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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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For less technical information on horse colors generally, see Equine coat color.
Prior to domestication, horses are thought to have had earth-toned reddish-brown coats with pale undersides and muzzles, and darker legs, manes and tails, as in the case of this Przewalski's horse.

Equine coat color genetics determine a horse's coat color. There are many different coat colors possible, but all colors are produced by the action of only a few genes. The simplest genetic default color of all domesticated horses can be described as either "red" or "non-red", depending on whether a gene known as the "Extension" gene is present . When no other genes are active, a "red" horse is the color popularly known as a chestnut. Black coat color occurs when the Extension gene is present, but no other genes are acting on coat color.The Agouti gene can be recognized only in "non-red" horses; it determines whether black color is uniform, creating a black horse, or limited to the extremities of the body, creating a bay horse.

Chestnut, black, and bay are considered the three "base" colors that all remaining coat color genes act upon. There are a number of dilution genes that lighten these three colors in a variety of ways, sometimes affecting skin and eyes as well as hair coat, including cream, dun, pearl, champagne and silver dapple. Genes that affect the distribution of white and pigmented coat, skin and eye color create patterns such as roan, pinto, leopard, white, and even white markings. Some of these patterns may be the result of a single gene, others may be influenced by multiple alleles. Finally the gray gene, which acts differently from other coat color genes, slowly lightens any other hair coat color to white over a period of years, without changing skin or eye color.[1]


Fundamental concepts and terminology[edit]

See also: genetics, heredity and alleles

Much of the modern understanding of equine coat color genetics is owed to the work of Dr. Ann T. Bowling of the University of California, Davis and of Dr. Phillip Sponenberg of Virginia Polytechnic Institute. Modern discussions of horse coat color genetics are based on the distinction between "red" and "non-red" coats, a factor determined by a single gene. More detailed discussions of coat color all refer to the differing effects of separate genes on these "base" coat colors.[2]

Coat color alleles affect melanin, the pigment or coloring of the coat. There are two chemically distinct types of melanin: pheomelanin, which is perceived as red to yellow color, and eumelanin, is perceived as brown to black. All coloration genes in mammals affect either the production or distribution of these two chemicals. Alleles affecting melanocytes (pigment cells) do not alter the pigment chemicals themselves but rather by acting on the placement of pigment cells produce distinct patterns of unpigmented pink skin and corresponding white hair.[3]

Heritable characteristics are transmitted, encoded, and used through a substance called DNA, which is stored in almost every cell in an organism. DNA is organized into storage structures called chromosomes. For the most part, chromosomes come in matched sets, one chromosome from each parent. The location of a gene on a chromosome is called its locus. Alternate forms of a gene are called alleles.[2] The terms Alleles and Modifiers are used interchangeably and describe the same concept. An allele identified with a capital letter is a dominant trait, one identified with a lower-case letter is a recessive trait. Because sex cells (sperm and ova) contain only half the usual number of chromosomes, each parent contributes one allele in each gene set to the ensuing offspring. When an individual's gene set contains two copies of the same allele, it is called homozygous for that gene. When it has two different alleles, it is heterozygous. For a recessive trait to be expressed, it must be homozygous, but a dominant trait will be expressed whether it is heterozygous or homozygous. A horse homozygous for a certain allele will always pass it on to its offspring, while a horse that is heterozygous carries two different alleles and can pass on either one.

Extension[edit]

Extension controls whether or not true black pigment (eumelanin) can be formed in the hair. True black pigment may be restricted to the points, as in a bay, or uniformly distributed in a black coat. Horses capable of producing eumelanin in the hair may have a genotype of either E/E or E/e. Horses without the ability to produce eumelanin in the hair always have the genotype e/e, and are most often chestnut or "red".[4] The e allele is also sometimes called "red factor" and can be identified through DNA testing.[5] Horses homozygous E/E are sometimes called "homozygous black", however depending on the color of the mate, E/E status confers no guarantee of black-coated offspring; only that no offspring will be "red".

The e/e genotype at the Extension locus, which disables eumelanin production in the hair, most commonly results in chestnut coats, as here.

