Environmental protection is a practice of protecting the natural environment on individual, organizational or governmental levels, for the benefit of the natural environment and humans. Due to the pressures of population and technology, the biophysical environment is being degraded, sometimes permanently. This has been recognized, and governments have begun placing restraints on activities that cause environmental degradation. Since the 1960's, activity of environmental movements has created awareness of the various environmental issues. There is no agreement on the extent of the environmental impact of human activity, and protection measures are occasionally criticized.
Academic institutions now offer courses, such as environmental studies, environmental management and environmental engineering, that teach the history and methods of environment protection. Protection of the environment is needed due to various human activities. Waste production, air pollution, and loss of biodiversity (resulting from the introduction of invasive species and species extinction) are some of the issues related to environmental protection.
Environmental protection is influenced by three interwoven factors: environmental legislation, ethics and education. Each of these factors plays its part in influencing national-level environmental decisions and personal-level environmental values and behaviors. For environmental protection to become a reality, it is important for societies to develop each of these areas that, together, will inform and drive environmental decisions.
In industrialized countries, voluntary environmental agreements often provide a platform for companies to be recognized for moving beyond the minimum regulatory standards and, thus, support the development of best environmental practice. In developing countries, such as throughout Latin America, these agreements are more commonly used to remedy significant levels of non-compliance with mandatory regulation. The challenges that exist with these agreements lie in establishing baseline data, targets, monitoring and reporting. Due to the difficulties inherent in evaluating effectiveness, their use is often questioned and, indeed, the environment may well be adversely affected as a result. The key advantage of their use in developing countries is that their use helps to build environmental management capacity.
An ecosystems approach to resource management and environmental protection aims to consider the complex interrelationships of an entire ecosystem in decision making rather than simply responding to specific issues and challenges. Ideally the decision-making processes under such an approach would be a collaborative approach to planning and decision making that involves a broad range of stakeholders across all relevant governmental departments, as well as representatives of industry, environmental groups and community. This approach ideally supports a better exchange of information, development of conflict-resolution strategies and improved regional conservation.
Many of the earth’s resources are especially vulnerable because they are influenced by human impacts across many countries. As a result of this, many attempts are made by countries to develop agreements that are signed by multiple governments to prevent damage or manage the impacts of human activity on natural resources. This can include agreements that impact factors such as climate, oceans, rivers and air pollution. These international environmental agreements are sometimes legally binding documents that have legal implications when they are not followed and, at other times, are more agreements in principle or are for use as codes of conduct. These agreements have a long history with some multinational agreements being in place from as early as 1910 in Europe, America and Africa. Some of the most well-known multinational agreements include: the Kyoto Protocol, Vienna Convention on the Protection of the Ozone Layer and Rio Declaration on Environment and Development
Discussion concerning environmental protection often focuses on the role of government, legislation and law enforcement. However, in its broadest sense, environmental protection may be seen to be the responsibility of all people and not simply that of government. Decisions that impact the environment will ideally involve a broad range of stakeholders, including industry, indigenous groups, environmental group and community representatives. Gradually, environmental decision-making processes are evolving to reflect this broad base of stakeholders and are becoming more collaborative in many countries.
Many constitutions acknowledge the fundamental right to environmental protection, and many international treaties acknowledge the right to live in a healthy environment. Also, many countries have organizations and agencies devoted to environmental protection. There are international environmental protection organizations, as the United Nations Environment Programme.
Although environmental protection is not simply the responsibility of government agencies, most people view these agencies as being of prime importance in establishing and maintaining basic standards that protect both the environment and the people interacting with it.
Tanzania is recognised as having some of the greatest biodiversity of any African country. Almost 40% of the land has been established into a network of protected areas, including several national parks. The concerns for the natural environment include damage to ecosystems and loss of habitat resulting from population growth, expansion of subsistence agriculture, pollution, timber extraction and significant use of timber as fuel.
Environmental protection in Tanzania began during the German occupation of East Africa (1884-1919)—colonial conservation laws for the protection of game and forests were enacted, whereby restrictions were placed upon traditional indigenous activities, such as hunting, firewood collecting and cattle grazing. In 1948, Serengeti was officially established as the first national park for wild cats in East Africa. Since 1983, there has been a more broad-reaching effort to manage environmental issues at a national level, through the establishment of the National Environment Management Council (NEMC) and the development of an environmental act.
