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Kure Deep Endemism
Kure Deep Endemism
Published: 2015/09/30
Channel: KHON2 News
Endemic Birds in Hakalau Forest on the Big Island of Hawaii
Endemic Birds in Hakalau Forest on the Big Island of Hawaii
Published: 2017/06/11
Channel: Melani King
Kure Deep Endemism 1
Kure Deep Endemism 1
Published: 2015/10/15
Channel: Association for Marine Exploration
Nowhere Else on Earth: Indigenous Plants of Hawaii
Nowhere Else on Earth: Indigenous Plants of Hawaii
Published: 2011/07/15
Channel: The Nature Conservancy
Mauna Kea silversword - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Mauna Kea silversword - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Published: 2015/09/24
Channel: Wiz Science™
Birth of an Endemic Hawaiian Forest
Birth of an Endemic Hawaiian Forest
Published: 2016/01/08
Channel: Hawaiian Legacy Forest
Kure Deep Endemism 2
Kure Deep Endemism 2
Published: 2015/10/15
Channel: Association for Marine Exploration
Big Island Hawaii. Part 31. Finding Nēnē.
Big Island Hawaii. Part 31. Finding Nēnē.
Published: 2010/01/22
Channel: videofilmik
Endangered Hawaiian Monk Seals and a Green Sea Turtle basking and playing on Poipu Beach!
Endangered Hawaiian Monk Seals and a Green Sea Turtle basking and playing on Poipu Beach!
Published: 2012/04/19
Channel: lovehawaiinei
La`au Lapa`au: Traditional Hawaiian Herbal Healthcare
La`au Lapa`au: Traditional Hawaiian Herbal Healthcare
Published: 2012/05/16
Channel: 73rdStProductions
Weird Places: Socotra
Weird Places: Socotra
Published: 2013/05/23
Channel: SciShow
Mauna Kea silversword - Big Island Hawaii
Mauna Kea silversword - Big Island Hawaii
Published: 2015/12/09
Channel: Stairs & Sparks
Flora and Fauna on Maui
Flora and Fauna on Maui
Published: 2012/01/11
Channel: Lucille Chun
Ecology, Evolution, and Species Diversification in Hawaiian Islands
Ecology, Evolution, and Species Diversification in Hawaiian Islands
Published: 2016/06/07
Channel: Harvard Museum of Natural History
Royal Hawaiian Sandalwood Essential Oil Production on Big Island of Hawaii
Royal Hawaiian Sandalwood Essential Oil Production on Big Island of Hawaii
Published: 2015/08/20
Channel: MAHALO Skin Care
Hawaii...A True Paradise (A YSTV YouTube Presentation)
Hawaii...A True Paradise (A YSTV YouTube Presentation)
Published: 2014/10/08
Channel: Your Sanctuary TV
Hawaiian Yellow-Faced Bee Project
Hawaiian Yellow-Faced Bee Project
Published: 2016/07/06
Channel: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
The Big Island of Hawaii
The Big Island of Hawaii
Published: 2016/09/29
Channel: Arthur von Wiesenberger
HOW TO CATCH ALTERNATIVE BAITS FOR WHIPPING!
HOW TO CATCH ALTERNATIVE BAITS FOR WHIPPING!
Published: 2015/07/31
Channel: Scuba Chris
Willie K Performance at Hawaiian Legacy Forest, Big Island
Willie K Performance at Hawaiian Legacy Forest, Big Island
Published: 2017/03/31
Channel: Menpachi Productions
Nene Goose @ Princeville Kauai
Nene Goose @ Princeville Kauai
Published: 2013/09/02
Channel: Mike Pailliotet
RARE FOOTAGE of the EXTINCT Laysan Honeycreeper ʻApapane - Only Video Ever Recorded - 1923
RARE FOOTAGE of the EXTINCT Laysan Honeycreeper ʻApapane - Only Video Ever Recorded - 1923
Published: 2016/08/10
Channel: Pigeon147
RARE FOOTAGE of the EXTINCT Laysan Rail Bird - Only Footage Ever Recorded 1923
RARE FOOTAGE of the EXTINCT Laysan Rail Bird - Only Footage Ever Recorded 1923
Published: 2016/09/06
Channel: Pigeon147
Hawaiian Monk Seal R307 @  Molokini Island Maui Hawaii
Hawaiian Monk Seal R307 @ Molokini Island Maui Hawaii
Published: 2011/11/21
Channel: Jim Friend
Hawaii Island: 6.77 Acres of Land at Kula Kahiko Road For Sale,  MLS#282507
Hawaii Island: 6.77 Acres of Land at Kula Kahiko Road For Sale, MLS#282507
Published: 2016/02/09
Channel: Jo Kealoha
Unique birds of Hawaii
