Top-selling light-duty plug-in electric vehicle global markets by country or region as of December 2017 .
Comparison of concentration of registered plug-in electric cars per 1,000 people among top selling PEV countries and California, as of December 2016 .
Electric car use by country varies worldwide, as the adoption of plug-in electric vehicles is affected by consumer demand, market prices and government incentives. Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are generally divided into all-electric or battery electric vehicles (BEVs), that run only on batteries, and plug-in hybrids, that combine battery power with internal combustion engines (PHEVs). The popularity of electric vehicles has been expanding rapidly due to government subsidies, their increased range and lower battery costs, and environmental sensitivity. However, at the end of 2016, the stock of plug-in electric cars represented just a small fraction (0.15%) of the 1.4 billion motor vehicles on the world's roads.
Global cumulative sales of highway-legal light-duty plug-in vehicles reached 2 million units at the end of 2016, and the 3 million milestone was achieved in November 2017. Sales of light-duty plug-ins achieved a 1.3% market share of new car sales in 2017, up from 0.86% in 2016, and 0.62% in 2015. The global ratio between battery BEVs and PHEVs was 66:34 in 2017, up from 61:39 in 2016, and 59:41 in 2015.
As of December 2017China had the largest stock of highway legal light-duty plug-ins with over 1.2 million domestically built passenger cars. China's plug-in electric bus stock reached 343,500 units in 2016, out of global stock of about 345,000 vehicles. About 943,600 light-duty passenger plug-ins had been registered in Europe through 2017, with Norway as the leading market with over 200,000 units. Norway also had the highest market penetration per capita in the world in 2016, and 5% of all vehicles on Norwegian roads were plug-ins. Norway also has the world's largest plug-in segment market share of new car sales, 39.2% in 2017. As of December 2017 , the United States had about 765,000 plug-in cars, with California accounting for approximately 48% of cumulative US plug-in sales at over 365,000 units. Japan had about 207,200 plug-ins at the end of 2017.
The global stock of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) between 2005 and 2009 consisted exclusively of all-electric cars (BEV), totaling about 1,700 units in 2005, and almost 6,000 in 2009. The plug-in stock rose to about 12,500 units in 2010, of which 350 were plug-in hybrids (PHEVs). By comparison, during the Golden Age of the electric car at the beginning of the 20th century, the EV stock peaked at approximately 30,000 vehicles. After the introduction of the Nissan Leaf and the Chevrolet Volt in late December 2010, the first mass-production plug-in electric cars by major manufacturers, plug-in sales grew to about 50,000 units in 2011, to 125,000 in 2012, and almost 213,000 cars and utility vans in 2013. Sales totaled over 315,000 units in 2014, up 48% from 2013. In March 2014, Norway became the first country where over 1 in every 100 passenger cars on the roads was a plug-in.
In five years, global sales of highway legal light-duty plug-in vehicles increased more than ten-fold, totaling more than 565,000 units in 2015 - an 80% increase from 2014, driven mainly by China and Europe. About 775,000 plug-in electric cars and vans were sold in 2016, and 1.22 million in 2017 - up 57% from 2016 - with China accounting for about half of global sales. The global market share of the new light-duty plug-in segment reached 1.3% in 2017, up from 0.86% in 2016, and 0.38% in 2014. Global light-duty plug-in vehicle sales passed the 3 million milestone in November 2017.
Annual sales of light-duty plug-in vehicles in the world's top markets between 2011 and 2017.
||Launch of the limited production General Motors EV1
||Launch of the Toyota RAV4 EV
||100th Tesla Roadster delivered
||Nissan Leaf and Chevrolet Volt deliveries began
||Annual global sales passed the 100,000 mark
||Norway achieves 1% of cars on the road as plug-ins
||100,000th plug-in sold in Japan
||Global plug-in sales passed 1 million units.
||Annual global sales passed the 500,000 mark
|3% of passenger cars on Norwegian roads are plug-ins
|500,000th new energy vehicle sold in China
(includes heavy-duty commercial vehicles)
|200,000th plug-in car sold in California
|100,000th plug-in sold in Norway
|Global plug-in sales passed 1.5 million units
|500,000th plug-in sold in Europe
||500,000th plug-in sold in the U.S
||500,000th new energy passenger car sold in China
|Global full electric car/van sales passed 1 million.
||100,000th plug-in sold in France
||100,000th plug-in sold in the Netherlands
||Global plug-in sales passed 2 million units
|5% of passenger cars on Norwegian roads are plug-ins
||Global plug-in sales passed 3 million units
||Annual global sales passed the 1 million unit mark
|Annual global market share passed 1% for the first time
Light-duty EV stock and PEV market share of total new car sales
in the top ten PEV selling countries as of December 2015
||PEV market share
| United States
| United Kingdom
|Light-duty EV stock and PEV market share of total new car sales
in selected regional markets
|EV stock for all class segments in China
(1) EV stock only includes cumulative sales or registrations of highway legal light-duty vehicles except where noted.
(2) Only includes passenger EVs. (3) Includes passenger EVs and BEV utility vans.
(4) Kei cars are not included for the Japanese market share estimate. (5) Includes registrations of used imports.
(6) French registrations do not include PHEVs, which were accounted together with regular hybrids (HEVs).
(7) European figures correspond to European Union member countries plus two EFTA countries (Norway and Switzerland)
(8) Includes passenger EVs and heavy-duty commercial vehicles such as buses and trucks.
Beginning in mid-2009, a twelve-month field trial was conducted with the Mitsubishi i-MiEV with potential electric vehicle customers, such as government bodies and fleet operators. The iMiEV remained the top selling electric vehicle in Australia through 2013. The Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV, became Australia's top selling EV in 2014 and remained the leader into 2016 with 2,015 units sold since its introduction. At the end of March 2015, Tesla Model S registrations totaled 119 in New South Wales and 54 in Victoria. Although no sales figures were reported for Tesla in other states, the combined sales of these two were enough for the Model S to rank as the top selling BEV car for the first quarter of 2015, ahead of the BMW i3 (46) and the Nissan Leaf (31). As of December 2016 , about 1,000 Leafs had been sold since its 2012 introduction .
Chargepoint is the only major operator of a charging network in Australia.
Sales of electric cars rose from 97 units in 2009, to 116 in 2010, 425 in 2011, to 900 in 2012. Of the latter, only 350 units were sold to individuals.
The Belgian government established purchase incentives for BEVs, ending in 2012. Hybrids were not eligible. A separate subsidy supported investments in public charging stations.
: parking spaces reserved for low emissions vehicles in Brasília
As of September 2015state of São Paulo In March 2013, the first two Leafs were deployed in Rio de Janeiro to operate as taxis. In September 2014 the BMW i3 became the first EV available for retail customers. As of June 2016 , other retail plug-ins were the BMW i8 and the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV.
2,214 hybrid and electric vehicles were registered in the
Plug-ins and hybrids are subject to taxes adding up to more than 120% of the retail price.
In May 2014 São Paulo City passed a municipal law to exempt EV, hybrids and fuel cell vehicles from the city's driving restriction scheme and purchase incentives.
Cumulative sales of EVs in Canada passed 47,800 units in December 2017 and accounted for 1.4% of all new car sales for December 2017, and 0.9% for 2017. The Chevrolet Volt was the top selling PHEV, with cumulative sales of 13,619 units through Dec 2017, and the Tesla Model S was the top selling BEV with 6,731 units sold as of Dec 2017.
Purchase and other incentives for new EVs are offered by the provinces of Ontario Quebec and British Columbia.
In October 2016, Quebec passed legislation that obliges major carmakers to offer an increasing number of PHEV and BEV models, beginning with 3.5% in 2018 and rising to 15.5% in 2020, using a tradable credit system.
Domestically built new energy vehicle (NEV) sales totaled 1,728,447 units between January 2011 and December 2017. These figures include heavy-duty commercial vehicles such as buses and sanitation trucks. Sales of domestically built new energy passenger cars totaled over 1.2 million units between 2011 and 2017, of which, a total of 579,000 were sold in 2017, representing about half of global plug-in car sales in 2017. Domestically-produced vehicles accounted for about 96% of total plug-in electric vehicle sales. As of December 2017 , the NEV stock consisted of about 1,385,088 all-electric vehicles (80.1%) and 343,359 plug-in hybrid vehicles (19.9%). Entry-level vehicles dominate the Chinese plug-in passenger market. The Chinese stock of plug-in electric buses was about 343,500 vehicles as of December 2016 , of which, almost 300,000 were BEVs. The Chinese plug-in electric bus stock grew nearly sixfold over 2014, and almost doubled from 2015 to 2016.
Chinese sales of domestically-built new energy vehicles in 2017 totaled 777,000 units, up 53% from 2016 consisting of 652,000 all-electric vehicles (up 59.4%) and 125,000 plug-in hybrid vehicles (up 27.6%). Sales of domestically-produced new energy passenger vehicles totaled 579,000 units, consisting of 468,000 all-electric cars and 111,000 plug-in hybrids. Accounting for foreign brands, plug-in car sales rise to about 600,000 in 2017. The plug-in segment achieved a record market share of 2.1% of new car sales.