The Division of the Environment is the main government body that oversees protection. It does this through formulation of policy, coordinating and monitoring environmental issues, environmental planning and policy-oriented environmental research.The National Environment Management Council (NEMC) is an institution that was initiated when the National Environment Management Act was first introduced in 1983. This council has the role to advise governments and the international community on a range of environmental issues. The NEMC has the following purposes: provide technical advice; coordinate technical activities; develop enforcement guidelines and procedures; assess, monitor and evaluate activities that impact the environment; promote and assist environmental information and communication; and seek advancement of scientific knowledge.
The National Environment Policy of 1997 acts as a framework for environmental decision making in Tanzania. The policy objectives are to:
Tanzania is a signatory to a significant number of international conventions, including the Rio Declaration on Development and Environment 1992 and the Convention on Biological Diversity 1996. The Environmental Management Act, 2004, is the first comprehensive legal and institutional framework to guide environmental-management decisions. The policy tools that are parts of the act includes the use of: environmental-impact assessments, strategics environmentals assessments and taxation on pollution for specific industries and products. The effectiveness of shifing of this act will only become clear over time as concerns regarding its implementation become apparent based on the fact that, historically, there has been a lack of capacity to enforce environmental laws and a lack of working tools to bring environmental-protection objectives into practice.
Formal environmental protection in China was first stimulated by the 1972 United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, held in Stockholm, Sweden. Following this, China began establishing environmental protection agencies and putting controls on some of its industrial waste. China was one of the first developing countries to implement a sustainable development strategy. In 1983 the State Council announced that environmental protection would be one of China’s basic national policies and in 1984 the National Environmental Protection Agency (NEPA) was established. Following severe flooding of the Yangtze River basin in 1998, NEPA was upgraded to the State Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) meaning that environmental protection was now being implemented at a ministerial level. In 2008, SEPA became known by its current name of Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People's Republic of China (MEP).
Pollution control instruments in China
|Command-and-control||Economic incentives||Voluntary instruments||Public participation|
|Concentration-based pollution discharge controls||Pollution levy fee||Environmental labeling system||Clean-up campaign|
|Mass-based controls on total provincial discharge||Non-compliance fines||ISO 14000 system||Environmental awareness campaign|
|Environmental impact assessments (EIA)||Discharge permit system||Cleaner production||Air pollution index|
|Three synchronization program||Sulfur emission fee||NGOs||Water quality disclosure|
|Deadline transmission trading||Administrative permission hearing|
|Centralized pollution control||Subsidies for energy saving products|
|Two compliance policy||Regulation on refuse credit to high-polluting firms|
|Environmental compensation fee|
Environmental pollution and ecological degradation has resulted in economic losses for China. In 2005, economic losses (mainly from air pollution) were calculated at 7.7% of China’s GDP. This grew to 10.3% by 2002 and the economic loss from water pollution (6.1%) began to exceed that caused by air pollution. China has been one of the top performing countries in terms of GDP growth (9.64% in the past ten years). However, the high economic growth has put immense pressure on its environment and the environmental challenges that China faces are greater than most countries. In 2010 China was ranked 121st out of 163 countries on the Environmental Performance Index.
China has taken initiatives to increase its protection of the environment and combat environmental degradation:
Rapid growth in GDP has been China’s main goal during the past three decades with a dominant development model of inefficient resource use and high pollution to achieve high GDP. For China to develop sustainably, environmental protection should be treated as an integral part of its economic policies.
Quote from Shengxian Zhou, head of MEP (2009): “Good economic policy is good environmental policy and the nature of environmental problem is the economic structure, production form and develop model.” 
Environmental protection has become an important task for the institutions of the European Community after the Maastricht Treaty for the European Union ratification by all Member States. The EU is already very active in the field of environmental policy with important directives like those on environmental impact assessment and on the access to environmental information for citizens in the Member States.
The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) has identified 17 megadiverse countries. The list includes six Latin American countries: Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela. Mexico and Brazil stand out among the rest because they have the largest area, population and number of species. These countries represent a major concern for environmental protection because they have high rates of deforestation, ecosystems loss, pollution, and population growth.