The Extension locus is occupied by the melanocortin 1 receptor (Mc1r) gene, which encodes the eponymous protein. The MC1R protein straddles the membrane of pigment cells (melanocytes). MC1R picks up a chemical called alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), which is produced by the body, from outside the cell. When MC1R comes into contact with α-MSH, a complex reaction is triggered inside the cell, and the melanocyte begins to produce black-brown pigment (eumelanin). Without the stimulation of α-MSH, the melanocyte produces red-yellow pigment (pheomelanin) by default.[6]

Various mutations in the human Mc1r gene result in red hair, blond hair, fair skin, and susceptibility to sundamaged skin and melanoma.[6] Polymorphisms of Mc1r also lead to light or red coats in mice,[7] cattle,[8] and dogs,[9] among others. The Extension locus was first suggested to have a role in horse coat color determination in 1974 by Stefan Adalsteinsson.[10] Researchers at Uppsala University, Sweden, identified a missense mutation in the Mc1r gene that resulted in a loss-of-function of the MC1R protein. Without the ability to produce a functional MC1R protein, eumelanin production could not be initiated in the melanocyte, resulting in coats devoid of true black pigment. Since horses with only one copy of the defective gene were normal, the mutation was labeled e or sometimes Ee.[11] A single copy of the wildtype allele, which encodes a fully functional MC1R protein, is protective against the loss-of-function. The normal or wildtype allele is labeled E, or sometimes E+ or EE.

Extension phenotypes[edit]

  • E/E (+/+, E+/E+, EE/EE) wildtype, homozygous dominant. Visually, such horses are black, seal brown, bay, buckskin, perlino or smoky cream, bay dun or grullo, silver bay or silver black. Some horses with genes for gray or white spotting patterns may also have the modifier, but the color may be hidden or overlain by the loss of pigmentation. Horses that are E/E will always pass on a functional copy of the Mc1r gene to its offspring, and will never produce offspring with the e/e genotype.
  • E/e (+/e, E+/Ee, EE/Ee) wildtype, heterozygous. Visually, the horse may also be any of the colors seen with the E/E genotype. However, they statistically will only pass on the Mc1Lr gene 50% of the time. In addition, a recent study that compared horse genotypes to their coat color phenotypes did find a statistically significant connection that suggested that lighter bay shades were heterozygous for the Extension mutation (E/e) and darker bay shades were homozygous.[12]
  • e/e (Ee/Ee) homozygous recessive. Visually, the horse may be any color in the "red" family: chestnut, palomino, cremello, red dun, gold champagne, gray, and so on. Paired with an e/e mate, such horses will only ever produce red-family coat colors. At birth, the skin may be pink and the eyes blue, but these traits disappear after a few days and the eyes and skin of adult red coated horses are unaffected by this allele.[13] No health defects are associated with the e allele.


Without a functional, dominant agouti allele (A) to restrict eumelanin to the points, this horse's coat is uniform black.

Agouti[edit]

Agouti controls the restriction of true black pigment (eumelanin) in the coat. Horses with the normal agouti gene have the genotype A/A or A/a. Horses without a normal agouti gene have the genotype a/a, and if they are capable of producing black pigment, it is uniformly distributed throughout the coat.[14] A third option, At, restricts black pigment to a black-and-tan pattern called seal brown.[15] This allele is recessive to A and dominant to a, such that horses with the genotype A/At appear bay, while At/At and At/a horses are seal brown in the presence of a dominant Extension allele E.

The Agouti locus is occupied by the Agouti signalling peptide (Asip) gene, which encodes the eponymous protein (ASIP). Agouti signalling peptide is a paracrine signaling molecule that competes with alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) for melanocortin 1 receptor proteins (MC1R). MC1R relies on α-MSH to halt production of red-yellow pheomelanin, and initiate production of black-brown eumelanin in its place.[16]

In many species, successive pulses of ASIP block contact between α-MSH and MC1R, resulting in alternating production of eumelanin and pheomelanin; hairs are banded light and dark as a result. In other species, Asip is regulated such that it only occurs in certain parts of the body. The light undersides of most mammals are due to the carefully controlled action of ASIP. In mice, two mutations on Agouti are responsible for yellow coats and marked obesity, with other health defects. Additionally, the Agouti locus is the site of mutations in several species that result in black-and-tan pigmentations.[17][18] In normal horses, ASIP restricts the production of eumelanin to the "points": the legs, mane, tail, ear edges, etc. In 2001, researchers discovered a recessive mutation on Asip that, when homozygous, left the horse without any ASIP. As a result, horses capable of producing true black pigment had uniformly black coats.[19] More recently, one coat color testing lab has begun offering a test for At.[15] Further research remains to be seen.