Three BYD Auto models topped the Chinese ranking of best-selling new energy passenger cars in 2016. The BYD Tang PHEV SUV was the top selling plug-in car (31,405), followed by the BYD Qin (21,868) and the BYD e6 (20,605). Through 2016, the BYD Qin (68,655), remained as the country's all-time top selling plug-in car. BYD Auto was again the world's top selling plug-in manufacturer with over 100,000 units sold in 2016. However, in terms of sales revenue, Tesla vehicle sales of US$6.35 billion topped BYD at US$3.88 billion.
The BAIC EC-Series all-electric city car was the Chinese top selling plug-in car with 78,079 units delivered, making the city car the world's top selling plug-in car in 2017. The top selling plug-in hybrid was the BYD Song PHEV with 30,920 units. BYD Auto was the top selling Chinese car manufacturer in 2017.
The Chinese government adopted in 2009 a plan to become one of the world leaders in producing EVs. The plan has four goals: create a world-leading industry; energy security; reduce urban air pollution; and to reduce carbon emissions. In June 2012 the State Council published a plan to develop the domestic industry. The plan set a sales target of 500,000 new EVs by 2015 and 5 million by 2020. Initial sales were much lower than expected, while most output was purchased for public fleets. New incentives were issued in 2014, with a sales target of 160,000 units for 2014. This goal was also not achieved.
The Chinese government uses the term new energy vehicles (NEVs) to designate plug-ins and electrics. Only EVs are eligible for purchase incentives. On June 1, 2010, the government announced a trial program to provide financial incentives in five cities. A 2013 joint announcement by the National Development and Reform Commission and finance, science, and industry ministries offered a maximum of US$9,800 toward the purchase of a BEV passenger vehicle and up to US$81,600 for electric buses. In April 2016 the Traffic Management Bureau under the Ministry of Public Security announced special green license plates to facilitate preferential traffic policies.
The BYD Tang, released in June 2015, was the best-selling plug-in car in China in 2016 with 31,405 units sold.
As of December 2016 Shown a BYD K9 bus in Shenzhen.
, China ranked as the world's largest all-electric bus market with a stock of almost 343,500 vehicles.
Mitsubishi i-MiEV in Chile
The Mitsubishi i-MiEV was the first EV in Chile. The first public quick charging station was opened in April 2011.
In August 2014 Mitsubishi replaced the i-Miev with the Outlander PHEV.Fluence Z.E. sedan, the Kangoo utility van and Zoe city car. The French brand sold 22 electric vehicles in their first month in the Chilean market.
Later that year BMW introduced their "i" range with the i3; Renault launched their Zero Emission (Z.E.) lineup, including the
South America's first BEV taxi fleet (made up of BYD e6) was launched at the beginning of 2013 in Bogotá. These taxis were exempted from the driving restriction scheme. The program is an effort to improve air quality and set an example. In September 2013 45 taxis were delivered. The e6 fleet are part of Colombia's "BIOTAXIS Project." Another three BYD e6s were sent to Colceincias, Bogota's Tech, Science and Innovation Administration.
The BMW i3 was introduced in Colombia in 2014. The BEV Renault Twizy quadracycle was introduced in the Colombian market in June 2015. Sales of the Outlander P-HEV were scheduled to begin in September 2015.
As of June 2015Mitsubishi i-MiEVs, 25 BMW i3s, 19 Renault Twizys, and four Nissan Leafs. 203 Twizys had been sold as of October 2015 .
, 126 EVs had been sold, mostly to corporate customers, and consisting of 43 BYD e6s (taxis), 35
In 2013 the government established promotional incentives. These include the exemption from the driving restriction scheme in place in Colombian cities such as Bogotá and Medellín. The government exempted BEV and PHEV cars from import duties for three years, with an annual quota of 750 cars of each type.
As of January 2015electric drive vehicles consisted of 477 hybrid electric vehicles and 2,229 electric vehicles. Plug-in car sales totaled 108 units in 2016. The top selling model was the Outlander P-HEV with 60 units.
, the Costa Rican stock of
In 2006 electric cars were exempted from the consumption tax, while conventional vehicles faced a 30% rate. In October 2012, electric cars were exempted from San José's driving restriction. EVs were exempted from import duties and the government agreed to deploy charging stations in strategic locations in San José.
The first electric car to go on sale was the REVAi, introduced in March 2009. The REVAi, powered by lead–acid batteries, sold 10 units. The Mitsubishi i MiEV was launched in February 2011, with initial availability of 25 to 50 units.
In January 2013 BYD Auto signed an agreement with the Costa Rican Ministry of Environment and Energy to deploy 200 BYD e6 electric cars for use as "green taxis." Retail sales of the BYD Qin plug-in began in Costa Rica in November. Retail sales of the Outlander P-HEV began in March 2015. The BMW i3 was released in September 2016.
As of December 2016 Of these, 224 were EVs, while the rest were hybrids. As of September 2017 , 201 free public charging stations operated in Croatia.
, 2067 electric cars had been sold in Croatia.
In 2014 and 2015, the Croatian government initiated purchase incentives. The subsidies were discontinued in 2016, due to ineffectiveness.
As of December 2015 Denmark was the second largest European market for light-duty, plug-in commercial vehicles or utility vans, with over 2,600 plug-in vans sold that year, representing 8.5% of all vans sold . Most vans were plug-in hybrids, accounting for almost all EU plug-in van sales. After the expiration of the government incentives, sales drop to about 1,300 all-electric cars in 2016, and fell further in 2017 to almost 700 pure electric cars. As of December 2017 , the stock of registered all-electric cars amounted to 8,746 units, slightly up from 8,643 electric cars in 2016. Sales of plug-in hybrids grew from 5 sold in 2013 to 572 in 2016, and 621 units in 2017.
, around 4,000 electric cars had been sold in Denmark.
Denmark's sales surged before the expiration of its purchase incentives, and plunged thereafter, its plug-in market penetration plunge to 0.1% as of July 2017 In April 2017 the government announced a partial resumption of the credit, while adding a new fund for fuel cell vehicles.
Two Mitsubishi i-MiEVs in Estonia. The majority of electric cars in Estonia are i-MiEVs.
As of February 2015
, 1,188 plug-in vehicles were registered.
Estonia was the first country to deploy an EV charging network with nationwide coverage, with fast chargers available along highways at a maximum distance of 40 to 60 km (25 to 37 mi). As of December 2012 , the nationwide network consisted of 165 fast chargers.
In 2011, the government confirmed the sale to Mitsubishi of 10 million carbon dioxide credits in exchange for 507 i-MiEV electric cars. The deal included funding 250 fast charging stations and subsidies for the first 500 private buyers of any electric approved by the EU. The first 50 i-MiEVs were delivered in October 2011, for use by municipal social workers.
Estonia's figures are low compared to other advanced economies, attributed to lack of government incentives after the carbon credit scheme was exhausted.
As of October 2016 Sales reached 854 in the first three quarters of 2016. Plug-in sales were slowed over range concerns and high plug-in prices.
, about 2,250 EVs were registered.
In November 2016, the government set the goal of 250,000 plug-in cars and 50,000 biogas cars on the road by 2030. These goals are part of the Finnish government efforts to comply with the 2015 Paris Agreement.
Many companies in Finland are involved in next-generation vehicle manufacturing, including Valmet Automotive (Fisker Karma and Garia A/S electric golf cart production) Fortum (concept cars and infrastructure), Kabus (hybrid buses; part of Koiviston Auto Oy), BRP Finland (part of Bombardier Recreational Products), Lynx (snowmobile), Patria (military vehicles), European Batteries (Li-ion battery plant in Varkaus), Finnish Electric Vehicles (battery control systems), ABB, Efore, Vacon (electric motor technology production), Ensto (production of charging units), Elcat (electric vehicle production since the 1980s), production of electric car accessories, Suomen Sähköauto Oy (produces small electric cars), Oy AMC Motors Ltd. (produces and designs small electric cars), Raceabout (specialist electric sport car with very few sales), Gemoto skooters from Cabotec, Resonate's Gemini and Janus Scooters, Moto Bella Oy, Axcomotors, Randax and Visedo.
Research related to electric cars is in progress at the VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland and Tekes.
Electric car organisations in Finland include the Electric Vehicle Association of Finland and Electric Vehicles Finland. A non-commercial electric car conversion organisation is called Electric Cars - Now! that converts Toyota Corollas into Li-ion battery-powered electric cars.
Basic charging infrastructure is available all over Finland, used for winter engine pre-warming. Because of its climate – cold winters and warm summers – Finland is considered a convenient "test laboratory" for electric cars.
The Renault Zoe
has led electric car sales in France since 2013, and is the country's all-time best selling plug-in with almost 50,000 units registered through December 2016.
The stock of light-duty plug-in electric vehicles registered in France passed the 100,000 unit milestone in October 2016, making the country the second largest plug-in market in Europe after Norway. It ranked also as the world's fifth largest plug-in market after the U.S., China, Japan and Norway. As of December 2017 , a total of 149,797 light-duty plug-in electric vehicles have been registered in France since 2010. The plug-in electric stock consisted of 92,256 all-electric passenger cars, 25,269 all-electric utility vans, and 32,272 plug-in hybrids. The plug-in passenger car segment achieved a record market share of 1.98% of new car registrations in 2017. France was the largest European market for light-duty electric commercial vehicles or utility vans in 2016.