Brazil has the largest amount of the world's tropical forests, 4,105,401 km2 (48.1% of Brazil), concentrated in the Amazon region. Brazil is home to vast biological diversity, first among the megadiverse countries of the world, having between 15%-20% of the 1.5 million globally described species.
The organization in charge of environment protection is the Brazilian Ministry of the Environment (in Portuguese: Ministério do Meio Ambiente, MMA). It was first created in 1973 with the name Special Secretariat for the Environment (Secretaria Especial de Meio Ambiente), changing names several times, and adopting the final name in 1999. The Ministry is responsible for addressing the following issues:
In 2011, protected areas of the Amazon covered 2,197,485 km2 (an area larger than Greenland), with conservation units, like national parks, accounting for just over half (50.6%), and indigenous territories representing the remaining 49.4%.
With over 200,000 different species, Mexico is home to 10–12% of the world's biodiversity, ranking first in reptile biodiversity and second in mammals—one estimate indicates that over 50% of all animal and plant species live in Mexico.
The history of environmental policy in Mexico started in the 1940s with the enactment of the Law of Conservation of Soil and Water (in Spanish: Ley de Conservación de Suelo y Agua). Three decades later, at the beginning of the 1970s, the Law to Prevent and Control Environmental Pollution was created (Ley para Prevenir y Controlar la Contaminación Ambiental).
In 1972 was the first direct response from the federal government to address eminent health effects from environmental issues. It established the administrative organization of the Secretariat for the Improvement of the Environment (Subsecretaría para el Mejoramiento del Ambiente) in the Department of Health and Welfare.
The Secretariat of Environment and Natural Resources (Secretaría del Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales, SEMARNAT) is Mexico's environment ministry. The Ministry is responsible for addressing the following issues:
In 2008 there was 98,487,116 ha of terrestrial protected area, covering 12.8% of the land area of Australia. The 2002 figures of 10.1% of terrestrial area and 64,615,554 ha of protected marine area were found to poorly represent about half of Australia’s 85 bioregions.
Environmental protection in Australia could be seen as starting with the formation of the first National Park, Royal National Park, in 1879. More progressive environmental protection had it start in the 1960s and 1970s with major international programs such as the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment in 1972, the Environment Committee of the OECD in 1970, and the United Nations Environment Programme of 1972. These events laid the foundations by increasing public awareness and support for regulation. State environmental legislation was irregular and deficient until the Australian Environment Council (AEC) and Council of Nature Conservation Ministers (CONCOM) were established in 1972 and 1974, creating a forum to assist in coordinating environmental and conservation policies between states and neighbouring countries. These councils have since been replaced by the Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council (ANZECC) in 1991 and finally the Environment Protection and Heritage Council (EPHC) in 2001.
At a national level, the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act of 1999 is the primary environmental protection legislation for the Commonwealth of Australia. It concerns matters of national and international environmental significance regarding flora, fauna, ecological communities and cultural heritage. It also has jurisdiction over any activity conducted by the Commonwealth, or affecting it, that has significant environmental impact. The act covers eight main areas:
There are several Commonwealth protected lands due to partnerships with traditional native owners, such as Kakadu National Park, extraordinary biodiversity such as Christmas Island National Park, or managed cooperatively due to cross-state location, such as the Australian Alps National parks.
At a state level, the bulk of environmental protection issues are left to the responsibility of the state or territory. Each state in Australia has its own environmental protection legislation and corresponding agencies. Their jurisdiction is similar and covers point-source pollution, such as from industry or commercial activities, land/water use, and waste management. Most protected lands are managed by states and territories with state legislative acts creating different degrees and definitions of protected areas such as wilderness, national land and marine parks, state forests, and conservation areas. States also create regulation to limit and provide general protection from air, water, and sound pollution.
At a local level, each city or regional council has responsibility over issues not covered by state or national legislation. This includes non-point source, or diffuse pollution, such as sediment pollution from construction sites.
