1
Is Ethiopia in need of more official working languages? SBS Amharic
Is Ethiopia in need of more official working languages? SBS Amharic
DATE: 2014/10/24::
2
Is Ethiopia in need of more official working languages? Pt 2 - SBS Amharic
Is Ethiopia in need of more official working languages? Pt 2 - SBS Amharic
DATE: 2014/10/27::
3
Is Ethiopia in need of more official working languages? Pt 3 - SBS Amharic
Is Ethiopia in need of more official working languages? Pt 3 - SBS Amharic
DATE: 2014/10/30::
4
ኢየሱስ ፊልም በአማርኛ The Jesus Film - Amharic / Abyssinian / Ethiopian Language (Ethiopia)
ኢየሱስ ፊልም በአማርኛ The Jesus Film - Amharic / Abyssinian / Ethiopian Language (Ethiopia)
DATE: 2012/06/19::
5
The Story of Jesus - Tigrigna / Tigrinya / Tigray Language (Ethiopia, Eritrea)
The Story of Jesus - Tigrigna / Tigrinya / Tigray Language (Ethiopia, Eritrea)
DATE: 2013/09/16::
6
Is Ethiopia in need of more official working languages? Pt 4 - SBS Amharic
Is Ethiopia in need of more official working languages? Pt 4 - SBS Amharic
DATE: 2014/11/02::
7
Ethiopia: Clashes at rally to mourn Christians killed by ISIL in Libya
Ethiopia: Clashes at rally to mourn Christians killed by ISIL in Libya
DATE: 2015/04/22::
8
Ethiopia: The Cradle of Mankind (Ethiopian Documentary) Version Francais
Ethiopia: The Cradle of Mankind (Ethiopian Documentary) Version Francais
DATE: 2014/03/09::
9
አሻሚ ፊደላትን መለየት (ክፍል ፩) - Differentiating Ethiopian (Chapter 1)
አሻሚ ፊደላትን መለየት (ክፍል ፩) - Differentiating Ethiopian (Chapter 1)
DATE: 2012/01/29::
10
Ethiopia in the eyes of a foreigner.
Ethiopia in the eyes of a foreigner.
DATE: 2010/06/01::
11
Ge
Ge'ez: Life of a Dead Language
DATE: 2013/11/16::
12
Ethiopian sign language
Ethiopian sign language
DATE: 2014/05/29::
13
ISIS video claims to show execution of 30 Ethiopia Christians, Libya
ISIS video claims to show execution of 30 Ethiopia Christians, Libya
DATE: 2015/04/20::
14
Ethiopia: The Cradle of Mankind (Ethiopian Documentary) Italian Version
Ethiopia: The Cradle of Mankind (Ethiopian Documentary) Italian Version
DATE: 2014/03/09::
15
Ethiopian food - Chechebsa recipe - Kita Fir Fir - Amharic
Ethiopian food - Chechebsa recipe - Kita Fir Fir - Amharic
DATE: 2014/05/10::
16
Ethiopian Music-Ali Birra the legend Oromo musician (multi languages singer) Ethiopia-oromo
Ethiopian Music-Ali Birra the legend Oromo musician (multi languages singer) Ethiopia-oromo
DATE: 2012/03/17::
17
Learning how to speak Amharic in Ethiopia
Learning how to speak Amharic in Ethiopia
DATE: 2011/11/20::
18
PC Ethiopia - How Do I Find Peace
PC Ethiopia - How Do I Find Peace
DATE: 2015/03/12::
19
Suri / Surma of - Ethiopia Amazing Stick fighting - Part 1
Suri / Surma of - Ethiopia Amazing Stick fighting - Part 1
DATE: 2009/03/22::
20
Egypt, Ethiopia and Sudan sign deal on Nile dam
Egypt, Ethiopia and Sudan sign deal on Nile dam
DATE: 2015/03/23::
21
Ethiopian Vegetable Pasta Recipe - Vegan Kosta Gomen Carrots Amharic
Ethiopian Vegetable Pasta Recipe - Vegan Kosta Gomen Carrots Amharic
DATE: 2015/04/16::
22
Chinese language education in Ethiopia
Chinese language education in Ethiopia
DATE: 2013/01/03::
23
Ethiopian Potato Salad Recipe - Dinich Salata Amharic Vegan Food
Ethiopian Potato Salad Recipe - Dinich Salata Amharic Vegan Food
DATE: 2015/03/06::
24
Ethiopian Pasta Sauce Recipe - Vegan Amharic Spaghetti
Ethiopian Pasta Sauce Recipe - Vegan Amharic Spaghetti
DATE: 2015/03/19::
25
Learn Amharic Now!!! The Entire Order - The Language of RasTafari