The mode of inheritance of the Agouti gene is complicated by the presence of more than 2 alleles. The At allele appears to be responsible for black-and-tan or seal brown coats, such as this one.

Agouti phenotypes[edit]

  • A/A wildtype, homozygous. Visually, the horse may be bay, buckskin, bay dun, amber champagne, and so on, or gray, or any member of the red family. However, such a horse will never be black, grullo, and so on, nor will a homozygous A horse ever produce uniform-black offspring or seal brown offspring.
  • A/At wildtype, heterozygous. Visually indistinguishable from the homozygous A horse, such horses will also never produce a uniform-black foal.
  • A/a wildtype, heterozygous. Visually indistinguishable from the homozygous A horse. With the right partner, such horses can produce uniform-black foals.
  • At/At seal brown or black-and-tan. Visually, the horse may be chestnut or gray, but in the presence of a dominant E allele, the coat will be seal brown. Variants of seal brown include dark buckskin, perlino, seal brown dun, and sable champagne.
  • At/a indistinguishable from the homozygous seal brown. Such horses may produce uniform-black offspring.
  • a/a homozygous recessive. Visually, in the presence of a dominant E allele, the horse's coat will be a uniform black, or the related smoky black, smoky cream, grullo, classic champagne, silver black, and so on.
The flat, earthy tone of the coat and vivid dorsal stripe are indicative of the D allele. Primitive markings, are seldom visible on horses without the dominant, wildtype dun allele (D).

Dilution genes[edit]

Dun[edit]

Dun is one of several genes that control the saturation or intensity of pigment in the coat. Dun is unique in that it is simple dominant, affects eumelanin and pheomelanin equally, and does not affect the eyes or skin.[20] Horses with the dominant D allele (D/D or D/d genotype) exhibit hypomelanism of the body coat, while d/d horses have otherwise intense, saturated coat colors. The mane, tail, head, legs, and primitive markings are not diluted. In some breeds, zygosity for Dun can be determined with an indirect DNA test.[20]

While the Dun locus is known to be on equine chromosome 8, its precise location, the gene and protein involved, and exact mutation are not yet known.[21] The molecular cause behind the dun coat colors is similarly not yet understood. The associated coat colors were assigned to the Dun locus in 1974 by Stefan Adalsteinsson, separate from Cream, with the presence of dun dilution indicated by the dominant D allele.[10] The dominant D allele is relatively rare compared to the alternative d allele, and for this reason, the dominant allele is often treated as a mutation. However, the pervasive coat color among wild equids is in fact dun, and researchers from Darwin to modern day consider dun to be the wildtype state.[22][23]

Dun phenotypes[edit]

  • D/D (+/+, D+/D+) wildtype, homozygous dominant. Visually, the horse may be bay dun, grullo, red dun, palomino dun, amber dun, gray, and so on. Such a horse will always pass on the D allele and will therefore always have dun offspring.
  • D/d (+/d, D+/Dd) wildtype, heterozygous. Visually indistinguishable from the homozygous D horse.
  • d/d (Dd/Dd) non-dun, homozygous recessive. The entire coat, barring the influence of other alleles, is a rich, saturated color. The primitive markings are no longer visible. The horse may be chestnut, bay, black, gray, palomino, and so on.

Cream[edit]

Main article: Cream gene

Cream is another one of the genes that control the saturation or dilution of pigment in the coat. Cream differs from Dun in that it affects the coat, skin, and eyes, and unlike Dun, is dosage dependent rather than simple dominant. Furthermore, the effects on eumelanin and pheomelanin are not equal. Horses with the homozygous recessive genotype (C/C) are not affected by cream. Heterozygotes (CCr/C) have one cream allele and one wildtype non-cream allele. Such horses, sometimes called "single-dilutes", exhibit dilution red pigment in the coat, eyes, and skin to yellow or gold, while eumelanin is largely unaffected. Homozygotes (CCr/CCr) have two cream alleles, and are sometimes called "double-dilutes." Homozygous creams exhibit strong dilution of both red and black pigment in the coat, eyes, and skin to ivory or cream. The skin is rosy-pink and the eyes are pale blue. Cream is now identifiable by DNA test.[24]

See also: SLC45A2

The Cream locus is occupied by the Solute carrier family 45, member 2 (SLC45A2) gene, also called the Membrane associated transport protein or Matp gene.[25] The Matp gene encodes a protein illustrated to have roles in melanogenesis in humans, mice, and medaka, though the specific action is not known.[25]

