9% from the previous year.[363] Sales of PHEVs more than doubled the sales of BEVs.[363][367] EV market share reached 1.37% of new car sales in 2016.[363] While overall new car registrations increased 2.3% from the same period in 2015, EV registrations in 2016 increased 28.6%.[363]

The Nissan Leaf, with 15,000 units sold by September 2016, has been the best-selling BEV car in the UK since 2011.[368][369]

The Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV is the all-time top selling EV with 26,600 units registered through 2016, accounting for about 50% of all PHEVs sold since 2010.[370][371]

Government incentives[edit]

The government offered purchase incentives via the Plug-in Car Grant program beginning in 2011. The program was extended to include vans in February 2012 and in October 2016 to include large electric trucks.

PHEV models with a purchase price of over GB£60,000, such as the BMW i8, are not eligible for the Plug-in Car Grant from March 2016.[372]

In April 2014 and December 2015, the government extended the program with modifications. Eligible ultra-low emission vehicles (ULEVs) included hydrogen fuel cell cars.[373][374][375]

Separately the government subsidized homeowners to install charge points at home via the "Electric Vehicle Homecharge Scheme".[374][375]

EVs are exempted from London's congestion charge.[376]

United States[edit]

The Nissan Leaf electric car (left) and the Chevrolet Volt PHEV (right) were the first two series production EVs introduced by major automakers in the US

As of 2016, cumulative sales totaled 570,187 since 2008[8] with 52.8% BEVs and 47.2% PHEVs.[25] Sales of series PEVs were lower than initial expectations during their first two years.[377][378][379][380][381] Cumulative EV sales since 2008 reached 250,000 units in August 2014,[382] and 500,000 in August 2016.[25]

US EV cumulative sales since 2008 passed the 500,000 unit milestone in August 2016.[25] The graph shows cumulative sales by month by type of powertrain from December 2010 up to December 2016.[383][384]

157,181 EVs were sold in 2016, up 37.6% from 2015.[385] Record monthly market share for EVs was achieved in December 2016 at 1.39%.[8] As of December 2016, 30 EVs were available,[385] plus several models of electric motorcycles, utility vans and neighborhood electric vehicles (NEVs). Sales were led by the Chevrolet Volt with 113,489 units.[8]

California led with 2,976 charging stations, followed by Texas and Florida. 30,669 public charging stations were available across the country by the end of January 2016, led by California with 9,086.[386]

Government incentives[edit]

The General Motors EV1 was one of the first PEVs introduced in 1996 as a result of CARB's zero-emissions vehicle mandate.

The government offered multiple purchase incentives, beginning in the late 1980s.[387] Several states established additional incentives.

The government pledged US$2.4 billion in federal grants to support the development of next-generation transport, and US$115 million for the installation of charging infrastructure.