Learn Amharic Now!!! The Entire Order - The Language of RasTafari
DATE: 2009/02/18::
26
Ethiopia - Ye
Ethiopia - Ye'Kera Lejoch Arada Kuwankua የአራዳ ቋንቋ (Kera Area Slang Terms)
DATE: 2012/11/24::
27
Doro Wat Recipe In English  - Ethiopian cooking Spicy Chicken Stew wot wet
Doro Wat Recipe In English - Ethiopian cooking Spicy Chicken Stew wot wet
DATE: 2014/06/24::
28
How to make Ethiopian Injera Corn Flour Recipe - Amharic Not Teff
How to make Ethiopian Injera Corn Flour Recipe - Amharic Not Teff
DATE: 2014/09/25::
29
How to Make Ethiopian Spiced Tea Recipe
How to Make Ethiopian Spiced Tea Recipe
DATE: 2014/11/07::
30
Maternal, Newborn, and Child Nutrition in Ethiopia
Maternal, Newborn, and Child Nutrition in Ethiopia
DATE: 2014/03/01::
31
Ethiopia : Addis ababa  Night Life 2012
Ethiopia : Addis ababa Night Life 2012
DATE: 2012/02/16::
32
Ethiopia : Addis Ababa Airport 2, departure 2012
Ethiopia : Addis Ababa Airport 2, departure 2012
DATE: 2012/03/19::
33
Selamawit Gebru Konjo Mewded Ethiopia/Eri New Music
Selamawit Gebru Konjo Mewded Ethiopia/Eri New Music
DATE: 2012/06/28::
34
ኢትዮጵያ Ethiopia The Hidden Empire
ኢትዮጵያ Ethiopia The Hidden Empire
DATE: 2011/01/03::
35
Ethiopian Lentil Sambusa recipe - Misir Samosa
Ethiopian Lentil Sambusa recipe - Misir Samosa
DATE: 2014/05/11::
36
Selected Originals - Duke In Ethiopia (1958)
Selected Originals - Duke In Ethiopia (1958)
DATE: 2014/04/13::
37
Ethiopia - House endorsed for the National anthem to be translated in other languages
Ethiopia - House endorsed for the National anthem to be translated in other languages
DATE: 2010/04/23::
38
Kinche Ethiopian Cracked Wheat Bulgar Recipe - Amharic
Kinche Ethiopian Cracked Wheat Bulgar Recipe - Amharic
DATE: 2015/02/14::
39
The Joy Center helping Children with Autism in Ethiopia
The Joy Center helping Children with Autism in Ethiopia
DATE: 2012/09/04::
40
Suri / Surma of - Ethiopia Amazing Stick fighting - Part 2
Suri / Surma of - Ethiopia Amazing Stick fighting - Part 2
DATE: 2009/03/22::
41
SAY IT IN 20 LANGUAGES = Ethiopia
SAY IT IN 20 LANGUAGES = Ethiopia
DATE: 2011/06/04::
42
Learn Amharic -  Basic Amharic Words 1
Learn Amharic - Basic Amharic Words 1
DATE: 2008/05/01::
43
የሳምንቱ ቀናት - Days of the Week  (English & Amharic) - FHLETHIOPIA.COM
የሳምንቱ ቀናት - Days of the Week (English & Amharic) - FHLETHIOPIA.COM
DATE: 2011/10/28::
44
videeeo of travel of Ethiopia.
videeeo of travel of Ethiopia.
DATE: 2011/06/03::
45
Manajah Presents : Ethiopia
Manajah Presents : Ethiopia
DATE: 2010/03/28::
46
Ethiopia : Addis Ababa, Arrival at the Airport, Jan 2012
Ethiopia : Addis Ababa, Arrival at the Airport, Jan 2012
DATE: 2012/03/01::
47
Suri / Surma of - Ethiopia Amazing Stick fighting - Part 6
Suri / Surma of - Ethiopia Amazing Stick fighting - Part 6
DATE: 2009/03/22::
48
Tezeta. Ethiopian Armenians /Թեզետա. եթովպացի հայերը
Tezeta. Ethiopian Armenians /Թեզետա. եթովպացի հայերը
DATE: 2013/02/14::
49
Suri / Surma of - Ethiopia Amazing Stick fighting - Part 7
Suri / Surma of - Ethiopia Amazing Stick fighting - Part 7
DATE: 2009/03/22::
50
Ethiopian Lemon & Rosemary Lamb Chops Recipe - Amharic Tibs
Ethiopian Lemon & Rosemary Lamb Chops Recipe - Amharic Tibs
DATE: 2014/11/07::
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Ethiopian languages)
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Languages of Ethiopia
Official languages Amharic[1]
Main languages Oromo (33.8%), Amharic (29.3%)
Main foreign languages English
Sign languages several local sign languages