Plug-in electric car registrations have been led by the Renault Zoe for five years running since 2013, with 5,511 in 2013, 5,970 in 2014, 10,406 in 2015, 11,402 in 2016 and with 15,245 units in 2017, totaling 48,582 units since 2012. The electric utility van segment has been led by the Renault Kangoo Z.E. with over 15,000 units sold through September 2016.
In 2008 France established a bonus-malus system offering a purchase incentive for low emission cars and a penalty fee (malus), for the purchase of high-emission vehicles. In 2015 the government introduced an additional bonus for all-electric car purchasers who scrapped a diesel-powered car in circulation before 1 January 2001. As of September 2016 , the scrappage bonus had been granted for more than 10,000 purchases.
As of December 2017 The country is Europe's largest passenger car market, but ranks only fifth in plug-in car sales in 2016. About 80% of the plug-ins registered through September 2016 were registered since 2014. In 2013 Germany reclassified range-extended vehicles as series plug-in hybrids instead of all-electric vehicles. As a result, the registrations figures for 2012 and older do not account for plug-in hybrids. As of November 2014 , the country had 4,800 public charging stations.
, a total of 129,246 plug-in electric cars have been registered in Germany since 2010.
A record of 54,492 plug-in cars were registered in 2017, up 217% the previous year, and consisting of 29,436 plug-in hybrids and 25,056 all-electric cars. Registrations achieved a market share of 1.58% in 2017. The top selling models in 2017 were the Audi A3 e-tron (4,454), Renault Zoe (4,322), and BMW i3 (4,319).
Under its National Plattform for Electric Mobility, Chancellor Angela Merkel in 2010 set the goal of putting one million electric vehicles on German roads by 2020. Initially, the government did not provide subsidies in favor of research. The Bundestag passed the Electric Mobility Act in March 2015 that authorized local government to grant non-monetary incentives. The measures privilege battery-powered cars, fuel cell vehicles and some PHEVs, by granting local governments the authority to offer additional incentives.
The introduction of the purchase bonus noticeably impacted sales only in September 2016, when registrations grew to 3,061 units.
An incentive scheme was approved in April 2016 including purchase subsidies, charging stations and another federal government fleet purchases, with a target of 400,000 electric vehicles. Premium cars, such as the Tesla Model S and BMW i8, were not eligible.
As of September 2016 The online application system to claim the bonus went into effect on 2 July 2016.
, BMW, Citroën, Daimler, Ford, Hyundai, Kia, Mitsubishi, Nissan, Peugeot, Renault, Toyota, Volkswagen, and Volvo had signed up to participate in the scheme.
As of December 2017, 10,666 plug in vehicles were registered in Hong Kong. March 2017 saw 2,964 EV's registered in one month before first registration tax exemption was repealed. 2,939 of these cars were Tesla Model S and X.
As of September 2016 up from 3,253 in October 2015. The plug-in segment market share achieved 4.8% of new car sales in Hong Kong in 2015.
, 6,298 plug-in vehicles were on the roads in Hong Kong,
As of October 2015electric vehicle charging points were available. More than a dozen models were available for retail customers.
, more than 1,200 public
Sales of electric cars took off in Hong Kong with the Tesla Model S in 2014. The tax waiver made the Model S competitive in the luxury car segment, at about half the price of other high-end models. According to Tesla, as of September 2016 , Hong Kong had the world's highest density of Tesla superchargers, giving most Model S owners a supercharger within a 20-minute drive.
The Government offered purchase incentives to consumers, businesses and service providers were available from 2011 to 2017. The Government further allocated HK$180 million for bus companies to purchase 36 electric buses.
In November, 2016 1,473 PEVs were registered in Hungary. The Hungarian government introduced its e-mobility plan in March, 2014. The Jedlik plan supported the domestic production of electric vehicles, expanding the necessary infrastructure and promoting the purchase of EVs with public incentives, including 1,5 million HUF, initiated at the end of 2016.
The plug-in car segment in Iceland reached 5.37% of all new vehicles registered in 2016, allowing the country to rank second in Europe after Norway that year. Registrations of new plug-in electric cars totaled 2,990 units in 2017, up 157% from the previous year. The segment's market share achieved a record 14%, globally, second only to Norway. The top selling plug-ins in 2017 were the Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV with 884 units and the Nissan Leaf with 524.
The government eliminated VAT (24%) and CO2-based fees (up to 65%) on new car purchases for EVs.
As of 2017CCS Combo/CHAdeMO stations along the Ring Road. Iceland remains the only major EV market without a Tesla Supercharger network.
, Orka Náttúrunar (ON) was working to complete a network of 50 kW
As of December 2015 The Indian government has FAME schemes and Lower GST on EVs to encourage electric vehicles.
, over 6,000 plug-in cars were registered, consisting of 4,350 BEV cars and 1,660 PHEVs.
The Mahindra Reva e2o electric car was introduced in March 2013. It operates on lithium ion batteries with 100 km range for 4 hours of charging. In 2016, a new car, the Mahindra e-Verito, introduced a sedan class Ev at a cost of 9 to 10 lakh Indian rupees ex showroom.
The government supported some trial models made by Tucuxi. Conversion of some vehicles to electric drivetrains was introduced during the APEC Meeting in October 2013.
Sales of electric cars in Ireland increased more than four times in 2014 from a low base.
The government committed to making 10% of all vehicles by 2020 (a projected 230,000 vehicles). Government officials reached agreements with French car maker Renault and its partner Nissan. As of September 2014 , purchase incentives became available.
As of December 2015 The top EV in 2015 was the Nissan Leaf (390 units sold).
over 6,100 plug-in cars were registered, consisting of 4,580 BEV cars and 1,550 PHEVs.
The government discontinued incentives in 2014 amid a limited public charging infrastructure and tepid reception. Further, many Italian houses were equipped with electric contracts allowing only 3 kW of peak consumption, making home charging of electric cars impractical.
As of December 2016 , the Nissan Leaf
is the all-time top selling plug-in car in Japan, with 72,494 units sold since December 2010.
Shown a Leaf taxi at the Kumamoto Prefecture
As of December 2017 Sales totaled 24,660 units in 2015, and 24,851 units in 2016. The segment market share declined from 0.68% in 2014 to 0.59% in 2016. Declining sales growth reflected the governmental and domestic carmaker decision to promote hydrogen fuel cell vehicles instead. Sales recovered in 2017, with almost 56,000 plug-in cars sold, and the segment's market share reached 1.1%.
, Japan had a stock of light-duty plug-in vehicles of about 207,200.
In May 2009 the Japanese Diet passed the "Green Vehicle Purchasing Promotion Measure". The program provided purchasing subsidies for cars, mini and keis, trucks and buses, including an extra subsidy for purchases trading in a sufficiently old used car. The program ended on March 31, 2010. The Japanese electric vehicle charging infrastructure climbed from 60 public stations in 2010 to 1,381 in 2012.
Mitsubishi introduced multiple plug-in vehicles: the Mitsubishi i MiEV in 2009, the Mitsubishi Minicab MiEV in 2011, a truck version of the Minicab MiEV and the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV in 2013. As of December 2014 , Mitsubishi had sold 36,386 light-duty plug-ins.
The Nissan Leaf launched in 2010. The Toyota Prius PHEV launched in January 2012, selling 19,100 units through September 2014. Tesla Model S deliveries began in September 2014.
Leaf sales in 2016 were 14,795 units. Nissan had sold 72,494 units cumulatively through 2016, making the Leaf Japan's all-time best-selling plug-in car. Sales of the Outlander PHEV fell sharply from April 2016 as a result of Mitsubishi's fuel mileage scandal. Sales totaled 34,830 units through August 2016.
In October 2009 Nissan reached an agreement with the Mexico City government, purchasing 500 Leafs for use of government and corporate fleets. In exchange, recharging infrastructure was to be deployed by the city government. The first 100 Leafs (destined for the taxi fleet) were delivered in 2011.
As of February 2013Aguascalientes and 20 in Mexico City.
, about 70 Leafs were deployed as taxis, 50 in
Retail Leaf sales began in June 2014. Retail deliveries of the BMW i3 began 2014.
The second generation Volt and Tesla Model S began in 2015.
As of October 2012driving restriction scheme.
, no government purchase incentives were available. However, electric cars are exempted from Mexico City's
Number of registered plug-in electric vehicles on the road in the Netherlands from 2011 to 2017. PHEVs have an 82% market share of the Dutch passenger plug-in segment, the largest market share of any country in the world.
As of 31 December 2017range-extended and plug-in hybrids, 21,115 pure electric cars, and 2,210 all-electric light utility vans. When buses, trucks, motorcycles, quadricycles and tricycles are accounted for, the Dutch plug-in electric-drive fleet climbs to 123,499 units. The country's electric vehicle stock reaches 165,886 units when fuel cell electric vehicles (43), mopeds (4,376), electric bicycles (37,652), and microcars (316) are accounted for. The market was dominated by plug-in hybrids representing 80.8% of the country's stock of passenger plug-in electric cars and vans registered at the end of December 2017.