California established a program to reduce air pollution in the 1980s. Under pressure from manufacturers, the program was revised to offer only modest support of zero-emission vehicles to promote research and development, and greater support for partial zero-emissions vehicles (PZEVs). Many manufacturers then terminated their electric car programs.[388]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Cobb, Jeff (2017-01-16). "The World Just Bought Its Two-Millionth Plug-in Car". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2017-01-17.  An estimated 2,032,000 highway-legal plug-in passenger cars and vans have been sold worldwide at the end of 2016. The top selling markets are China (645,708 new energy cars, including imports), Europe (638,000 EVs), and the United States (570,187 plug-in cars). The top European country markets are Norway (135,276), the Netherlands (113,636), France (108,065), and the UK (91,000). Total Chinese sales of domestically produced new energy vehicles, including buses and truck, totaled 951,447 vehicles. China was the top selling EV market in 2016, and also has the world's largest stock of plug-in cars.
  2. ^ a b c d Staff (February 2017). "Global Plug-in Sales for 2016". EV-Volumes.com. Retrieved 2017-02-05. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p International Energy Agency (IEA), Clean Energy Ministerial, and Electric Vehicles Initiative (EVI) (May 2016). "Global EV Outlook 2016: Beyond one million electric cars" (PDF). IEA Publications. Retrieved 2016-08-24.  See pp. 4-5, and 24-25 and Statistical annex, pp. 34-37.
  4. ^ a b c Cobb, Jeff (2016-12-27). "China Takes Lead As Number One In Plug-in Vehicle Sales". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2017-01-06.  As of November 2016, cumulative sales of plug-in vehicles in China totaled 846,447 units, including passenger and commercial vehicles, making it the world's leader in overall EV sales. With cumulative sales of about 600,000 passenger EVs through November 2016, China is also the global leader in the EV industry, ahead of Europe and the U.S.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i Cobb, Jeff (2017-01-17). "Top 10 Plug-in Vehicle Adopting Countries of 2016". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2017-01-23. 
  6. ^ a b Fergusson, Malcolm (October 2016). "Electric Vehicles in Europe - 2016: Approaching adolescence" (PDF). Transport & Environment. Retrieved 2016-10-13.  See pp. 15-16.
  7. ^ a b c d e f "European Alternative Fuels Observatory". Retrieved 2017-09-13. 
  8. ^ a b c d Cobb, Jeff (2017-01-11). "America's Plug-in Car Sales Were Their Best Ever in 2016". HybridCars.com and Baum & Associates. Retrieved 2017-01-12.  plug-in car sales in the U.S. totaled 157,181 units, up 37.6% from 2015 (114,248). The EV segment achieved an all-time high market share of 0.90% of new car sales in 2016. December sales totaled a record monthly volume of 23,288 units and also achieved a record monthly market share of 1.39% of new car sales. The top selling model for the second year in a row was the Tesla Model S with 29,156 units sold in 2016, followed by the Chevrolet Volt (24,739), Tesla Model X (18,028), Ford Energi Fusion with 15,938, and the Nissan Leaf with 14,006 units. As of December 2016, cumulative sales totaled 570,187 plug-in cars since 2008, with the Chevrolet Volt as the all-time best selling EV with 113,489 units. The Tesla Model S ranks third with an estimated 92,317 units since its inception in 2012.
  9. ^ Clark, Pilita; Campbell, Peter (2016-08-31). "Motor Industry: Pressure on the Pump". Financial Times. Retrieved 2016-09-30. 
  10. ^ Justin Gerdes (2012-05-11). "The Global Electric Vehicle Movement: Best Practices From 16 Cities". Forbes. Retrieved 2014-10-20. 
  11. ^ a b c d e Argonne National Laboratory, United States Department of Energy (2016-03-28). "Fact#918: March 28, 2016 - Global Plug-in Light Vehicles Sales Increased By About 80% in 2015". Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy. Retrieved 2016-03-29. 
  12. ^ Quiroga, Tony (August 2009). "Driving the Future". Car and Driver. Hachette Filipacchi Media U.S., Inc. p. 52. 
  13. ^ Sherry Boschert (2006). PHEVs: The Cars that will Recharge America. New Society Publishers, Gabriola Island, Canada. ISBN 978-0-86571-571-4. 
  14. ^ "Tesla Motors hands keys to 100th Roadster owner". The Mercury News. 2008-12-10. Retrieved 2016-10-01. 
  15. ^ Cobb, Jeff (2014-12-10). "Retrospective: Four Years of Nissan Leaf and Chevy Volt". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2016-10-01. 
  16. ^ Klippenstein, Matthew (2014-04-08). "One Percent Of Norway's Cars Are Already plug-ins". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2016-10-31. 
  17. ^ a b c International Energy Agency, Clean Energy Ministerial, and Electric Vehicles Initiative (EVI) (March 2015). "Global EV Outlook 2015" (PDF). Clean Energy Ministerial. Retrieved 2015-03-14.  The EV Outlook 2015 figures include only passenger EVs and SUVs (excludes light-weight utility vehicles) and total sales/registrations figures correspond to the 16 EVI countries, which are estimated to represent 95% of the global PEV stock. As of December 2014, the Japanese stock of EVs totaled 108,241 units, and China had about 36,500 BEV buses.
  18. ^ Jeff Cobb (2015-09-16). "One Million Global Plug-In Sales Milestone Reached". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2015-10-10. 
  19. ^ Petter Haugneland (2016-02-29). "Nasjonal transportplan: Elbil er klimaløsningen" [National Transport: EV is the climate solution] (in Norwegian). Norsk Elbilforening (Norwegian Electric Vehicle Association). Archived from the original on 2016-03-05. Retrieved 2016-03-04. 