Australia ranks second place on the UN 2010 Human Development Index and one of the lowest debt to GDP ratios of the developed economies. This could be seen as coming at the cost of the environment, with Australia being the world leader in coal exportation and species extinctions. Some have been motivated to proclaim it is Australia’s responsibility to set the example of environmental reform for the rest of the world to follow.
At a national level the Ministry for the Environment is responsible for environmental policy and the Department of Conservation addresses conservation issues. At a regional level the regional councils administer the legislation and address regional environmental issues.
Since 1970, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been working to protect the environment and human health. All U.S. states have their own state departments of environmental protection.
The EPA has drafted "Seven Priorities for EPA’s Future", which are:
There are many works of literature that contain themes of environmental protection but some have been fundamental to its evolution. Several pieces such as A Sand County Almanac by Aldo Leopold, Tragedy of the commons by Garrett Hardin, and Silent Spring by Rachel Carson have become classics due to their far reaching influences. Environmental protection is present in fiction as well as non-fictional literature. Books such as Antarctica and Blockade have environmental protection as subjects whereas The Lorax has become a popular metaphor for environmental protection. "The Limits of Trooghaft" by Desmond Stewart is a short story that provides insight into human attitudes towards animals. Another book called "The Martian Chronicles" by Ray Bradbury investigates issues such as bombs, wars, government control, and what effects these can have on the environment.
Case Study, Franklin River Dam:
INSTITUTE OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT PLANNING IRDP - DODOMA COURSE: BACHELOR DEGREE IN ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT (BDEPM I) YEAR: 2012/ 2013 CODE: EPUU 7206 MODULE: PLANNING THEORY AND PRACTICE TASK: GROUP ASSIGNMENT 1 LECTURER: MPANDA J.A NAMES: 1. DANIEL JOHN 6. MGAYA K. ALLY 2. ELIA, YOHANA D. 7. MGAYA IMELDA 3. MWANDIBWA. A. CEFAS 8. SOSOVELE FAITH 4. MALONGO MAJAH 9. ALLY PETER 5. AUSON ALBERT 10. MSHOBOZI IRENEDOREEN Question ‘Choose any planning issue/problem of your group`s interest but it must be related completely to Planning Theory and Practice and start your educational campaign as an expert of planning’ O9th May, 2013 PROBLEMS OF WATER SUPPLY IN DAR ES SALAAM Water is vital for the life of living organisms. Water is present in abundant quantities on and under the Earth’s surface, but less than 1 percent of it is liquid fresh water. Most of Earth’s estimated 1.4 billion cubic km (326 million cubic miles) of water is in the oceans or frozen in polar ice caps and glaciers. Ocean water contains about 35 grams per litre (4.5 ounces per gallon) of dissolved minerals or salts, making it unfit for drinking and for most industrial or agricultural uses1. There is ample fresh water—water containing less than 3 grams of salts per litre, or less than one-eighth ounce of salts per gallon—to satisfy all human needs. It is not always available, though, at the times and places it is needed, and it is not uniformly distributed over the Earth. In many locations the availability of good-quality water is further reduced because of urban development, industrial growth, and environmental pollution2. That way is told water is life without it no organisms can survive, insects, animals, plants, human beings and other grouping organisms depend on water for their daily life. The sufficient supply of water to organisms means sustain their being and insufficient supply of water to organisms both flora and fauna means stopping their lives. People need water for their various activities such as industrial activities, domestic activities and agricultural purposes to mention a few, for example in Dar es salaam domestic demand of water is 352,300,000litres per day and for industrial, agriculture and sanitation of the city is about 117,000,000 liters per day which is not enough to satisfy current population in the city, the requirement is 469.3million per day becoming a serious case that needs a special scrutiny. 