♫ FREE INSTANT MUSIC PLAYER: Select one artist from the list below
Play Video
1
Pul - Environmental Issues in Afghanistan, 2010
Pul - Environmental Issues in Afghanistan, 2010
::2012/05/09::
Play Video
2
Afghanistan 1989 part one of six
Afghanistan 1989 part one of six
::2010/08/06::
Play Video
3
UNDP - Afghanistan
UNDP - Afghanistan
::2012/06/26::
Play Video
4
Afghanistan 1989 part 3 of 6
Afghanistan 1989 part 3 of 6
::2010/08/06::
Play Video
5
Environmental Initiative: Beautify Afghanistan
Environmental Initiative: Beautify Afghanistan
::2012/11/28::
Play Video
6
Afghanistan 1989 part 2 of 6
Afghanistan 1989 part 2 of 6
::2010/08/06::
Play Video
7
Afghanistan 1989 part 6 of 6
Afghanistan 1989 part 6 of 6
::2010/08/06::
Play Video
8
Documentary Australia
Documentary Australia's War In Afghanistan - War & Military national geographic - history channel
::2014/11/19::
Play Video
9
The changing landscape of Afghanistan
The changing landscape of Afghanistan
::2012/06/26::
Play Video
10
Breathing hope into Kabul
Breathing hope into Kabul
::2009/03/20::
Play Video
11
Afghanistan 1989 part 4 of 6
Afghanistan 1989 part 4 of 6
::2010/08/06::
Play Video
12
Afghanistan 1989 part 5 of 6
Afghanistan 1989 part 5 of 6
::2010/08/06::
Play Video
13
Australia
Australia's War In Afghanistan - War & Military │History & Documentary Movie
::2014/09/13::
Play Video
14
Frontline Medicine- episode 1- Survival
Frontline Medicine- episode 1- Survival
::2011/11/26::
Play Video
15
Leuren Moret: Fukushima 30 times Chernobyl, US West Coast, Hawaii, Japan irreparably contaminated
Leuren Moret: Fukushima 30 times Chernobyl, US West Coast, Hawaii, Japan irreparably contaminated
::2014/02/11::
Play Video
16
Experts debate Water issues in Afghanistan based on AREU research
Experts debate Water issues in Afghanistan based on AREU research
::2014/11/05::
Play Video
17
Afghanistan
Afghanistan's ex foreign minister Abdullah Abdullah interview
::2012/08/27::
Play Video
18
Leuren Moret Fukushima radiation genocide Much worse than we have been told
Leuren Moret Fukushima radiation genocide Much worse than we have been told
::2013/12/20::
Play Video
19
US Officials say Mexico could become the next Iraq or Afghanistan.
US Officials say Mexico could become the next Iraq or Afghanistan.
::2009/03/25::
Play Video
20
PDX 9/11 Truth - Leuren Moret Depleted Uranium and 9/11
PDX 9/11 Truth - Leuren Moret Depleted Uranium and 9/11
::2012/04/13::
Play Video
21
Small ideas and a little money that open big opportunities | Nick Danziger | TEDxIUM
Small ideas and a little money that open big opportunities | Nick Danziger | TEDxIUM
::2014/09/02::
Play Video
22
River of milk -- Afghan dairy farmers prosper
River of milk -- Afghan dairy farmers prosper
::2013/06/03::
Play Video
23
Latest World News - Billions wasted in Afghanistan equipment drawdown
Latest World News - Billions wasted in Afghanistan equipment drawdown
::2013/07/12::
Play Video
24
Afghanistan and Central Asia: Enhancing Stability and Security in the Region
Afghanistan and Central Asia: Enhancing Stability and Security in the Region
::2015/03/18::
Play Video
25
Listen to Ron Paul! - Afghan rampage aftermath
Listen to Ron Paul! - Afghan rampage aftermath
::2012/03/13::
Play Video
26
Out of the Mountains
Out of the Mountains
::2013/09/19::
Play Video
27
TEDx Talk by David Jensen "Natural Resources and Peacebuilding: Is the United Nations united?"
TEDx Talk by David Jensen "Natural Resources and Peacebuilding: Is the United Nations united?"
::2013/07/04::
Play Video
28
This War Is Illegal! Ron Paul Afghanistan War Debate 03-10-10.avi
This War Is Illegal! Ron Paul Afghanistan War Debate 03-10-10.avi
::2010/03/11::
Play Video
29
Abdul-Wali-Modaqiq on Afghan environmental protection - VOA Ashna
Abdul-Wali-Modaqiq on Afghan environmental protection - VOA Ashna
::2015/03/12::
Play Video
30
2013 Children
2013 Children's Rights in Afghanistan
::2014/02/03::
Play Video
31
Alon on the environmental and humanitarian impacts of war
Alon on the environmental and humanitarian impacts of war
::2012/08/16::
Play Video
32
Future of American Foreign Relations -- Challenges and Prospects:UW Global & International Studies
Future of American Foreign Relations -- Challenges and Prospects:UW Global & International Studies
::2012/10/25::
Play Video
33
Dire Warnings About Overpopulation, Environmental Degradation & Social Chaos (1996)
Dire Warnings About Overpopulation, Environmental Degradation & Social Chaos (1996)
::2014/04/10::
Play Video
34
Raising awareness of environmental issues across mine sites
Raising awareness of environmental issues across mine sites
::2013/09/24::
Play Video
35
Election 2014: India
Election 2014: India's Foreign Policy Agenda
::2014/04/01::
Play Video
36
Afghan Refugees Problem Short Documentary by Afghan Students Union KPK by AHA..........
Afghan Refugees Problem Short Documentary by Afghan Students Union KPK by AHA..........
::2012/05/25::
Play Video
37
The cost of war: Dr Terry McCarthy at TEDxUCD
The cost of war: Dr Terry McCarthy at TEDxUCD
::2014/06/27::
Play Video
38
Leuren Moret DU Depleted Uranium Hazards - PDX 9/11 Truth
Leuren Moret DU Depleted Uranium Hazards - PDX 9/11 Truth
::2012/04/13::
Play Video
39
Meeting China’s Environmental Crisis: Religion’s Unlikely Role
Meeting China’s Environmental Crisis: Religion’s Unlikely Role
::2014/11/06::
Play Video
40
Borderfree!
Borderfree!
::2013/08/12::
Play Video
41
Margaret Atwood & Salman Rushdie on Writing and Politics (2005)
Margaret Atwood & Salman Rushdie on Writing and Politics (2005)
::2014/04/15::
Play Video
42
CSF 2012 | Panel Discussion: Emerging Global Trends and Strategic Challenges
CSF 2012 | Panel Discussion: Emerging Global Trends and Strategic Challenges
::2012/06/15::
Play Video
43
The Wikileaks Documentary
The Wikileaks Documentary
::2012/08/02::
Play Video
44
EXCL. ARMY: SPC BRENT GROMMETS
EXCL. ARMY: SPC BRENT GROMMETS' BROTHER/PARTNER/COMRADE STOLEN PT 1 OF 5
::2014/11/14::
Play Video
45
Russia
Russia's Afghan Addiction
::2012/09/10::
Play Video
46
The Water-Security Nexus in Pakistan
The Water-Security Nexus in Pakistan
::2013/08/05::
Play Video
47
Taliban publicly execute woman near Kabul
Taliban publicly execute woman near Kabul
::2012/07/08::
Play Video
48
CrossTalk: US Strikes Gold in Afghanistan?
CrossTalk: US Strikes Gold in Afghanistan?
::2010/06/18::
Play Video
49
Professor Phil Shiner
Professor Phil Shiner's Inaugural Lecture at Middlesex University School of Law
::2015/03/04::
Play Video
50
Rapist hanged in public in the town of Pakdasht
Rapist hanged in public in the town of Pakdasht
::2013/01/18::
NEXT >>
RESULTS [51 .. 101]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
ISAF military vehicle passing by an Afghan shepherd in the Kapisa province of Afghanistan.