Unique birds of Hawaii
Published: 2011/07/21
Channel: Hawaiian Skies
Nene and Ducks in Hilo
Nene and Ducks in Hilo
Published: 2011/12/20
Channel: Marcus Vincent
Part 1 - Hawaii Isle of Extinction Before It
Part 1 - Hawaii Isle of Extinction Before It's Too Late | Storyteller Media
Published: 2008/02/17
Channel: StorytellerMedia
Hawaiian monk seal - Niihau, Hawaii
Hawaiian monk seal - Niihau, Hawaii
Published: 2009/08/18
Channel: DeepBlueOahu
The Endangered Hawaiian Coot
The Endangered Hawaiian Coot
Published: 2008/05/09
Channel: afartv
The Pueo or Hawaiian Short-eared Owl
The Pueo or Hawaiian Short-eared Owl
Published: 2016/08/27
Channel: Peter Petersen
PokéOrigins► What is Ariados? The Hawaiian Happy-Faced Spider w/@Aegislash3r
PokéOrigins► What is Ariados? The Hawaiian Happy-Faced Spider w/@Aegislash3r
Published: 2017/06/06
Channel: Aegislasher
Endemic bird
Endemic bird 'I'iwi Sight & Sound
Published: 2014/01/11
Channel: Laurent Pilotte
Nene (bird)
Nene (bird)
Published: 2016/08/28
Channel: WikiWikiup
Hawaiian lionfish
Hawaiian lionfish
Published: 2012/12/02
Channel: rettigundersea
Diving Hawaiian Coot
Diving Hawaiian Coot
Published: 2016/01/08
Channel: tshoitnshorts
KAUAI: RED-CRESTED CARDINAL steals food...(June 5, 2014)
KAUAI: RED-CRESTED CARDINAL steals food...(June 5, 2014)
Published: 2014/06/06
Channel: beachdrm
Hawaii with Appleseed Expeditions
Hawaii with Appleseed Expeditions
Published: 2015/07/06
Channel: Modus Photography
Rare Hawaiian Bird Saved From Extinction
Rare Hawaiian Bird Saved From Extinction
Published: 2016/03/31
Channel: San Diego Zoo
Interviews with Rat Lungworm Disease Survivors
Interviews with Rat Lungworm Disease Survivors
Published: 2015/08/09
Channel: Mark Kimura
Body Glove Cruises Hawaii
Body Glove Cruises Hawaii
Published: 2013/02/06
Channel: Body Glove Cruises
"THE MAGICAL DRAGON MORAY EELS of KAUAI !!!"
"THE MAGICAL DRAGON MORAY EELS of KAUAI !!!"
Published: 2016/06/12
Channel: Scuba Steve on Kauai
Hawaiian Monk Seal R307 @ Molokini Island Maui Hawaii Part 2
Hawaiian Monk Seal R307 @ Molokini Island Maui Hawaii Part 2
Published: 2011/12/29
Channel: Jim Friend
Hawaiian hawk,
Hawaiian hawk, 'io, perched at Kilauea Overlook, Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park, 4/24/12
Published: 2012/04/25
Channel: U.S. National Parks of the Pacific Islands
Hawaiian goose or Nene (Branta sandvicensis)
Hawaiian goose or Nene (Branta sandvicensis)
Published: 2011/09/13
Channel: Jan Harteman
Hawaiian Stilt
Hawaiian Stilt
Published: 2009/12/07
Channel: Grandpa Jones
Good Documentary Films: Hawaii Like You
Good Documentary Films: Hawaii Like You've Never Seen it Before
Published: 2014/08/19
Channel: Documentary Films
`I`iwi
`I`iwi
Published: 2011/01/28
Channel: U.S. National Parks of the Pacific Islands
Hawaiian Monk Seal R307 @ Molokini Island Maui Hawaii Part 1
Hawaiian Monk Seal R307 @ Molokini Island Maui Hawaii Part 1
Published: 2011/12/29
Channel: Jim Friend
Akaka Falls In Big Island, Hawaii-UHD 4K
Akaka Falls In Big Island, Hawaii-UHD 4K
Published: 2014/11/07
Channel: corgLLC
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Located about 2300 miles (3680 km) from the nearest continental shore, the Hawaiian Islands are the most isolated group of islands on the planet. The plant and animal life of the Hawaiian archipelago is the result of early, very infrequent colonizations of arriving species and the slow evolution of those species—in isolation from the rest of the world's flora and fauna—over a period of at least 5 millions years. As a consequence, Hawai'i is home to a large number of endemic species. The radiation of species described by Charles Darwin in the Galapagos Islands which was critical to the formulation of his theory of evolution is far exceeded in the more isolated Hawaiian Islands.