1 http/www.britanica.com/EBCheched/topic/424 285/ocean date 03 th May 2013 18:30 2 http/www.britanica.com/EBCheched/topic/424 285/ocean date 03 th May 2013 18:30 Definitions of the key terminologies Water is a chemical compound consisting of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen. The name water typically refers to the liquid state of the compound. The solid phase is known as ice and gas phase is called steam3. Water is colorless, odorless compound of hydrogen and oxygen. Water covers about three-quarters of the Earth's surface in solid form (ice) and liquid form, and is prevalent in the lower atmosphere in its gaseous form, water vapor. Water is an unusually good solvent for a large variety of substances, and is an essential component of all organisms, being necessary for most biological processes. Unlike most substances, water is less dense as ice than in liquid form; thus, ice floats on liquid water. Water freezes at 0°C (32°F) and boils at 100°C (212°F). Chemical formula: H2O.4 Water supply system, infrastructure for the collection, transmission, treatment, storage, and distribution of water for homes, commercial establishments, industry, and irrigation, as well as for such public needs as firefighting and street flushing. Of all municipal services, provision of potable water is perhaps the most vital. People depend on water for drinking, cooking, washing, carrying away wastes, and other domestic needs. Water supply systems must also meet requirements for public, commercial, and industrial activities. In all cases, the water must fulfill both quality and quantity requirements5. Desalination of water is the process of creating fresh water by removing saline (salt) from bodies of salt water. There are varying degrees of salinity in water, which affects the difficulty and expense of treatment, and the level of saline is typically measured in parts per million (ppm). The U.S. Geological Survey provides an outline of what constitutes saline water: 1,000 ppm – 3 http//www.google.com/ water definition?/ date May 9, 2013 4:58 PM 4 http://science.yourdictionary.com/waterater definition?/ May 9, 2013 5:05 PM 5 http//www.google.com/water supply/date 8/05/2013 17:27 3,000 ppm is low salinity, 3,000 ppm – 10,000 ppm is moderate salinity, and 10,000 ppm – 35,000 ppm is high salinity Updated October 28, 2011 6 . The problem of water supply in Dar es Salaam becomes more serious due to the different reasons some of them are: Distortion of infrastructure, most of the main pipes from the source of water such as Ruvu juu, Ruvu chini and Mtoni are old since we got independency, this lead leakage of water in the process of transferring, statistics shows that 128000 liters millions which is equal to 45% of all water generated per day. Photo source7 Inadequate source of water, the current sources of water supply in Dar es Salaam city is not enough to satisfy total number of people in the city which demand more than four hundred million liters per day. In Dar es Salaam 38% of households get their water from wells or water vendors, while62% use tap water. Of these, 8% have their water piped into their homes, 38% obtain tap water from their neighbors and 16% collect tap water from a public water distribution point, often referred to as water kiosk or public standpipe (HBS 2007).8 6 http://geography.about.com/od/waterandice/a/Water-Desalination.htm May 9, 2013 5:10 PM 7 http://mafia-matembezi.blogspot.com/2012/02/ruvu-juu-water-treatment-tembea.html May 9, 2013 5:39Pm 8 http://www.uwazi.org/uploads/files/Water%20kiosks%20in%20DSM%20Englsih.pdf may 9,2013 5:40PM Long dry season, also seen as main causes of shortage of water. The season lies between June to October which leads reduction of water from the river source of as source of water supply (Dennis Misacky). Both rainfall amount and intensity are variables of concern from the point of view of flooding in Dar es Salaam. Intensity has been increasing in last 15 years, where rainfall intensity has been well above the 38 years recorded history. This trend is expected to continue with climate change. An important projected aspect of climate change is an increase in climatic variability, which would result in more frequent and/or severe floods and droughts in the city. Given that the city’s poor are unable to cope adequately with current variability, their situation is likely to worsen in the future, unless steps are taken to ensure that urban development and poverty reduction programs specifically take into account the prospect of changing climatic conditions9. Rapid population growth, at the time when the infrastructure of water are constructed its satisfy people at that time, the past infrastructure still remain constant while demand of water increase due to increase of population, this lead shortage of water especially to the new settlement like new Kigamboni and Mabwepande (Gerson Lwenge). The population of Dar es Salaam is increasing at a rate of 4.39% each year. It is the 3rd fastest growing city in Africa and the 9th fastest in the world The population is expected to reach 5.12 million people by 2020. This rate is far above the world average. Globally, the growth rate of the human population has been declining since a peak in 1962 and 1963 of 2.20% per annum. In 2009 the estimated annual growth rate was 1.1%. 