Mutations in the human Matp gene result in several distinct forms of Oculocutaneous albinism, Type IV as well as normal variations in skin and hair color.[26] Mice affected by a condition homologous to cream, called underwhite, exhibit irregularly shaped melanosomes, which are the organelles within melanocytes that directly produce pigment.[27] The first descriptions of the dosage-dependent genetic control of the palomino coat color occurred early on in equine coat color inheritance research.[28] However, the distinction between Dun and Cream remained poorly understood until Stefan Adalsteinsson wrote Inheritance of the palomino color in Icelandic horses in 1974.[29] The mutation responsible, a single nucleotide polymorphism in Exon 2 resulting in an aspartic acid-to-asparagine substitution (N153D), was located and described in 2003 by a research team in France.[25]

Cream phenotypes[edit]

  • C/C homozygous wildtype. Visually, the horse may be any color other than the cream dilute shades of palomino, buckskin, smoky black, cremello, perlino, smoky cream, and so on.
  • CCr/C heterozygous. The colors most commonly associated with this genotype are palomino, buckskin, and smoky black, though the phenotype may vary depending on other factors. Any pheomelanin in the coat is diluted to yellow or gold, and the eyes and skin are often slightly lighter than unaffected horses.
  • CCr/CCr homozygous. The colors most commonly associated with this genotype are cremello, perlino, and smoky cream. Regardless, the coat will be cream- or ivory-colored, and the skin a rosy-pink. The eyes are pale blue.

Champagne[edit]

Main article: Champagne gene

Champagne is a gene that controls the saturation or dilution of pigment in the coat. Unlike Cream, Champagne is not strongly dosage-dependent, and affects both types of pigment equally.[30] Champagne differs from Dun in that it affects the color of the coat, skin, and eyes, and in that the unaffected condition is the wildtype. Horses with the dominant CH allele (CH/CH or CH/ch genotype) exhibit hypomelanism of the body coat, such that phaeomelanin is diluted to gold and eumelanin is diluted to tan. Affected horses are born with blue eyes which darken to amber, green, or light brown, and bright pink skin which acquires darker freckling with maturity.[31] The difference in phenotype between the homozygous (CH/CH) and heterozygous (CH/ch) horse may be subtle, in that the coat of the homozygote may be a shade lighter, with less mottling.[32] Horses with the homozygous recessive genotype (ch/ch) are not affected by champagne. Champagne is now identifiable by DNA test.[24]

See also: SLC36A1

The Champagne locus is occupied by the Solute carrier family 36, member 1 (SLC36A1) gene, which encodes the Proton-coupled amino acid transporter 1 (PAT1) protein.[33] This protein is one of many which is involved in active transport. The gene associated with the Cream coat colors is also a solute carrier, and orthologous genes in humans, mice, and other species are also linked to coat color phenotypes.[34] The single nucleotide polymorphism responsible for the champagne phenotype is a missense mutation in exon 2, in which a C is replaced with a G, such that a threonine is replaced with arginine.[35] This mutation was identified and described by an American research team in 2008.

Champagne phenotypes[edit]

  • ch/ch (N/N) wildtype, homozygous recessive. Visually, the horse may be any color other than the champagne shades.
  • CH/ch (CH/N) heterozygous. The colors most commonly associated with this genotype are gold champagne, amber champagne, and classic champagne, though the exact phenotype depends on a variety of factors. At birth, the skin is bright pink and the eyes bright blue, darkening to freckled and light brown or green, respectively, with age. Both red and black pigment in the hair are also diluted.
  • CH/CH homozygous champagne. Homozygotes, which will never produce non-champagne offspring, are indistinguishable from heterozygotes except that their freckling may be sparser, and their coats a shade lighter.

Alleles and effects[edit]

Locus Alleles Effect of combined pairs of alleles
Extension (E) E
e
EE or Ee: Horse forms black pigment in skin and hair.
ee: Horse is chestnut, it has black pigment in skin, but red pigment in hair.
Agouti (A) A
a
Agouti: Restricts eumelanin, or black pigment, to "points," allowing red coat color to show on body. No visible effect on red horses, as there is no black pigment to restrict.
AA or Aa horse is a Bay, black hair shows only in points pattern (usually mane, tail, legs, sometimes tips of ears).
aa: No agouti gene. If horse has E allele, then horse will be uniformly black.
Cr Cr
C
Cream gene The cream gene is an incomplete dominant.