The languages of Ethiopia refers to the various spoken forms of communication in Ethiopia. It includes the nation's official languages, as well as its minority and foreign languages.

Overview[edit]

Distribution of languages of Ethiopia (2007)
Oromo
  
33.8%
Amharic
  
29.33%
Somali
  
6.25%
Tigrinya
  
5.86%
Sidamo
  
4.04%
Wolaytta
  
2.21%
Gurage
  
2.01%
Afar
  
1.74%
Hadiyya
  
1.69%
Gamo
  
1.45%
Others
  
11.62%

There are 90 individual languages of Ethiopia according to Ethnologue,[2] with the 1994 Ethiopian census indicating that some 77 tongues were spoken locally. Most of these languages belong to the Afro-Asiatic family (Semitic and Cushitic; Omotic languages are also spoken, though their classification is uncertain). Additionally, Nilo-Saharan languages are spoken by the nation's Nilotic ethnic minorities.

Charles A. Ferguson proposed the Ethiopian Language Area, characterized by shared grammatical and phonological features in 1976. This language area (sprachbund) includes the Afro-Asiatic languages of Ethiopia, not the Nilo-Saharan languages. In 2000, Mauro Tosco questioned the validity of Ferguson's original proposal. There is still no agreement among scholars on this point, but Tosco has at least weakened Ferguson's original claim.

English is the most widely spoken foreign language and is the medium of instruction in secondary schools and universities. Amharic was the language of primary school instruction, but has been replaced in many areas by local languages such as Oromo and Tigrinya.

After the fall of the Derg regime in 1991, the new constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia granted all ethnic groups the right to develop their languages and to establish mother tongue primary education systems. This is a marked change to the language policies of previous governments in Ethiopia.

In terms of writing systems, Ethiopia's principal orthography is Ge'ez or Ethiopic. Employed as an abugida for several of the country's languages, it first came into usage in the 6th and 5th centuries BC as an abjad to transcribe the Semitic Ge'ez language.[3] Ge'ez now serves as the liturgical language of the Ethiopian and Eritrean Orthodox Churches. Other writing systems have also been used over the years by different Ethiopian communities. The latter include Sheikh Bakri Sapalo's script for Oromo.[4]

Languages[edit]

According to the 2007 Ethiopian census, the largest first languages are: Oromigna 24,929,268 speakers or 33.8% of the total population;[5] Amharic 21,631,370 or 29.33%[5] (official language[6]); Somali 4,609,274 or 6.25%;[5] Tigrinya 4,324,476 or 5.86%;[5] Sidamo 2,981,471 or 4.84%;[5] Wolaytta 1,627,784 or 2.21%;[5] Gurage 1,481,783 or 2.01%;[5] and Afar 1,281,278 or 1.74%.[5] Widely spoken foreign languages include English (major foreign language taught in schools[6]), Arabic and Italian.

Afro-Asiatic[edit]

Sign in Amharic at the Ethiopian millennium celebration.