9 http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTURBANDEVELOPMENT/Resources/336387-1306291319853/CS_Dar_Es_Salaam.pdf/ how seasons lead to shortage of water supply in dar es salaam city Dar es Salaam's rapidly expanding population presents both significant challenges and opportunities. Infrastructure development has not kept pace with the population growth so there is significant resource pressure like water.10 Corruption, some of faithfully workers in DAWASCO with cooperation of some business men of water become into agreement to reduce amount of water supply in other areas in order the business of water to supply water in high charge. Water theft, most of the people connect water illegal from the major main source and minor source of pipes of water supply especially in squatter settlement. ―Dar es Salaam Water and Sewerage Corporation (DAWASCO)The Dar es Salaam Water and Sewerage Company (Dawasco) in collaboration with the Ministry of Water and police yesterday arrested eight people for illegal water connections in a crackdown carried out at Kibamba Mji Mpya in the city While some were found illegally connected to the water service, those found with meters had tampered with the gadgets to conceal records of water consumption‖.11 ( David Kisanga 22nd April 2013) Poor settlement infrastructure, some of the area in the city of Dar es salaam faced unplanned settlement which lead to the limitation of pipes of water supply and some of them are which have pipes of water they do not stay for long period of time because they exist in the area which are unplanned ―In a study of three unplanned settlements in Dar es Salaam,.‖ The settlements are characterized by a lack of basic infrastructure services, overcrowding and poverty. Documentation produced under the Sustainable Dar es Salaam Program (SDP) indicates that there are 35 ―unplanned settlements‖ (some documentation puts this number at 44) and 16 ―unserviced planned settlements.‖12. Inadequate of payment of water bill, most of the people using water without payment of water bill due to low income of the people. Theft of water meter, ignorance associated with lack of education while some were found illegally connected to the water service, those found with meters had tampered with the gadgets to conceal records of water consumption13. 10 http://www.dsm.go.tz/kurasa/nyaraka/Strategic%20plan_Book.pdf/ population growth rate in dar es salaam date May 9, 2013 6:47 PM 11 http://www.ippmedia.com/frontend/?l=53838 May 9, 2013 7:15 PM 12 http://web.mit.edu/urbanupgrading/upgrading/case-examples/overview-africa/country-assessments/reports/Tanzania-report.html May 9, 2013 7:35 PM 13 http://www.dailynews.co.tz/index.php/biz/14913-dar-es-salaam-seeks-to-curb-water-theft-tax-evasion may9, 2013 7:15 PM The magnitude of this fate is very vivid in areas where people are so congested and live in squatter life because most of these areas are out of plan of the city like Keko Machungwa, Jangwani and in the some are of Neco settlement which are in the plan but not receive infrastructure for water supply like Mabwepande, new Kigamboni and main victim of this problem is women and children whereby they travel long distance to search water in which we can see women and children stand in queers with hips of bucket waiting water photo source14 The problem of water supply in Dar es Salaam leads to rise of various effects some of them are: Low production in both domestic and industrial activities, in most of the people in waste the time for searching water instead of engaging other economic activities which limit national development and in case of industry amount of water which is required for production of goods and services are not enough to satisfy demand of the industry. Poor sanitation, Dar es Salaam is the one of the city because they have shortage of water which does not satisfy the need of environmental conservation such as domestic environments and other field ground like public toilets as a result causes communicable diseases. Rise of conflicts, problems of water supply in Dar es salaam lead to rise of misunderstanding among family couple on one side and other side when people fight for source of water also conflicts rise between government and some members of parliament 14 http://www.samsamwater.com/library.php/ photos of women and children in searching for water in Dar es salaam date May 9, 2013 5:59 PM for example ―kufuatia hali hiyo niliwasilisha kwa katibu mkuu wa bunge hoja binafsi kwenye mkutano wa nane wa bunge lipitishe maazimio ya hatua za haraka zaidi za kuboresha upatikanaji wa maji safi na ushughulikiaji wa maji taka katika jimbo la Ubungo na Dar es salaam kwa ujumla hata hivyo hoja hiyo haikufanikiwa kujadiliwa‖. As quoted from the member of parliament with its translation as(not formal) ―due to that status I submitted a private bill to the 8th parliamentary meeting to come up with declaration of finding water resolution actions to ensure availability equality of both clean water and sewerage systems unfortunately it was not discussed‖ John Mnyika (mp), 27/08/2012 – 04/02/2013. The formal solution which used by DAWASA to solve the problem of water supply in Dar es Salaam are: They made research to find the source of water in ground of water surface and drill of the deep well some of the well drilled in Kimbiji, Mpiji and Mpera. In 2006 and 2008 was established of project to deal with dirty water in different place on Dar es Salaam city. This project was sponsored by Japan through JICA in which they provide us $ 5987 for drilling 12 well and supply water in different area