CC: No dilution factor, horse is fully pigmented. (UC Davis abbreviates as N.)
CCr: Single dilution factor (heterozygous dilute) results in Palomino, Buckskin or Smoky Black. Red pigment is diluted to gold with cream to white mane and tail; black pigment is not visibly altered on black points or black horses, though genetic testing can reveal "smoky black" coloration. (UC Davis abbreviates as N/Cr.)
CrCr Cremello or Perlino: Double dilution factor (homozygous dilute). Red pigment is diluted to a pale cream. Black pigment is diluted to a reddish shade. Skin and eye color are also diluted, skin is pink and blue eyes are common with double diluted creams. (UC Davis abbreviates as Cr.)

D D
d
DD or Dd: Dun gene Another dilution gene. Horse shows a diluted body color to pinkish-red, yellow-red, yellow or mouse gray and has dark points including dorsal stripe, shoulder stripe and leg barring.
dd: Horse has undiluted coat color.
Ch Ch
ch
Champagne: A rare but dominant dilution gene that creates pumpkin-colored freckled skin, amber, greenish, or blue eyes, and gives a bronze cast to hair. The skin surrounding the eye must be pink with freckles in adulthood.
ChCh or Chch: Champagne dilution evident (See Genetic Formulas Chart below.)
chch: No champagne dilution [2]
Z Z
z
ZZ or Zz: Silver dapple - Dilutes eumelanin or black pigment. Converts black to brown with white mane and tail or results in silver coloring.
zz: No silver dapple.
Prl Prl
prl
Pearl: A new rare recessive dilution gene that looks very much like Champagne. The Pearl gene is sometimes referred to as the "barlink factor." One dose of the mutation does not change the coat color of black, bay or chestnut horses. Two doses on a chestnut background produce a pale, uniform apricot color of body hair, mane and tail. Skin coloration is also pale. Pearl is known to interact with Cream dilution to produce pseudo-double Cream dilute phenotypes including pale skin and blue/green eyes.
PrlPrl or Prlprl: No pearl dilution.
prlprl: Pearl dilution evident.[36]
TO TO
to
TOTO or TOto: Tobiano, a form of pinto patterning. Produces regular and distinct ovals or rounded patterns of white and color with a somewhat vertical orientation. White extends across the back, down the legs, but face and tail are usually dark.
toto: No tobiano pattern present.
O Also noted as Fr or FrO O
o
Oo: Frame Overo pattern - Pinto horse pattern that forms a solid frame around white spotting. White is usually horizontal in orientation with jagged edges, color crosses the back and legs, face is often white. The Overo "O" allele is different from overo as a color pattern classification in those registries which also include the splashed white and sabino genes under the heading "overo."
oo: No overo pattern present.
OO: Homozygous overo is lethal white syndrome, characterized by an incomplete colon and the inability to defecate, which leads to death or humane euthanization within days of birth.
W W
w

WW: Lethal. Embryo reabsorbed or fetus dies en utero.[37]


Ww: Horse has pink skin and white hair, brown or dark eyes. Hair coat is white from birth.
ww: Horse is fully pigmented.

G G
g
GG or Gg: gray gene. Horse shows progressive silvering with age to white or flea-bitten, but is born a non-gray color. Pigment is always present in skin and eyes at all stages of silvering. Gray horses range from white to dark gray depending on age and the proportion of white hairs in the coat. Horses' coats gray in a manner similar to graying in human hair.
gg: Horse does not gray with aging.
Rn Rn
rn
RnRn or Rnrn: roan pattern of white hair mixed in with base color. There quite likely is no lethal roan question.[38]
rnrn: No roan pattern.
Sb Sb
sb
Sabino - Assorted pinto or roan-like markings.
Sabino may be polygenic (a gene-complex rather than a single gene pair), caused by several different genes. Recognized by abundant white on the legs, belly spots or body spots that are can be flecked and roaned, chin spots, or white on the face extending past the eyes. Sabino is registered as overo by some registries, but is not the overo or frame overo allele. No risk of lethal white, though some "Fully expressed" sabinos may be completely white in coat color.
SbSb or Sbsb: Sabino markings.
sbsb: No sabino markings.
SB1:The only Sabino gene currently detected by DNA testing, however does not appear to be the gene that creates sabino coloring in Arabians or Clydesdales.
Lp Lp
lp
Appaloosa or Leopard spotting gene. Produces coat spotting patterns, mottling over otherwise dark skin, striped hooves and white sclera around the eye.