Environmental issues in Afghanistan predate the political turmoil of the past few decades. Forests and wetlands have been depleted by centuries of grazing and farming, practices which have only increased with modern population growth. In Afghanistan, environmental conservation and economic concerns are not at odds; with 80% of the population dependent on herding or farming, the welfare of the environment is critical to the economic welfare of the people.[1] In 2007, the World Health Organization released a report ranking Afghanistan as the lowest among non-African nations in deaths from environmental hazards.[2]

Deforestation[edit]

U.S. Army soldiers intercept illegal timber as it is smuggled through the Narang Valley in the Kunar Province into neighboring Pakistan.

Much of the population depends on forests for firewood and the revenue generated by export of pistachios and almonds, which grow in natural woodlands in the central and northern regions. The Badghis and Takhar provinces have lost more than 50% of pistachio woodland. During the conflicts of the past few decades, residents and the militias such as the Northern Alliance have used wood for fuel, and these militia forces have cleared trees which could have provided hiding places for ambushes from their opponents. Further, the use of the woodlands for grazing ground and the collection of nuts for export apparently prevent new pistachio trees from growing.[1]

Denser forests in the eastern Nangarhar, Kunar, Nuristan, and other provinces are at risk from timber harvesting by timber mafia. Although the logging is illegal, profits from exporting the timber to neighboring Pakistan are very high. The reason for this is that Pakistani government has its forests tightly protected so the timber mafia are busy cutting down trees in Afghanistan instead. The timber makes its way not only to Peshawar but also to Islamabad, Rawalpindi, and Lahore, where most of it is used to make expensive furnitures.

As forest cover decreases, the land becomes less and less productive, threatening the livelihood of the rural population and the floods are washing the agricultural lands and destroying the houses. Loss of vegetation also creates a higher risk of floods, which not only endanger the people, but cause soil erosion and decrease the amount of land available for agriculture. To tackle this problem, the Afghan government and agencies from a number of NATO states have teamed up over the past several years to turn Afghanistan green again by planting new trees.[3][4][5][6]

Wildlife[edit]

With very little government infrastructure to discourage hunting, and habitat disappearing because of conflict and drought, much of the country's wildlife is at risk. In 2006, Afghanistan and the Wildlife Conservation Society began a three-year project to protect wildlife and habitats along the Wakhan Corridor and Central Plateau regions.[7]

Little is known about the status of the salamander Batrachuperus mustersi, which is found only in the Hindu Kush.