Afro-Asiatic

Nilo-Saharan[edit]

In Ethiopia, the term "Nilotic" is often used to refer to Nilo-Saharan languages and their communities. However, in academic linguistics, "Nilotic" is only part of "Nilo-Saharan", a segment of the larger Nilo-Saharan family.

Nilo-Saharan

Unclassified[edit]

Endangered languages[edit]

A number of Ethiopian languages are endangered: they may not be spoken in one or two generations and may become extinct, victims of language death, as Weyto, Gafat, and Mesmes have and Ongota very soon will. The factors that contribute to language death are complex, so it is not easy to estimate which or how many languages are most vulnerable. Hudson wrote, "Assuming that a language with fewer than 10,000 speakers is endangered, or likely to become extinct within a generation", there are 22 endangered languages in Ethiopia (1999:96). However, a number of Ethiopian languages never have had populations even that high, so it is not clear that this is an appropriate way to calculate the number of endangered languages in Ethiopia. The real number may be lower or higher. The new language policies after the 1991 revolution have strengthened the use of a number of languages. Publications specifically about endangered languages in Ethiopia include: Appleyard (1998), Hayward (1988), Zelealem (1998a,b, 2004)

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Ethiopian Constitution". Article 5 Ethiopian constitution. APAP. Retrieved 3 December 2011. 
  2. ^ Ethnologue page on Ethiopian languages
  3. ^ Rodolfo Fattovich, "Akkälä Guzay" in Uhlig, Siegbert, ed. Encyclopaedia Aethiopica: A-C. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz KG, 2003, p. 169.
  4. ^ Hayward and Hassan, "The Oromo Orthography of Shaykh Bakri Saṗalō", Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 44 (1981), p. 551
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h "Statistical Tables for the 2007 Population and Housing Census of Ethiopia: Country Level". Central Statistical Agency. 2007. pp. 91–92. Retrieved 2011-08-12. 
  6. ^ a b Ethiopia entry at The World Factbook

Further reading[edit]

  • Appleyard, David. 1998. Language Death: The Case of Qwarenya (Ethiopia). In Endangered Languages in Africa, edited by Matthias Brenzinger. Köln: Rüdiger Köppe.
  • Ferguson, Charles. 1976. The Ethiopian Language Area. Language In Ethiopia, ed. by M. Lionel Bender, J. Donald Bowen, R.L. Cooper, Charles A. Ferguson, pp. 63–76. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Hayward, Richard J. 1998. The Endangered Languages of Ethiopia: What’s at Stake for the Linguist? In Endangered Languages in Africa, edited by Matthias Brenzinger, 17–38. Köln: Rüdiger Köppe.
  • Hudson, Grover. 1999. Linguistic Analysis of the 1994 Ethiopian Census. Northeast African Studies Vol. 6, No. 3 (New Series), pp. 89–108.
  • Hudson, Grover. 2004. Languages of Ethiopia and Languages of the 1994 Ethiopian Census. Aethiopica: International Journal of Ethiopian and Eritrean Studies 7: 160–172.
  • Leslau, Wolf. 1965. An annotated bibliography of the Semitic languages of Ethiopia. The Hague: Mouton.
  • Tosco, Mauro. 2000. Is There an ‘Ethiopian Language Area’? Anthropological Linguistics 42,3: 329–365.
  • Unseth, Peter. 1990. Linguistic bibliography of the Non-Semitic languages of Ethiopia. East Lansing: African Studies Center, Michigan State University. (Classification charts, pp. 21 ff.)
  • Zelealem Leyew. 1998a. An Ethiopian Language on the Verge of Extinction. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 134: 69–84.
  • Zelealem Leyew. 1998b. Some Structural Signs of Obsolescence in K’emant. In Endangered Languages in Africa. Edited by Matthias Brenzinger. Köln: Rüdiger Köppe.
  • Zelealem Leyew. 2004. The fate of endangered languages in Ethiopia. On the margins of nations : endangered languages and linguistic rights. proceedings of the eighth FEL Conference, Eds. Joan A. Argenter & Robert McKenna Brown, 35–45. Bath: Foundation for Endangered Languages.

External links[edit]

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