, there were 121,542 highway legal light-duty plug-in electric vehicles registered in the Netherlands, consisting of 98,217
Plug-in car sales fell sharply during 2016 after changes in the tax rules. Sales during the first half of 2016 were down 64% from the same period in 2015. The plug-in market share declined from 9.9% in 2015, to 6.7% in 2016, and fell to 2.6% in 2017.
A total of 42,367 plug-in cars were sold in 2015. The top 5 were all plug-in hybrids, led by the Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV. The Tesla Model S continued as the top selling electric car with 1,842 units. A total of 9,185 passenger plug-ins were registered in the first three quarters of 2016. As of December 2016 the Outlander P-HEV was the top-selling plug-in car with 25,984 units, followed by the Volvo V60 PHEV (15,804), Volkswagen Golf GTE (10,691), Volkswagen Passat GTE (7,773), Mercedes-Benz C 350 e (6,226), and the Tesla Model S (6,049).
The Tesla Model S
, released in the Dutch market in September 2013, is the country's top selling BEV car ever.
From January 1, 2016, all-electric vehicles continue to pay a 4% registration fee, but for a plug-in hybrids the fee rises from 7% to 15% if its CO2 emissions do not exceed 50 g/km. The rate for a conventional internal combustion car is 25% of its book value.
The Dutch government set a target of 15,000 electric vehicles in 2015, 200,000 in 2020 and 1 million in 2025. The government exempted selected vehicles from registration fee and road taxes. The exemption from the registration tax ended in 2013. Battery electric vehicles have special access to parking spaces in Amsterdam, queues for which can otherwise reach up to 10 years. Free charging is offered in public parking spaces.
Other factors contributing to the rapid adoption of plug-in electric vehicles are the Netherlands' small size, which reduces range anxiety; a long tradition of environmental activism; high gasoline prices (US$8.50 per gallon as of January 2013); and some EV leasing programs that provide free or discounted gasoline-powered vehicles for covering long distances.
A Fast Charge station for electric vehicles in Wellington, New Zealand
Light EV fleet size in New Zealand
As of December 2017
, about 6,100 light-duty EVs were registered. The fleet includes used imports from Japan and the UK (the majority).
The New Zealand Government launched an Electric Vehicle Programme in May 2016, in order to encourage EV uptake.
Registration of EVs in Norway by year between 2004 and 2017. Includes PHEVs and BEV cars and vans. Used import are included.
The stock of light-duty plug-in electric vehicles registered in Norway totaled more than 200,000 units at the end of 2017. Norway's fleet of electric cars is one of the world's cleanest, because 98% of its power comes from hydropower. Norway has the world's largest EV ownership per capita. As of July 2016 , 21.5 EVs were registered per 1,000 people.
Combined sales of new and used plug-ins captured a market share of 29.1% in 2016, rising to 39.2% in 2017. In January 2017 the electric-drive segment surpassed combined conventional internal combustion engine sales for the first time ever, achieving a combined market share of 51.4% of new car sales. Norway was the first country in the world to have all-electric cars top the new car sales monthly ranking.
The Tesla Model S was the top-selling new car four times, and the Nissan Leaf twice.
As of November 2016 Adding used imports from neighboring countries, 27,115 Leafs were there.
, the Nissan Leaf was the plug-in car with the most units (19,150).
The goal of 50,000 electric cars on Norwegian roads was reached on 20 April 2015. The plate "EL 60000" was granted to the 50,000th electric car registered. The special electric vehicle EL series began with "EL 10000."
Norway offered incentives to help reach the goal of 50,000 zero emission vehicles by 2018. Electrics are exempt from all non-recurring vehicle fees, making electric cars price competitive with conventional cars. BEVs are exempt from the annual road tax, public parking fees and toll payments (including domestic ferries), as well as given access to bus lanes. These incentives were to be in effect until the end of 2017 or until the goal was achieved. PHEVs have a smaller market than BEVs because they are not eligible for the same incentives. In 2013 the government reduced taxes for to improve PHEV sales.
The 50,000 vehicle target was reached on 20 April 2015 at a cost of up to 4 billion krone (around US$640 million).
The Government decided to continue the incentives through 2017, although the Parliament phased out some of the incentives.
In 2016, the government proposed its National Transport Plan 2018-2029 (NTP) with the goal that all new cars, buses and light commercial vehicles in 2025 should be zero emission vehicles. By 2030, heavy-duty vans, 75% of new long-distance buses, and 50% of new trucks must be zero emission vehicles.
The country's first electric was launched at Silliman University by Insular Technologies in August 2007. In some major cities such as Makati, electric Jeepneys are used as well as electric tricycles (rickshaws). The Eagle G-Car is a Philippine BEV car (at a cost as low as $3,000-$6,000). E-Jeepneys were a venture of Renewable Independent Power Producer Inc., which sprang from Greenpeace and other groups, and Solarco, which in turn is a part of GRIPP.
During a demonstration at Nanyang Technological University on February 7, 2018, Nissan Philippines' president and managing director Ramesh Narasimhan has announced that they would like to bring the Leaf to the Filipino market.
A Mitsubishi i-MiEV charging at an e+
charging station. e+
is a Polish provider of electric cars and infrastructure.
In 2009 Poland began developing charging station infrastructure in Gdańsk, Katowice, Kraków, Mielec and Warsaw with EU funds. In November 2017 an electric car sharing network opened in Wrocław. The fleet is based on 2013 model of Nissan Leaf.
The biggest organization in Poland in the area of electric vehicles is Klaster Green Stream. The Polish company 3xE - samochody elektryczne (3xE - electric cars) offer electric vehicle conversions of small city cars such as the Smart ForTwo, Citroën C1, Fiat Panda, Peugeot 107, Audi A2. The converted cars have a range of about 100 km (60 mi), using lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO
4) batteries and brushless DC electric motors.
In 2015 the stock of EVs reached about 2,000, consisting of 1,280 BEV cars and 720 PHEVs. EV sales totaled 1,305 units in 2015, up 260% from 2014.
The top selling model was the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV (229).
In 2009 Portugal worked with Renault and Nissan to create a national charging network.
In 2010 the government offered purchase incentives for the first 5,000 EVs and a separate scrappage incentive. EVs were exempted from the vehicle registration tax. These incentives were discontinued at the end of 2011.
As of January 2018
514 EVs were registered. Registrations were led by the BMW i3. The government offered purchase incentives.
As of July 2016
722 EVs were registered. Registrations were led by the Mitsubishi i-MiEV.
BYD e6 electric taxi in Singapore
As of October 2016BMW was the EV segment leader. Adoption was slowed by high purchase prices, lack of public charging infrastructure and unclear national policies. As of October 2016 , 74 public charging stations were operating.
, 129 EVs were registered.
The government offered purchase incentives, although the country's taxation scheme made EVs more expensive than a conventional car. EVs face a carbon surcharge and a scrap rebate, along with the annual road tax.
BYD e6 electric taxis operate in Singapore, forming the largest e-taxi fleet in South East Asia. It is operated by HDT Holdings, the only e-taxi operator in Singapore, in collaboration with the ride hailing company Grab.
As of December 2015 The Nissan Leaf was introduced in October 2013.
, about 290 plug-in cars were registered, all in 2015.
GridCars is a Pretoria-based company promoting Commuter Cars, based on the TREV from Australia. The concept is to build ultra-light EVs, lessening demand on battery requirements, and making the vehicle more affordable. The Joule, designed by Cape Town-based Optimal Energy, made its debut at the 2008 Paris Motor Show, with a maximum range of 300 km (190 mi).
The country does not have government incentives or subsidies to promote EVs, although new internal combustion engine vehicles face a surcharge based on engine capacity.
Registration of highway-capable plug-in cars by model in South Korea between 2012 and 2013
|Kia Ray EV
|Samsung SM3 Z.E.
|Chevrolet Spark EV
As of October 2016 2,896 EVs were sold during the first ten months of 2016, up 12% year-on-year.
, about 7,200 plug-in cars had been sold.
As of 2014Kia Soul EV (657) and the Samsung SM3 Z.E. (640). The Hyundai Ioniq Electric was released in July 2016.
, all electric models on sale were manufactured by local firms. The top selling models during 2015 were the
The government offers a purchase subsidy for electric cars. Starting in 2016, the EV purchase tax surcharge was reduced, although EV drivers see various fees.
The stock of plug-in cars reached almost 6,000 plug-in as of 2015, consisting of 4,460 BEV cars and 1,490 PHEVs. The top selling model in 2015 was the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV (389).
3,129 EVs were sold in Spain during the first three quarters of 2016. Sales continued to grow at an accelerated pace, up 79% from the same period in 2015.
In 2011 the national government initiated EV purchase incentives. Aragón, Asturias, Baleares, Madrid, Navarra, Valencia, Castilla-La Mancha, Murcia, Castile and León offered additional incentives.
As of September 2015
, 2,072 electric cars had been registered, led by the Nissan Leaf. EV sales experienced a record month in September 2015 with 471 units registered, up from only 15 in September 2014.