Genetic formulas and color definitions[edit]

Phenotype Potential Genotype
Extension
Agouti
Dun
Champagne
Silver
Cream
Pearl
Bay E/- A/- d/d ch/ch z/z cr/cr Prl/Prl
Chestnut e/e -/- d/d ch/ch -/- cr/cr Prl/Prl
Black E/- a/a d/d ch/ch z/z cr/cr Prl/Prl
Bay dun E/- A/- D/- ch/ch z/z cr/cr Prl/Prl
Red dun e/e -/- D/- ch/ch -/- cr/cr Prl/Prl
Grullo E/- a/a D/- ch/ch z/z cr/cr Prl/Prl
Amber champagne E/- A/- d/d CH/- z/z cr/cr Prl/Prl
Gold champagne e/e -/- d/d CH/- -/- cr/cr Prl/Prl
Classic champagne E/- a/a d/d CH/- z/z cr/cr Prl/Prl
Silver bay E/- A/- d/d ch/ch Z/- cr/cr Prl/Prl
Silver black E/- a/a d/d ch/ch Z/- cr/cr Prl/Prl
Buckskin E/- A/- d/d ch/ch z/z CR/cr Prl/Prl
Perlino E/- A/- d/d ch/ch z/z CR/CR Prl/Prl
Palomino e/e -/- d/d ch/ch z/z CR/cr Prl/Prl
Cremello e/e -/- d/d ch/ch z/z CR/CR Prl/Prl
Bay pearl E/- A/- d/d ch/ch z/z cr/cr Prl/prl
Bay double pearl E/- A/- d/d ch/ch z/z cr/cr prl/prl
Chestnut pearl e/e -/- d/d ch/ch z/z cr/cr Prl/prl
Apricot e/e -/- d/d ch/ch z/z cr/cr prl/prl
Black pearl E/- a/a d/d ch/ch z/z cr/cr Prl/prl
Black double pearl E/- a/a d/d ch/ch z/z cr/cr prl/prl