The relatively short time that the existing main islands of the archipelago have been above the surface of the ocean (less than 10 million years) is only a fraction of time span over which biological colonization and evolution have occurred in the archipelago. High, volcanic islands have existed in the Pacific far longer, extending in a chain to the northwest; these once mountainous islands are now reduced to submerged banks and coral atolls. Midway Atoll, for example, formed as a volcanic island some 28 million years ago. Kure Atoll, a little further to the northwest, is near the Darwin point—defined as waters of a temperature that allows coral reef development to just keep up with isostatic sinking. And extending back in time before Kure, an even older chain of islands spreads northward nearly to the Aleutian Islands; these former islands, all north of the Darwin point, are now completely submerged as the Emperor Seamounts.

The islands are well known for the environmental diversity that occurs on high mountains within a trade winds field. On a single island, the climate can differ around the coast from dry tropical (< 20 in or 500 mm annual rainfall) to wet tropical; and up the slopes from tropical rainforest (> 200 in or 5000 mm per year) through a temperate climate into alpine conditions of cold and dry climate. The rainy climate impacts soil development, which largely determines ground permeability, which affects the distribution of streams, wetlands, and wet places.

The distance and remoteness of the Hawaiian archipelago is a biological filter. Seeds or spores attached to a lost migrating bird's feather or an insect falling out of the high winds found a place to survive in the islands and whatever else was needed to reproduce. The narrowing of the gene pool meant that at the very beginning, the population of a colonizing species was a bit different from that of the remove, contributing population.

Island formation[edit]

Throughout time, the Hawaiian Islands formed linearly from northwest to the southeast. A study was conducted to determine the approximate ages of the Hawaiian Islands using K–Ar dating of the oldest found igneous rocks from each island. Kauai was determined to be about 5.1 million years old, Oahu about 3.7 million years old and the youngest island of Hawaii about 0.43 million years old.[1] By determining the maximum age of the islands, inferences could be made about the maximum possible age of organisms inhabiting the island. The newly formed islands were able to accommodate growing populations, while the new environments were causing high rates of new adaptations.

Human arrival[edit]

Human contact, first by Polynesians and later by Europeans, has had a significant impact. Both the Polynesians and Europeans cleared native forests and introduced non-indigenous species for agriculture (or by accident), driving many endemic species to extinction. Fossil finds in caves, lava tubes, and sand dunes have revealed an avifauna that once had an endemic eagle, two raven-size crows, several bird-eating owls, and giant ducks known as moa-nalos.

Today, many of the remaining endemic species of plants and animals in the Hawaiian Islands are considered endangered, and some critically so. Plant species are particularly at risk: out of a total of 2,690 plant species, 946 are non-indigenous with 800 of the native species listed as endangered.[2]

A list of endemic species of Hawaiʻi[edit]

Note that, simply because of the relatively small area involved, many Hawaiian species are considered threatened even when at their normal population levels.

Mammals[edit]

Birds[edit]

Marine fish[edit]

Freshwater fish[edit]

None of Hawaii's native fish are entirely restricted to freshwater (all are either anadromous, or also found in brackish and marine water in their adult stage).

Invertebrates[edit]

Insects[edit]

Spiders[edit]

Gastropods[edit]

  • Oahu tree snails (Achatinella) - threatened, several already extinct
  • Auriculella (a genus of land snails) - threatened, several already extinct
  • Erinna (a genus of freshwater snails) - one vulnerable species, the other possibly extinct
  • Gulickia alexandri (a land snail) - critically endangered
  • Newcombia (a genus of land snails) - threatened, one already extinct
  • Neritina granosa (a freshwater snail) - vulnerable
  • Perdicella (a genus of land snails) - threatened, several already extinct

Crustaceans[edit]

[4]

Cnidarians[edit]

Plants[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Fleischer, RC; McIntosh, CE; Tarr, CL (1998). "Evolution on a volcanic conveyor belt: using phylogeographic reconstructions and K–Ar-based ages of the Hawaiian islands to estimate molecular evolutionary rates". Molecular Ecology (7): 533–45. 
  2. ^ David Pimentel; Lori Lach; Rodolfo Zuniga & Doug Morrison (January 24, 1999), "Environmental and Economic Costs Associated with Non-Indigenous Species in the United States", Cornell Chronicle, Cornell University, retrieved April 3, 2015 
  3. ^ Lindstrom, D.P., M.J. Blum, R.P. Walter, R.B. Gagne and J.F. Gilliam, 2012. Molecular and morphological evidence of distinct evolutionary lineages of Awaous guamensis in Hawai’i and Guam. Copeia (2):293-300.
  4. ^ Fenner, Douglas (2005). Corals of Hawai'i : field guide to the hard, black, and soft corals of Hawai'i and the northwest Hawaiian Islands, including Midway (1 ed.). Honolulu, Hawai'i: Mutual Pub. ISBN 1-56647-673-9. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

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