Sales of the Nissan Leaf began in 2013.
No government incentives promote EVs. Electric vehicle tax increased from 5% to 50% through the new government's Interim Budget.
As of December 2017 The market is dominated by plug-in hybrids, representing 74.9% of plug-in car registrations through 2017. Passenger plug-ins increased their market share to 3.5% in 2016, and achieved a record of 5.2% in 2017.
, a total of 50,304 light-duty plug-in vehicles have been registered since 2011, consisting of 36,405 plug-in hybrids, 12,223 all-electric cars, and 1,676 all-electric vans.
As of December 2017. As of December 2016 , the Renault Kangoo Z.E. continued as the all-time the leader in the commercial utility EV segment with 1,024 units.
, the Outlander PHEV continues to rank as the all-time top selling plug-in electric car with 9,957 units registered.
Effective January 2012 Sweden offered subsidies for the purchase and operation of 5,000 electric cars and other "super green cars" with low/no carbon emissions. The program was belatedly renewed through 2015 and again for 2016 with the addition of subsidies for electric buses.
As of April 2016 During the first quarter of 2016, 1,479 EV were registered, consisting of 773 BEV cars (up 37.5% from 1Q 2015), and 706 PHEVs (up 44.1% from 1Q 2015). Registrations of plug-in cars totaled 6,288 units in 2015, up 133.9% from 2,668 in 2014.
, over 12,000 EVs had been registered since 2012.
Deliveries of the Mitsubishi i MiEV. the Nissan Leaf were launched in 2011.
The government offers no subsidies or incentives for purchasing EVs. Cantons can propose special discounts on annual taxes depending on the car's efficiency label and range from 100% rebate (e.g. Solothurn) to 0%.
S3 EV+. Luxgen is a domestic electric vehicle manufacturer in Taiwan
Taiwan has a plan to ban all non-electric vehicles in the coming decades, due to concerns over air quality. The plan calls for all new government vehicles and public buses to be electric by 2030, ban sales of nonelectric motorcycles by 2035, and ban sales of nonelectric four-wheel vehicles by 2040.
The BYD e6 has been used as taxis since the first quarter of 2014.
Very low numbers of EV cars by 2018. No government incentives.
BYD works with MEA, the Thailand power company, to sell all-electric vehicles in Thailand. Loxley has gone into partnership with BYD to launch the first Electrified Transportation scheme in Thailand, comprising zero-emission all-electric buses and passenger cars.
Nissan Leaf in Kharkiv
- EcoTaxi, 2016
As of 2016 Registrations were led by the Nissan Leaf with 647 units.
, 3,161 EVs and hybrids were registered in Ukraine.
About 90% of EVs in Ukraine are used imports. During the first eight months of 2016, Ukrainians imported twice as many as in 2015. Imports grew to 1,550 units during the first eight months of 2016.
In August 2016, Ukrainian officials started to refuse the registration of American EVs, citing the need for certification by European rules. To comply with the certification requirements, the cars must be converted from US to European standards, which includes the replacement of a windshield, headlights and other parts, at a substantial cost.
More than 137,000 light-duty plug-in electric vehicles have been registered in the UK up until December 2017, including about 5,100 plug-in commercial vans. As of October 2016 , the UK had 11,903 public charging 4,215 stations, of which 696 were rapid chargers.
A total of 36,907 plug-in cars were registered in 2016. Sales of plug-in hybrids more than doubled the sales of all-electric cars. The plug-in market share reached 1.37% of new car sales in 2016. While overall new car registrations increased 2.3% from the previous year, plug-in registrations increased 28.6% in 2016. Registrations in 2017 totaled 47,263 plug-in electric cars with a market share of 1.86% of new car sales.
The Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV is the all-time top selling EV with 26,600 units registered through 2016, accounting for about 50% of all PHEVs sold since 2010.
The government offered purchase incentives via the Plug-in Car Grant program beginning in 2011. The program was extended to include vans in February 2012 and in October 2016 to include large electric trucks. As of December 2017 , the number of eligible registered plug-in electric cars that have benefited with the subsidy totaled 127,509 units since the launch of the programme in 2011.
In April 2014 and December 2015, the government extended the program with modifications. Eligible ultra-low emission vehicles (ULEVs) included hydrogen fuel cell cars.
Separately the government subsidized homeowners to install charge points at home via the "Electric Vehicle Homecharge Scheme". EVs are exempted from London's congestion charge.
U.S. plug-in electric car cumulative sales since 2008 passed the 500,000 unit milestone in August 2016.
The graph shows cumulative sales by month by type of powertrain from December 2010 up to December 2017.
As of December 2017 with 52.9% being all-electric cars (BEVs) and 47.1% plug-in hybrids (PHEVs). Cumulative plug-in car sales since 2008 reached 250,000 units in August 2014, and 500,000 in August 2016. California is the largest plug-in car regional market in the country, with over 365,000 plug-in electric vehicles registered through 2017, and accounted for approximately 48% of cumulative plug-in sales in the American market from 2011 to June 2016. The other nine states that follow California's Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) regulations accounted for another 10%.
, cumulative sales totaled 764,666 highway legal plug-in electric cars since 2008,
A total 157,181 plug-in cars were sold nationwide in 2016, up 37.6% from 2015, and 194,479 in 2017, up 23.7% from 2016. The plug-in segment passed the 1% market share for the first time in 2017, with 1.13% of the country's total new car sales, up from 0.90% in 2016.
As of December 2017Chevrolet Volt is the all-time best selling plug-in car with 133,838 units, followed by the Tesla Model S with 118,817, and the Nissan Leaf with 114,827 units. Sales in 2017 were led by the Tesla Model S with about 26,500 units, the top selling plug-in car for the third year running, followed by the Chevrolet Bolt (23,297), Tesla Model X (~21,700), Toyota Prius Prime (20,936), and the Chevrolet Volt (20,349), together accounting for 58% of total sales in 2017.
California established a program to reduce air pollution in the 1980s. Under pressure from manufacturers, the program was revised to offer only modest support of zero-emission vehicles to promote research and development, and greater support for partial zero-emissions vehicles (PZEVs). Many manufacturers then terminated their electric car programs.
The federal tax credit for new plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) is worth between US$2,500 and US$7,500 depending on battery capacity. Several states have established additional incentives. The government pledged US$2.4 billion in federal grants to support the development of next-generation transport, and US$115 million for the installation of charging infrastructure.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j Cobb, Jeff (2017-01-16). "The World Just Bought Its Two-Millionth Plug-in Car". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2017-01-17. An estimated 2,032,000 highway-legal plug-in passenger cars and vans have been sold worldwide at the end of 2016. The top selling markets are China (645,708 new energy cars, including imports), Europe (638,000 EVs), and the United States (570,187 plug-in cars). The top European country markets are Norway (135,276), the Netherlands (113,636), France (108,065), and the UK (91,000). Total Chinese sales of domestically produced new energy vehicles, including buses and truck, totaled 951,447 vehicles. China was the top selling EV market in 2016, and also has the world's largest stock of plug-in cars.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k International Energy Agency (IEA), Clean Energy Ministerial, and Electric Vehicles Initiative (EVI) (June 2017). "Global EV Outlook 2017: Two million and counting" (PDF). IEA Publications. Retrieved 2018-01-20. See pp. 5–7, 12–22, 27–28, and Statistical annex, pp. 49–51.
- ^ Edelstein, Stephen (2018-01-04). "Global Electric-Car And Plug-In Hybrid Sales Surpassed 1 Million In 2017, Report Says". TheDrive.com. Retrieved 2018-02-17.
- ^ a b c Vaughan, Adam (2017-12-25). "Electric and plug-in hybrid cars whiz past 3m mark worldwide". The Guardian. Retrieved 2018-01-20. "The number of fully electric and plug-in hybrid cars on the world’s roads passed the 3 million mark in November 2017."
- ^ a b c Staff (February 2017). "Global Plug-in Sales for 2016". EV-Volumes.com. Retrieved 2017-02-05.
- ^ a b c d e f Staff (January 2018). "Global Plug-in Sales for 2017-Q4 and the Full Year (prelim.)". EVvolumes.com. Retrieved 2018-02-17. Global registrations totaled around 1.2 million units in 2017, 57 % higher than 2016. These include all global BEV and PHEV passenger cars sales, light trucks in USA/Canada and light commercial vehicle in Europe. In 2017, 66 % of sales were pure electric (BEV) and 34 % were plug-in hybrids (PHEV). The segment market share was 1.3%, and in December the global plug-in share touched the 2 % mark for the first time.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m International Energy Agency (IEA), Clean Energy Ministerial, and Electric Vehicles Initiative (EVI) (May 2016). "Global EV Outlook 2016: Beyond one million electric cars" (PDF). IEA Publications. Retrieved 2016-08-24. See pp. 4-5, and 24-25 and Statistical annex, pp. 34-37.