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Note: For a quick lesson in genetics and heredity, see also "Online tutorial on heredity". Archived from the original on 2007-02-21. 
  2. ^ a b c "Genetics of Champagne Coloring." The Horse online edition, accessed May 31, 2007 at http://www.thehorse.com/viewarticle.aspx?ID=9686
  3. ^ Rieder et al 2001. "These genes can be classified into two main groups: those acting on the melanocyte—its development, differentiation, proliferation, and migration; and those acting directly on pigment synthesis."
  4. ^ "Gene E: Black Hair Pigment". Introduction to Coat Color Genetics. UC Davis Veterinary Genetics Laboratory. Retrieved 2009-05-26. "If a horse has black hair in either of these patterns, then the animal possesses an allele of the E gene which contains the instructions for placing black pigment in hair. Geneticists symbolize this allele of the E gene E. The alternative allele to E is e. Allele e allows black pigment in the skin but not in the hair. The pigment conditioned by the e allele makes the hair appear red" 
  5. ^ "Equine Coat Color Tests". UC Davis Veterinary Genetics Laboratory. Retrieved 2009-05-26. 
  6. ^ a b Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, OMIM (TM). Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD. MIM Number: {155555}: {5/15/2009}:. World Wide Web URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/omim/
  7. ^ Robbins, L.S.; Nadeau, J. H.; Johnson, K. R.; Kelly, M. A.; Roselli-Rehfuss, L.; Baack, E.; Mountjoy, K. G.; Cone, R. D. (1993). "Pigmentation phenotypes of variant extension locus alleles result from point mutations that alter MSH receptor function". Cell 72 (6): 827–834. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(93)90572-8. PMID 8458079. 
  8. ^ Joerg, H; Fries, H. R.; Meijerink, E.; Stranzinger, G. F. (1996). "Red coat color in Holstein cattle is associated with a deletion in the MSHR gene". Mammalian Genome 7 (4): 317–318. doi:10.1007/s003359900090. PMID 8661706. 
  9. ^ Newton, JM; Wilkie, A. L.; He, L.; Jordan, S. A.; Metallinos, D. L.; Holmes, N. G.; Jackson, I. J.; Barsh, G. S. (2000). "Melanocortin 1 receptor variation in the domestic dog". Mammalian Genome 11 (1): 24–30. doi:10.1007/s003350010005. PMID 10602988. 
  10. ^ a b Adalsteinsson, Stefan (Jan–Feb 1974). "Inheritance of the palomino color in Icelandic horses". Journal of Heredity 65 (1): 15–20. PMID 4847742. 
  11. ^ Marklund, L; Moller MJ; Sandberg K; Andersson L (Dec 1996). "A missense mutation in the gene for melanocyte-stimulating hormone receptor (MC1R) is associated with the chestnut coat color in horses". Mammalian Genome 7 (12): 895–9. doi:10.1007/s003359900264. PMID 8995760. 
  12. ^ Rieder, Stefan; Sead Taourit, Denis Mariat, Bertrand Langlois, Ge´rard Gue´rin (2001). "Mutations in the agouti (ASIP), the extension (MC1R), and the brown (TYRP1) loci and their association to coat color phenotypes in horses (Equus caballus)". Mammalian Genome (Springer-Verlag) 12 (6): 450–455. doi:10.1007/s003350020017. PMID 11353392. "A statistically significant tendency (X249.1; p < 0.01) of lighter bay shades carrying the EE/Ee genotype (35 of 42 bay horses) and darker bay shades carrying the EE/EE genotype (9 of 16 dark bay horses) was found in our panel. Thus, lighter bay shades would be at least partially explained by a dosage effect of an average 50% less working melanocortin-1-receptor function due to the Ee-allele (Table 2). However, this result might be biased by the structure of our horse panel and presently unknown genetic variation" 
  13. ^ "Identifying the Champagne Colored Horse". International Champagne Horse Registry. Retrieved 2009-05-26. 
  14. ^ "Gene A: Distribution of Black Pigmented Hair". UC Davis Veterinary Genetics Laboratory. Retrieved 2009-05-26. 
  15. ^ a b "Equine Testing Services". Pet DNA Services of AZ. Retrieved 2009-05-26. 
  16. ^ [1] Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, OMIM (TM). Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD. MIM Number: {600201}: {9/4/2008}:. World Wide Web URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/omim/
  17. ^ Drogemuller, C; Giese, A.; Martins-Wess, F.; Wiedemann, S.; Andersson, L.; Brenig, B.; Fries, R.; Leeb, T (2006). "The mutation causing the black-and-tan pigmentation phenotype of Mangalitza pigs maps to the porcine ASIP locus but does not affect its coding sequence". Mammalian Genome 17 (1): 58–66. doi:10.1007/s00335-005-0104-1. PMID 16416091. 
  18. ^ "at Spontaneous Allele Detail". The Jackson Laboratory. 2009-05-23. Retrieved 2009-05-26. 
  19. ^ Rieder, S et al 2001. "The 11-bp deletion in ASIP exon 2 (ADEx2) alters the amino acid sequence and is believed to extend the regular termination signal by 210 bp to 612 bp. The frameshift initiated by the deletion results in a novel modified agouti-signaling-protein. ADEx2 was completely associated with horse recessive black coat color (Aa/Aa) in all horses typed so far."
  20. ^ a b "Dun Zygosity Test". UC Davis Veterinary Genetics Laboratory. Retrieved 2009-05-27. 
  21. ^ S.J., Bricker; Penedo, M.C.T.; Millon, L.V.; Murray, J.D (2003-01-11). "Linkage of the dun coat color locus to microsatellites on horse chromosome 8". "Plant and Animal Genomes XI Conference". San Diego, CA. Retrieved 2009-05-27. 