  20. ^ a b Cobb, Jeff (2016-05-11). "China Reports 500,000th Plug-in Vehicle Sold". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2016-05-12.  As of March 2016, a total of 502,572 new energy vehicles have been sold in China since 2011, consisting of 366,219 BEV vehicles (72.9%) and 136,353 PHEVs (27.1%). Sales since 2011 includes heavy-duty commercial vehicles such buses and sanitation trucks, and only accounts for vehicles manufactured in the country.
  21. ^ Cobb, Jeff (2016-03-14). "Californians Will Buy 200,000th Plug-in Car By This Month". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2016-03-15.  Sales of plug-in cars in California passed the 200,000 unit milestone in March 2016, representing 47% of the 425,000 plug-in cars sold in the U.S. through February 2016.
  22. ^ Cobb, Jeff (2016-05-09). "Norway Is Fourth Country To Register 100,000 Plug-in Cars". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2016-05-09.  As of April 2016, the United States is the leading country market with a stock of about 450,000 highway legal light-duty plug-in vehicles delivered since 2008. China ranks second with around 300,000 units sold since 2011, followed by Japan with about 150,000 plug-in units sold since 2009, both through March 2016. European sales are led by Norway with over 100,000 units registered by the end of April 2016.
  23. ^ Cobb, Jeff (2016-06-22). "Global Plug-in Car Sales Cruise Past 1.5 Million". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2016-06-22. 
  24. ^ a b c Cobb, Jeff (2016-06-15). "Europe Buys Its 500,000th Plug-in Vehicle". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2016-06-15.  As of May 2016, cumulative sales by country are led by the United States with a stock of more than 460,000 highway legal light-duty plug-in vehicles delivered since 2008. China ranks second with almost 390,000 units sold since 2011. Europe is the largest regional market with more than 500,000 plug-in passenger cars and vans registered through May 2016.
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  26. ^ Cobb, Jeff (2016-09-28). "China Buys Half-Millionth Passenger Plug-in Car; On Track To Surpass US". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2016-09-28.  Sales of new energy vehicles totaled 689,447 units between 2011 and August 2016. Cumulative sales of new energy passenger cars totaled 493,290 units between 2010 and August 2016.
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  28. ^ a b c Cobb, Jeff (2016-10-10). "France Becomes Fifth Nation To Buy 100,000 Plug-in Vehicles". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2016-10-10. 
  29. ^ Foucaud, Isabelle (2016-10-01). "Plus de 100.000 véhicules électriques circulent aujourd'hui en France" [More than 100,000 electric vehicles currently on the road in France]. Le Figaro (in French). Retrieved 2016-10-10.  Environment Minister, Ségolène Royal, announced during the 2016 Paris Motor Show that there are more than 100,000 electric vehicles currently on French roads.
  30. ^ a b c d Cobb, Jeff (2016-11-17). "The Netherlands Becomes Sixth Country To Buy 100,000 Plug-in Vehicles". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2016-11-18. 
  31. ^ a b c d e Cobb, Jeff (2016-01-18). "Top Six Plug-in Vehicle Adopting Countries – 2015". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2016-01-23.  About 520,000 highway legal light-duty plug-in vehicles were sold worldwide in 2015, with cumulative global sales reaching 1,235,000. The United States is currently the leading market, with 411,120 units sold since 2008, followed by China, with 258,328 units sold since 2011. Japan ranks third (about 130,000), followed by the Netherlands (88,991), Norway (77,897), France (74,291), and the UK (53,254). Four of these countries achieved a PEV market share over 1% of new car sales in 2015: Norway (22.39%), the Netherlands (9.74%), France (1.2%), and the UK (1.1%)
  32. ^ a b c d e f g Jeff Cobb (2015-02-18). "Top 6 Plug-In Vehicle Adopting Countries – 2014". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2015-02-18. 
  33. ^ a b c Jeff Cobb (2014-01-16). "Top 6 Plug-In Vehicle Adopting Countries". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2014-01-18. Over 172,000 highway-capable passenger vehicles have been sold in the U.S. between 2008 and December 2013. 
  34. ^ a b Jose, Pontes (2016-01-12). "China December 2015 (3rd Update)". EVSales.com. Retrieved 2016-02-08. 
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  36. ^ a b Norwegian Road Federation (OFV) (January 2015). "Bilsalget i 2015" [Car sales in 2015] (in Norwegian). OFV. Archived from the original on 2016-02-09. Retrieved 2016-03-05.  Registrations of new plug-in vehicles totaled 25,779 electric cars (zero emission vehicles totaled 25,788 accounting for 9 hydrogen vehicles), 7,964 PHEVs and 712 BEV vans in 2015. In addition, registrations of used imports totaled 5,122 electric cars and 55 electric vans. plug-in vehicle registrations totaled 39,632 units.
  37. ^ "Ladbare biler i Norge sep, 2015" [Rechargeable cars in Norway September 2015] (in Norwegian). Grønn bil. October 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-01-17. Retrieved 2015-10-14.  Click on the bar graph "Registrerte biler" and select "12 mnd" for registrations for each year. Registrations include new and used imports. Move the mouse over each bar to show the sales split between BEV and PHEVs by year. Registrations totaled 44,769 light-duty EVs at the end of 2014, and 74,282 at the end of September 2015.[dead link]
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  40. ^ a b c Kraftfahrt-Bundesamtes (KBA) (January 2015). "Neuzulassungsbarometer im Dezember 2014" [New Registrations Barometer December 2014] (in German). KBA. Retrieved 2015-01-27.  A total of 13,049 plug-in cars registered in Germany during 2014, consisting of 8,522 BEV cars and 4,527 PHEVs.
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