- ^ a b c Cobb, Jeff (2016-12-27). "China Takes Lead As Number One In Plug-in Vehicle Sales". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2017-01-06. As of November 2016, cumulative sales of plug-in vehicles in China totaled 846,447 units, including passenger and commercial vehicles, making it the world's leader in overall plug-in vehicle sales. With cumulative sales of about 600,000 passenger plug-ins through November 2016, China is also the global leader in the passenger plug-in car segment, ahead of Europe and the U.S.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j Jose Pontes (2018-01-18). "China December 2017". EV Sales. Retrieved 2018-01-19. Sales of plug-in electric cars in China, including imports, totaled 600,174 units in 2017. The BAIC EC-Series was the top selling plug-in with 78,079 units sold in China, making the city car the world's top selling plug-in car in 2017. The top selling plug-in hybrid was the BYD Song PHEV with 30,920 units. BYD Auto was the top selling car manufacturer. Foreign brands captured only about 4% of plug-in sales in 2017, with about half by Tesla. The Chinese plug-in car market represented roughly half of the 1.2 million plug-ins sold worldwide in 2017.
- ^ a b c d e f g h Cobb, Jeff (2017-01-17). "Top 10 Plug-in Vehicle Adopting Countries of 2016". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2017-01-23.
- ^ Jose, Pontes (2018-01-28). "Europe December 2017". EVSales.com. Retrieved 2018-02-17. "European sales totaled 306,143 plug-in cars in 2017."
- ^ a b Ayre, James (2018-01-04). "Over 50% Of New Car Registrations In Norway In 2017 = Plug-In Vehicles Or Hybrids". CleanTechnica.com. Retrieved 2018-01-11.
There are now more than 140,000 fully electric cars (BEVs) on Norwegian roads. When plug-in hybrids (PHEVs) are added, the number of electric cars surpasses 200,000.
- ^ a b c d Opplysningsrådet for Veitrafikken AS (OFV). "Bilsalget i 2017" [Car sales in 2017] (in Norwegian). OFV. Retrieved 2018-01-11. A total of 71,737 plug-in electric vehicles were registered in Norway in 2017, consisting of: 33,025 new electric cars, 8,558 used imported all-electric cars, 29,236 new plug-in hybrid cars, 742 new all-electric vans, and 176 used imported all-electric vans.
- ^ a b c Cobb, Jeff (2017-01-11). "America's Plug-in Car Sales Were Their Best Ever in 2016". HybridCars.com and Baum & Associates. Retrieved 2017-01-12. plug-in car sales in the U.S. totaled 157,181 units, up 37.6% from 2015 (114,248). The EV segment achieved an all-time high market share of 0.90% of new car sales in 2016. December sales totaled a record monthly volume of 23,288 units and also achieved a record monthly market share of 1.39% of new car sales. The top selling model for the second year in a row was the Tesla Model S with 29,156 units sold in 2016, followed by the Chevrolet Volt (24,739), Tesla Model X (18,028), Ford Energi Fusion with 15,938, and the Nissan Leaf with 14,006 units. As of December 2016, cumulative sales totaled 570,187 plug-in cars since 2008, with the Chevrolet Volt as the all-time best selling EV with 113,489 units. The Tesla Model S ranks third with an estimated 92,317 units since its inception in 2012.
- ^ a b c d e f g h Cobb, Jeff (2018-01-04). "December 2017 Dashboard". HybridCars.com and Baum & Associates. Retrieved 2018-01-21. Plug-in electric car sales in the U.S. totaled 194,479 units in 2017, consisting of 104,487 all-electric cars and 89,992 plug-in hybrids. The plug-in car segment achieved a market share of 1.13% of new car sales.
- ^ a b c California New Car Dealers Association (CNCDA) (February 2018). "New Vehicle Registrations in State Predicted to Exceed 2 Million Units Again in 2018" (PDF). CNCDA. Retrieved 2018-02-17. Registrations through December 2017 since 2013.
- ^ a b c d Jose Pontes (2018-02-02). "Japan December 2017". EV Sales. Retrieved 2018-02-17. About 56,000 plug-in electric cars were sold in Japan in 2017.
- ^ Clark, Pilita; Campbell, Peter (2016-08-31). "Motor Industry: Pressure on the Pump". Financial Times. Retrieved 2016-09-30.
- ^ Justin Gerdes (2012-05-11). "The Global Electric Vehicle Movement: Best Practices From 16 Cities". Forbes. Retrieved 2014-10-20.
- ^ a b c d e Argonne National Laboratory, United States Department of Energy (2016-03-28). "Fact#918: March 28, 2016 - Global Plug-in Light Vehicles Sales Increased By About 80% in 2015". Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy. Retrieved 2016-03-29.
- ^ a b c Jose, Pontes (2018-01-29). "World Top 20 December 2017 (Updated)". EVSales.com. Retrieved 2018-02-17. "Global sales totaled 1,224,103 plug-in cars in 2017, with a market share of over 1%."
- ^ Quiroga, Tony (August 2009). "Driving the Future". Car and Driver. Hachette Filipacchi Media U.S., Inc. p. 52.
- ^ Sherry Boschert (2006). PHEVs: The Cars that will Recharge America. New Society Publishers, Gabriola Island, Canada. ISBN 978-0-86571-571-4.
- ^ "Tesla Motors hands keys to 100th Roadster owner". The Mercury News. 2008-12-10. Retrieved 2016-10-01.
- ^ Cobb, Jeff (2014-12-10). "Retrospective: Four Years of Nissan Leaf and Chevy Volt". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2016-10-01.
- ^ Klippenstein, Matthew (2014-04-08). "One Percent Of Norway's Cars Are Already plug-ins". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2016-10-31.
- ^ a b c International Energy Agency, Clean Energy Ministerial, and Electric Vehicles Initiative (EVI) (March 2015). "Global EV Outlook 2015" (PDF). Clean Energy Ministerial. Retrieved 2015-03-14. The EV Outlook 2015 figures include only passenger EVs and SUVs (excludes light-weight utility vehicles) and total sales/registrations figures correspond to the 16 EVI countries, which are estimated to represent 95% of the global PEV stock. As of December 2014 , the Japanese stock of EVs totaled 108,241 units, and China had about 36,500 BEV buses.
- ^ Jeff Cobb (2015-09-16). "One Million Global Plug-In Sales Milestone Reached". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2015-10-10.
- ^ Petter Haugneland (2016-02-29). "Nasjonal transportplan: Elbil er klimaløsningen" [National Transport: EV is the climate solution] (in Norwegian). Norsk Elbilforening (Norwegian Electric Vehicle Association). Archived from the original on 2016-03-05. Retrieved 2016-03-04.
- ^ a b Cobb, Jeff (2016-05-11). "China Reports 500,000th Plug-in Vehicle Sold". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2016-05-12. As of March 2016, a total of 502,572 new energy vehicles have been sold in China since 2011, consisting of 366,219 BEV vehicles (72.9%) and 136,353 PHEVs (27.1%). Sales since 2011 includes heavy-duty commercial vehicles such buses and sanitation trucks, and only accounts for vehicles manufactured in the country.
- ^ Cobb, Jeff (2016-03-14). "Californians Will Buy 200,000th Plug-in Car By This Month". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2016-03-15. Sales of plug-in cars in California passed the 200,000 unit milestone in March 2016, representing 47% of the 425,000 plug-in cars sold in the U.S. through February 2016.
- ^ Cobb, Jeff (2016-05-09). "Norway Is Fourth Country To Register 100,000 Plug-in Cars". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2016-05-09. As of April 2016, the United States is the leading country market with a stock of about 450,000 highway legal light-duty plug-in vehicles delivered since 2008. China ranks second with around 300,000 units sold since 2011, followed by Japan with about 150,000 plug-in units sold since 2009, both through March 2016. European sales are led by Norway with over 100,000 units registered by the end of April 2016.
- ^ Cobb, Jeff (2016-06-22). "Global Plug-in Car Sales Cruise Past 1.5 Million". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2016-06-22.
- ^ a b c Cobb, Jeff (2016-06-15). "Europe Buys Its 500,000th Plug-in Vehicle". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2016-06-15. As of May 2016, cumulative sales by country are led by the United States with a stock of more than 460,000 highway legal light-duty plug-in vehicles delivered since 2008. China ranks second with almost 390,000 units sold since 2011. Europe is the largest regional market with more than 500,000 plug-in passenger cars and vans registered through May 2016.
- ^ a b c d Cobb, Jeff (2016-09-01). "Americans Buy Their Half-Millionth Plug-in Car". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2016-09-02. See other figures in graphs.
- ^ Cobb, Jeff (2016-09-28). "China Buys Half-Millionth Passenger Plug-in Car; On Track To Surpass US". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2016-09-28. Sales of new energy vehicles totaled 689,447 units between 2011 and August 2016. Cumulative sales of new energy passenger cars totaled 493,290 units between 2010 and August 2016.
- ^ Shahan, Zachary (2016-11-22). "1 Million Pure EVs Worldwide: EV Revolution Begins!". Clean Technica. Retrieved 2016-11-23.
- ^ a b c d Cobb, Jeff (2016-10-10). "France Becomes Fifth Nation To Buy 100,000 Plug-in Vehicles". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2016-10-10.