of the city. In 2007, The program of water in Rural and Sanitation of Environment which is sponsored by Africa Development Bank (ADB) as first season from 2007 and 2015, under this program Dar es salaam city where included. Due the increase of problem of water supply in Dar es Salaam government with cooperation from non – governmental organization several strategies established both long term and short term strategies; Some of the strategies are: Provision of education to the public about different method of conserving environment because it seen that environment play great role in hydrological circle, education which are provided in both practical and theory like which tree is more preferable to be planted around the water source and how to plant trees. The government of Tanzania is looking for various financial resources to improve water infrastructure and set apart budget for new settlement scheme such as in Kigamboni and Mabwepande, also taking into account thee shifting of people who live in low land. Now the government in collaboration with the Chinese government is establishing two stable water schemes from upper Ruvu and lower Ruvu River as main source of water in Dar es Salaam. New regulation laws and by laws have been put in place to deal with international sabotages and theft and bill payment delay. The effort to improve water management using traditional local knowledge should be taken into consideration example communication with the primary water managers is important (Felix Mtalo) Conclusion For maximization of mans potentials in contact with the element of nature systematic settlement planning should be enhanced to make water supply scheme also to operate at maximum. Effort to achieve the access of water is minimized when there is proper planning in both infrastructure and residential area. The standard of life of people to whom water is supplied in sufficient manner is improved. Development in nation in various endowers needs sustainable supply of water and energy in particular. We have various water resources that can be used to improve water supply in Dar es Salaam like using ocean water after being taken to a special desalination prior to its supply for use of underground water that could be drilled out and supplied as well, likewise catchments area like those of Ruvu wami could be used for large scheme. Another measure which can be used is desertification of the economy to other regions in order to reduce population in Dar es Salaam. Involvement of all stakeholder and private sector to solve this problem In fact "time is money" and this is a road toward poverty eradication Also, the burden of women and children using many hours of the day looking for water, sometimes during the night has been reduced tremendously through this initiative. Recommendations Firstly the provision of one type of infrastructure trickles out (supports) the provision of another water services. The initiative has managed to convince and encourage the community to continue contributing both cash and labour and in kind in upgrading their settlement infrastructure such as community roads, drainage system and solid waste disposal in the settlement. Contributions are being carried out to improve the Neighborhood roads through a major community-based infrastructure programme initiated in the settlement. Secondly Learning cities in developed and developing countries The Dar es Salaam stimulus paper poses the important question of what cities in developing countries can learn from the experience of cities in developed countries. The Kaunas, Vancouver, and Hume papers provide examples of such learning city development over periods of time. Their common features include a shared vision in each case, partnership development, and strategies to build an inclusive learning culture. Success factors are identified in several of these papers. In addition, the Glasgow paper illustrates the role of the arts and cultural institutions as arenas for lifelong learning and agents of socil change15. Lastly development process through participatory approach needs time and patience. infrastructure projects are capital intensive, which require mandatory community contribution. In improving infrastructure, members of the community need to make contribution in order to increase capacity of dealing with the project, ensure sustainability and enhance sense of ownership. On the other hand, the community contribution should be based on community's economic position rather than contribution based on a fixed percentage without due regard to community ability References: Christopher Sayi, (2013). Report from Ministry of Water and Irrigation Dennis Masacky, (18/03/2013). Mwananchi news paper. Page No. 14 15 http://start.org/download/2011/dar-case-study.pdf/by Peter Kearns - Jan 31 2011 - 01:39 May 9, 2013 8:16 PM Gerson Lwenge, (2013), Parliament speech. Dodoma John Mnyika (2013), Parliament speech. Dodoma Jumanne Magembe, (2013), Parliament speech
Here you can share your comments or contribute with more information, content, resources or links about this topic.