Water management[edit]

An recently built irrigation system for better water management

The primary threat to Afghanistan's water supply is the droughts, which created food shortages for millions in the recent past.[8] The resulting agricultural crises between 1995 to 2001 have driven major migrations from rural to urban areas.[9] In response to drought, deep wells for irrigation have been drilled which decreased the under ground water level, further draining groundwater resources, which rely on rain for replenishment.

By 2003, about 99% of the Sistan wetlands were dry, another result of continued drought and lack of water management.[10] The wetlands, an important habitat for breeding and migrant waterfowl including the dalmatian pelican and the marbled teal, have provided water for agricultural irrigation for at least 5,000 years. They are fed by the Helmand River, which ran at 98% below average in drought years 2001-2003. As in other areas of the country, the loss of natural vegetation resulted in soil erosion; here, sandstorms submerged as many as 100 villages by 2003.[1]

Some of the major water reservoirs and dams include the following:

Pollution[edit]

Urban populations have swelled in the past several years. Since 2002, over 5 million former refugees living in Pakistan and Iran have returned home to Afghanistan. Many of these settled in the capital Kabul, which also include migrants that have come from drought-ravaged rural areas.

Nuclear waste by Pakistan[edit]

In 2008, the Afghan government alleged that Pakistan had dumped nuclear waste in southern Afghanistan during the Taliban rule (1994-2001). Farooq Wardak, Afghan Parliamentary affairs minster, said the government was setting up a commission to investigate the matter.[11] Afghan President Hamid Karzai recently announced that his administration will investigate the matter.

Domestic and industrial waste[edit]

Kabul City, the capital of Afghanistan

In 2002, the United Nations Environmental Program found that a lack of waste management systems was creating dangerous conditions in several urban areas.[1] In Kabul's districts 5 and 6, household and medical waste was discarded on streets. Human waste was contained in open sewers, which flowed into the Kabul River and contaminated the city’s drinking water.

Urban dumpsites are used in lieu of managed landfills in Kabul, Kandahar and Herat, often without protection of nearby rivers and groundwater supplies. Medical waste from hospitals is disposed in the dumpsites with the rest of the cities’ waste, contaminating water and air with bacteria and viruses.

Lack of sewage management is not unique to Kabul. In urban areas, open sewers are common while wastewater treatment is not. Much of the urban water supply is contaminated by Escherichia coli and other bacteria.

Oil refineries are another source of water contamination. In Herat and Mazar-e-Sharif, crude oil spills and leaks are uncontained and unsafe levels of hydrocarbons reach residential water supplies.

Air pollution[edit]

Air pollution does not constitute a major problem in Afghanistan, but its reliance on inexpensive energy has created some issues. Most vehicles run on diesel fuel, and household energy often rely on burning wood and other materials. As a result, air pollution in urban areas is visible and may pose health issues.[1][12]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e "Post-Conflict Environmental Assessment: Afghanistan". United Nations Environment Programme. 2003. Retrieved 2007-06-15. 
  2. ^ "New country-by-country data show in detail the impact of environmental factors on health". World Health Organization. 2007-06-13. Retrieved 2007-06-15. 
  3. ^ Ron Synovitz (March 24, 2004). "Afghanistan: Tree-Planting Effort Aims To Put Color Back In Kabul's Former 'Green Zone'". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL). Retrieved 2012-12-03. 
  4. ^ "Citizens Plant 1.2 Million Trees in Eastern Afghanistan". United States Agency for International Development. April 15, 2009. Retrieved 2012-12-03. 
  5. ^ Lt. j.g. Keith Goodsell (March 7, 2011). "Key Afghan, US leadership plant trees for Farmer’s Day". United States Central Command. Retrieved 2012-12-03. 
  6. ^ "Tree-planting in Afghanistan to be discussed in San Anselmo event". marinij.com. October 3, 2012. Retrieved 2012-12-03. 
  7. ^ "Afghanistan To Protect Wildlife And Wild Lands". Science Daily. 2006-06-28. Retrieved 2007-06-16. 
  8. ^ ACT International (Action by Churches Together) (2006-10-01). "ACT Alert: Afghanistan Drought". Reuters. Retrieved 2007-06-15. 
  9. ^ "Drought Map, Understanding Afghanistan: Land in Crisis". National Geographic. 2001-11-15. Archived from the original on 2008-06-11. Retrieved 2007-06-15. 
  10. ^ Alex Kirby (2003-02-07). "Afghan wetlands 'almost dried out'". BBC. Retrieved 2007-06-15. 
  11. ^ Vennard, Martin (1 April 2008). "Pakistan 'dumped nuclear waste'". BBC News. Retrieved 2012-07-23. 
  12. ^ "Afghanistan’s Environmental Casualties". Mother Jones. 2002-03-06. Retrieved 2007-06-15. 
Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL License
Powered by YouTube
MASHPEDIA
LEGAL
  • Mashpedia © 2015