- ^ a b Foucaud, Isabelle (2016-10-01). "Plus de 100.000 véhicules électriques circulent aujourd'hui en France" [More than 100,000 electric vehicles currently on the road in France]. Le Figaro (in French). Retrieved 2016-10-10. Environment Minister, Ségolène Royal, announced during the 2016 Paris Motor Show that there are more than 100,000 electric vehicles currently on French roads.
- ^ a b c Cobb, Jeff (2016-11-17). "The Netherlands Becomes Sixth Country To Buy 100,000 Plug-in Vehicles". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2016-11-18.
- ^ a b c d e Cobb, Jeff (2016-01-18). "Top Six Plug-in Vehicle Adopting Countries – 2015". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2016-01-23. About 520,000 highway legal light-duty plug-in vehicles were sold worldwide in 2015, with cumulative global sales reaching 1,235,000. The United States is currently the leading market, with 411,120 units sold since 2008, followed by China, with 258,328 units sold since 2011. Japan ranks third (about 130,000), followed by the Netherlands (88,991), Norway (77,897), France (74,291), and the UK (53,254). Four of these countries achieved a PEV market share over 1% of new car sales in 2015: Norway (22.39%), the Netherlands (9.74%), France (1.2%), and the UK (1.1%)
- ^ a b c d e f g h Jeff Cobb (2015-02-18). "Top 6 Plug-In Vehicle Adopting Countries – 2014". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2015-02-18.
- ^ a b c d Jeff Cobb (2014-01-16). "Top 6 Plug-In Vehicle Adopting Countries". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2014-01-18.
Over 172,000 highway-capable passenger vehicles have been sold in the U.S. between 2008 and December 2013.
- ^ a b Jose, Pontes (2016-01-12). "China December 2015 (3rd Update)". EVSales.com. Retrieved 2016-02-08.
- ^ Rijksdienst voor Ondernemend Nederland (RVO) (January 2015). "Special: Analyse over 2014" [Special: Analysis of 2014] (PDF) (in Dutch). RVO (Dutch National Office for Enterprising). Retrieved 2015-02-24. See total 2014 registration by type of PEV under the heading "31-12-2014". The market share of the passenger EV segment in 2014 was 3.86% of total new passenger car registrations.
- ^ a b Norwegian Road Federation (OFV) (January 2015). "Bilsalget i 2015" [Car sales in 2015] (in Norwegian). OFV. Archived from the original on 2016-02-09. Retrieved 2016-03-05. Registrations of new plug-in vehicles totaled 25,779 electric cars (zero emission vehicles totaled 25,788 accounting for 9 hydrogen vehicles), 7,964 PHEVs and 712 BEV vans in 2015. In addition, registrations of used imports totaled 5,122 electric cars and 55 electric vans. plug-in vehicle registrations totaled 39,632 units.
- ^ "Ladbare biler i Norge sep, 2015" [Rechargeable cars in Norway September 2015] (in Norwegian). Grønn bil. October 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-01-17. Retrieved 2015-10-14. Click on the bar graph "Registrerte biler" and select "12 mnd" for registrations for each year. Registrations include new and used imports. Move the mouse over each bar to show the sales split between BEV and PHEVs by year. Registrations totaled 44,769 light-duty EVs at the end of 2014, and 74,282 at the end of September 2015.
- ^ a b Ben Lane (2015-01-12). "UK electric fleet passes 24,500 mark". UK: Next Green Car. Retrieved 2015-01-19.
- ^ a b c d e Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders(SMMT) (2015-01-07). "December 2014 – EV registrations". SMT. Retrieved 2015-01-08. A total of 14,518 plug-in cars were registered during 2014, consisting of 6,697 BEVs and 7,821 PHEVs, up from 3,586 plug-in cars were registered in 2013. A total of 2,476,435 new cars were registered in 2014.
- ^ a b c Kraftfahrt-Bundesamtes (KBA) (January 2015). "Neuzulassungsbarometer im Dezember 2014" [New Registrations Barometer December 2014] (in German). KBA. Retrieved 2015-01-27. A total of 13,049 plug-in cars registered in Germany during 2014, consisting of 8,522 BEV cars and 4,527 PHEVs.
- ^ a b c Henk Bekker (2014-03-29). "2014 Germany: Total Number of Electric Cars". BestSellingCars.com. Retrieved 2014-08-23. Cumulative number of registered electric cars was 12,156 as of January 1, 2014.
- ^ a b c Kraftfahrt-Bundesamtes (KBA) (January 2016). "Neuzulassungsbarometer im Dezember 2015" [New Registrations Barometer December 2015] (in German). KBA. Retrieved 2015-01-21. A total of 23,464 plug-in cars registered in Germany during 2015, consisting of 12,363 BEV cars and 11,101 PHEVs.
- ^ a b Klippenstein, Matthew (2016-01-20). "plug-in car sales in Canada, December 2015: Tesla Model S-Capades". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2016-06-19. Estimated sales for Ford Energi models. Tesla Model S, Smart ED and the other figures with yellow background from IHS data.
- ^ a b c d Klippenstein, Matthew (2015-02-06). "plug-in car sales in Canada, January 2015". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2015-02-07. Estimated sales for Ford Energi models. Tesla Model S, Smart ED and the other figures with yellow background from IHS data.
- ^ a b c d e f Bil Sweden (2016-01-04). "Nyregistreringar december 2015 def" [New Registrations December 2015 (final)] (in Swedish). Bil Sweden. Retrieved 2016-04-15. Download the pdf file "Nyregistreringar december 2015 def" (PressRel1512_def.pdf) See table: Nyregistrerade miljöpersonbilar december 2015. A total of 5,625 PHEVs, 2,962 BEV cars and 321 BEV vans were registered in 2015, for a total of 8,908 light-duty EVs. Passenger car registrations totaled 345,108 units in 2015. Figures for 2014 were revised.
- ^ a b c d e Bil Sweden (2015-10-02). "Urstark bilmarknad under 2014" [Exceptionally strong car market in 2014] (in Swedish). Bil Sweden. Retrieved 2015-02-22. A total of 4,656 super clean cars and 282 BEV vans were registered in Sweden in 2014. Super clean cars are those with carbon dioxide emissions of up to 50 g/km (two Porsche plug-in models, the Panamera S E-Hybrid and the 918 Spyder are not accounted as super clean cars, instead they are accounted with conventional hybrids). In 2011 there were 181 EVs registered, 928 in 2012, 1,546 in 2013 and 4,656 super clean cars were registered during 2014. Since the introduction of the super clean car rebate in January 2012 until December 2014, a total of 7,130 super clean cars have been registered.
- ^ a b c d e f Bil Sweden (2015-01-02). "Nyregistreringar december 2014 (prel)" [New registrations in December 2014 (preliminar)] (in Swedish). Bil Sweden. Retrieved 2015-01-03. Download file "Nyregistreringar december 2014 (prel)" see tables: "Nyregistrerade supermiljöbilar december 2014" with summary of passenger EV registrations by model for 2013 (revised) and 2014; table "Nyregistrerade eldrivna lätta lastbilar (högst 3,5 ton) per modell:" for plug-in utility vans registrations for the same two years; and table "Nyregistrerade miljöbilar per typ jan-dec 2014" for the distribution of registrations by alternative fuels. A total of 303,866 new passenger vehicles were registered in 2014, and a total of 4,656 super clean cars, resulting in a PEV market share of 1.53% of new car sales.
- ^ a b Roger Schreffler (2015-09-23). "PSA, Toyota Lead Way as European Cars Get Cleaner". Ward's Auto. Retrieved 2015-09-24. Cumulative PHEV and BEV sales in Europe totaled 233,022 units as of December 2014.
- ^ a b c Automotive Industry Data (AID) (2016-02-15). "PHEVs - Take off or transitory blip?". AID Newsletter. Retrieved 2016-02-19. Market share only includes Western European countries. A total of 95,140 PHEV cars were sold in Europe in 2015.
- ^ Association Nationale pour le Développement de la Mobilité Electrique - AVERE France (2016-03-24). "Quelle est la place de la France sur le marché européen du véhicule électrique ?" [What is the place of France in the European electric vehicle market] (in French). AVERE. Retrieved 2016-03-27. A total of 97,687 BEV vehicles, including vans, were registered in the European market in 2015, up from 65,199 in 2014 (+49.8%).
- ^ a b Staff (February 2016). "Europe Plug-in Sales Q4 and Full Year 2015". EVvolumes.com. Retrieved 2016-02-19.
- ^ a b International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT) (2014). "European Vehicle Market Statistics Pocketbook" (PDF). ICCT. Retrieved 2016-02-21. See page 88: EU-28 market share in 2013 was 0.42% (includes BEV cars and PHEVs). Adjusted to consider sales/registrations in Norway (5.79%) and Switzerland (0.57%) the market share rises to 0.49%.
- ^ California New Car Dealers Association (CNCDA) (February 2015). "California Auto Outlook Covering Fourth Quarter 2014: New Light Vehicle Registrations Likely to Exceed 1.9 million units in 2015" (PDF). CNCDA. Retrieved 2015-03-15. Registrations through December 2014 since 2010.
- ^ a b California New Car Dealers Association (CNCDA) (February 2016). "California New Vehicle Registrations Expected to Remain Above 2 Million Units in 2016" (PDF). CNCDA. Retrieved 2016-02-17. Registrations through December 2015 since 2011. Revised figures for 2014.