  22. ^ Darwin, C.R. (1861). On the origin of species (3 ed.). London: John Murray. pp. 181–185. ISBN 0-8014-1319-2. 
  23. ^ Ludwig, Arne; Melanie Pruvost, Monika Reissmann, Norbert Benecke, Gudrun A. Brockmann, Pedro Castaños, Michael Cieslak, Sebastian Lippold, Laura Llorente, Anna-Sapfo Malaspinas, Montgomery Slatkin, Michael Hofreiter (2009-04-24). "Coat Color Variation at the Beginning of Horse Domestication". Science 324 (5926): 485. doi:10.1126/science.1172750. PMID 19390039. 
  24. ^ a b "Horse Coat Color Tests". UC Davis Veterinary Genetics Laboratory. Retrieved 2009-05-28. 
  25. ^ a b c Mariat, Denis; Sead TAOURIT; Gérard GUÉRIN (2003). "A mutation in the MATP gene causes the cream coat colour in the horse". Genetics Selection Evolution (INRA, EDP Sciences) 35 (1): 119–133. doi:10.1051/gse:2002039. PMC 2732686. PMID 12605854. 
  26. ^ [2] Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, OMIM (TM). Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD. MIM Number: {606202}: {2008-02-28}: . World Wide Web URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/omim/
  27. ^ Sweet, H.O.; Brilliant M.H., Cook S.A., Johnson K.R. & Davisson M.T. (1998). "A new allelic series for the underwhite gene on mouse chromosome 15". Journal of Heredity 89 (6): 546–51. doi:10.1093/jhered/89.6.546. PMID 9864865. 
  28. ^ Wriedt-Ski, Chr. (1925-12-01). "Vererbungsuntersuchungen beim Pferd" (PDF). Molecular and General Genetics (Springer Berlin/Heidelberg) 37 (1): 88–101. doi:10.1007/BF01763328. ISSN 0026-8925. 
  29. ^ Adalsteinsson, S. (1974) pg. 15 "[T]he palomino gene in heterozygous condition turned bay into buckskin, and chestnut or sorrel into palomino, while it was without effect in black and mouse (blue dun) horses...[A]nother dominant dilution gene turned black into mouse, and bay into yellow dun with dark mane and tail, and Loen concluded that the palomino gene and the dun gene segregated independently of each other. [T]he palomino gene in homozygous condition resulted in glass-eyed whites..."
  30. ^ Cook, et al. 2008. "However, the effect of CH differs from CR in that; 1) CH dilutes both pheomelanin and eumelanin in its heterozygous form and 2) heterozygotes and homozygotes for CH are phenotypically difficult to distinguish."
  31. ^ Cook et al. 2008. "...champagne foals are born with blue eyes, which change color to amber, green, or light brown and pink “pumpkin skin which acquires a darker mottled complexion around the eyes, muzzle, and genitalia as the animal matures."
  32. ^ Cook, et al. 2008. "The homozygote may differ by having less mottling or a slightly lighter hair color than the heterozygote."
  33. ^ Cook, D; Brooks S; Bellone R; Bailey E (2008). Barsh, Gregory S., ed. "Missense Mutation in Exon 2 of SLC36A1 Responsible for Champagne Dilution in Horses". PLoS Genetics 4 (9): e1000195. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000195. PMC 2535566. PMID 18802473. "Only one SNP was found, a missense mutation involving a single nucleotide change from a C to a G at base 76 of exon 2 (c.188C>G) (Figure 5). These SLC36A1 alleles were designated c.188[C/G], where c.188 designates the base pair location of the SNP from the first base of SLC36A1 cDNA, exon 1. Sequencing traces for the partial coding sequence of SLC36A1 exon 2 with part of the flanking intronic regions for one non-champagne horse and one champagne horse were deposited in GenBank with the following accession numbers respectively: EU432176 and EU432177. This single base change at c.188 was predicted to cause a transition from a threonine to arginine at amino acid 63 of the protein (T63R)" 
  34. ^ Cook, et al. 2008. "Orthologous genes in other species are known to affect pigmentation. For example, the gene responsible for the cream dilution phenotypes in horses, SLC45A2 (MATP), belongs to a similar solute carrier family. In humans, variants in SLC45A2 have been associated with skin color variation [12] and a similar missense mutation (p.Ala111Thr) in SLC24A5 (a member of potassium-dependent sodium-calcium exchanger family) is implicated in dilute skin colors caused from decreased melanin content among people of European ancestry [13]. The same gene, SLC24A5 is responsible for the Golden (gol) dilution as mentioned in the review of mouse pigment research by Hoekstra (2006) [14]."
  35. ^ Cook, et al. 2008. "Only one SNP was found, a missense mutation involving a single nucleotide change from a C to a G at base 76 of exon 2 (c.188C>G)...This single base change at c.188 was predicted to cause a transition from a threonine to arginine at amino acid 63 of the protein (T63R)."
  36. ^ "New Dilutions: Pearl." New Dilutions, accessed December 21, 2007 at http://newdilutions.com/pearl/
  37. ^ Mau, C.; Poncet, P. A.; Bucher, B.; Stranzinger, G.; Rieder, S. (2004). "Genetic mapping of dominant white (W), a homozygous lethal condition in the horse (Equus caballus)". Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics 121 (6): 374–383. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0388.2004.00481.x. 
  38. ^ Bowling, Dr. Ann T.; E Bailey; S A Brooks (1996). Horse Genetics. New York: CAB International. ISBN 0-85199-101-7. 

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