- ^ a b China Association of Automobile Manufacturers (CAAM) (2015-01-14). "The sales and production of new energy vehicles boomed". CAAM. Retrieved 2015-01-14.
- ^ a b China Association of Automobile Manufacturers (2012-01-16). "5,579 electric cars sold in China in 2011". Wind Energy and Electric Vehicle Review. Retrieved 2014-01-12.
- ^ a b Cars21.com (2013-02-13). "EV sales increase 103.9% in China in 2012- Electric China Weekly No 17". Cars21.com. Retrieved 2014-01-12.
- ^ a b Jiang Xueqing (2014-01-11). "New-energy vehicles 'turning the corner'". China Daily. Retrieved 2014-01-12.
- ^ a b China Association of Automobile Manufacturers (CAAM) (2016-01-20). "New energy vehicles enjoyed a high-speed growth". CAAM. Retrieved 2016-02-08.
- ^ a b Philippe Schwoerer (2015-01-09). "Quel marché espérer en 2015 pour le véhicule électrique ?" [What the market expects in 2015 for the electric vehicle] (in French). Association pour l'Avenir du Véhicule Electrique Méditerranéen (AVEM). Retrieved 2015-02-01. The BMW i3 with range extender is often excluded of the count of BEV cars because in France it is classified and accounted together with conventional hybrids.
- ^ Jose, Pontes (2017-01-31). "Markets Roundup December 2016 (Special Edition)". EVSales.com. Retrieved 2017-02-08. For countries with top PEV market share in 2016 see "II. Engines of Growth: By EV share - Hong Kong ~5%, Iceland 4.6%, Switzerland 1.8%, Belgium 1.8, and 1.6% Austria.
- ^ Jose, Pontes (2016-02-03). "Markets Roundup December 2015 (Special Edition)". EVSales.com. Retrieved 2016-02-17. For countries with top PEV market share in 2015 see "Engines of Growth:" Hong Kong 4.84%, Denmark 2.29%, and Switzerland 1.98%.
- ^ Zachary Shahan (2013-03-07). "Electric vehicle market share in 19 countries". ABB Conversations. Retrieved 2014-04-12.
- ^ a b c d e f European Alternative Fuels Observatory (eafo) (February 2018). "PEV (M1) market share in Europe". eafo. Retrieved 2018-02-26. The plug-in passenger car market share in Eurpe was 1.74%, corresponding to 0.93% for plug-in hybrids and 0.81% for all-electric cars. Put the mouse over the bar graph to see market share by year.
- ^ Jose, Pontes (2016-01-29). "Iceland December 2015". EVSales.com. Retrieved 2016-02-17.
- ^ a b Jose Pontes (2015-02-06). "Markets Roundup December 2014 (Special Edition)". EV Sales. Retrieved 2015-03-15. See section "Engines of Growth - by EV share" Estonia's market shared in 2014 climbed to 1.57% from 0.68% in 2013. Iceland's market share grew from 0.21% in 2012, to 0.94% in 2013, to 2.71% in 2014.
- ^ a b c d e Bil Sweden (2018-01-08). "Definitiva nyregistreringar under 2017" [Definitive new registrations in 2017] (in Swedish). Bil Sweden. Retrieved 2018-01-31. Download the pdf file "PressRel1712_DEF.pdf" See tables: "Nyregistrerade supermiljöbilar december 2017", "Nyregistrerade miljöbilar per typ december 2017" and "Nyregistrerade eldrivna lätta lastbilar (högst 3,5 ton) per modell" - A total of 19,981 light-duty plug-in vehicles were registered in 2017, consisting of 15,447 plug-in hybrids, 4,217 all-electric cars, and 317 all-electric vans. Passenger car registrations totaled 379,393 units in 2017, of which, the plug-in segment captured a market share of 5.2%. Registrations of super green cars totaled 19,211 units, up from 12,995 in 2016. Table "Nyregistrerade miljöbilar per typ december 2017" reports 2017 figures that do not add up with detailed count in table "Nyregistrerade miljöpersonbilar december 2017" so, plug-in cars figures were taken from the latter.
- ^ a b c d e f "Statistics Electric Vehicles in the Netherlands" (PDF). Rijksdienst voor Ondernemend Nederland (RVO) - Dutch National Office for Enterprising -. RVO. January 2018. Retrieved 2018-01-16. With a total of 25,134 Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEVs registered by the end of December 2017, the plug-in hybrid is the all-time top selling plug-in electric vehicle in the Netherlands. The Tesla Model S is the best selling all-electric car with 8,028 units registered.
- ^ Jose Pontes (2015-01-18). "Switzerland December 2014". EVSales.com. Retrieved 2015-03-15.
Switzerland's PEV market shared in 2014 was 0.75% of total new car sales.
- ^ Statistik Austria (2016-03-16). "Kraftfahrzeuge - Neuzulassungen: Neuzulassungen nach Jahren" [Motor vehicles - registrations: Registrations by year] (in German). Statistik Austria. Retrieved 2016-03-20. Download the file "Kfz-Neuzulassungen Jänner bis Dezember 2015." A total of 2,778 passenger plug-in cars were sold in Austria in 2015 out of 308,555 passenger cars, resulting in a market share of 0.90% (see pp. 78 PDF version).
- ^ a b c d e f France Mobilité Électrique - AVERE France (2018-01-09). "Près de 31 000 véhicules électriques immatriculés en France en 2017 !" [Nearly 31,000 electric vehicles registered in France in 2017!] (in French). AVERE. Retrieved 2018-01-17. A total of 41,724 light-duty plug-in electric vehicles were registered in France in 2017 consisting of 24,910 all-electric cars, 6,011 electric utility vans and 10,803 plug-in hybrid cars. The plug-in car segment achieved a market share of 1.98% of new car registrations in the country in 2017.
- ^ a b c d Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders (SMMT) (2018-01-05). "December – EV registrations". SMMT. Retrieved 2018-01-11.Registrations in 2017 totaled 47,263 plug-in electric vehicles consisting of 13,597 all-electric cars and 33,6663 plug-in hybrids. Of these, a total of 45,187 cars were eligible for the Plug-in Car Grant. Since its launch in 2011, a total of 127,509 cars eligible for the PICG have been registered through December 2017. A total of 2,540,617 new cars were registered in 2017, resulting in a plug-in electric car market share of 1.86% of new car sales.
- ^ Cobb, Jeff (2016-01-06). "December 2015 Dashboard". HybridCars.com and Baum & Associates. Retrieved 2016-03-14.
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- ^ Jose Pontes (2015-01-10). "Denmark December 2014". EVSales.com. Retrieved 2015-03-15.
Denmark's PEV market shared in 2014 was 0.88% of total new car sales.
- ^ California New Car Dealers Association (CNCDA) (February 2017). "State New Vehicle Market Up Slightly in 2016; Similar Outlook for 2017" (PDF). CNCDA. Retrieved 2017-02-24. Registrations through December 2016 since 2012. Revised figures for 2015. The share reached 3.5% in 2016 consisting of 1.6% for PHEVs and 1.9% for BEV cars.
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- ^ Liu Wanxiang (2017-01-11). "乘联会：新能源乘用车2016年销量32万辆 比亚迪\吉利\北汽稳居前三" [By the Federation: new energy passenger car sales in 2016 totaled 320,000 units. BYD, Geely and BAIC were the top three manufacturers] (in Chinese). D1EV.com. Retrieved 2017-01-12. Sales of new energy vehicles in China totaled 320,081 units, consisting of 239,830 BEV cars and 80,251 PHEVss.
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Last year, China overtook both the US and Europe in annual sales of electric vehicles and PHEVs. This year, it will move ahead of both the US and Europe in cumulative plug-in vehicle sales.
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- ^ Staff (2016-05-11). "中汽协：4月新能源汽车产销同步破3万辆 同比增长近2倍" [Automobile Association: April sales of new energy vehicles sync break 30,000, an increase of nearly 2-fold] (in Chinese). D1EV.com. Retrieved 2016-07-31. Sales of new energy vehicles totaled 31,772 units in April 2016, consisting of 23,908 BEV vehicles and 7,864 PHEVs.
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According to Land Transport Authority figures, there are just 129 EVs and PHEVs here (as of end October), with BMW accounting for most of these cars. The 129 units translate to a mere 0.02 per cent of Singapore's car population of 601,948.
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Registrations in 2016 totaled 36,907 EVs consisting of 10,264 BEV cars and 26,643 PHEVs. Of these, a total of 35,447 cars were eligible for the Plug-in Car Grant. Since its launch in 2011, a total of 83,052 cars eligible for the PICG have been registered through December 2016. A total of 2,692,786 new cars were registered in 2016, resulting in a EV market share of 1.37% of new car sales.
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The Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV is the UK’s best-selling PHEV. At its introduction in 2014 it effectively created the ultra-low emission vehicle segment, notching up 10,000 sales in the UK within the first ten months and amassing a total sales figure of 26,600 by the end of 2016.
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- permanent dead link] The Norwegian EV success continues, Norwegian Electric Vehicle Association, June 2016.