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European Atomic Energy Community
European Atomic Energy Community
Published: 2017/01/02
Channel: Century Old
THE EURATOM EUROPEAN ATOMIC ENERGY COMMUNITY
THE EURATOM EUROPEAN ATOMIC ENERGY COMMUNITY
Published: 2017/04/01
Channel: Gabriele Mogni
European Atomic Energy Community
European Atomic Energy Community
Published: 2016/09/16
Channel: WikiWikiup
The European Atomic Energy Community in the European Union Context The Outsider Within Nijhoff Studi
The European Atomic Energy Community in the European Union Context The Outsider Within Nijhoff Studi
Published: 2016/12/10
Channel: Lauren Jull
The European Atomic Energy Community in the European Union Context The Outsider Within Nijhoff Studi
The European Atomic Energy Community in the European Union Context The Outsider Within Nijhoff Studi
Published: 2016/12/10
Channel: Spencer Freycinet
House of Lords Euratom debate
House of Lords Euratom debate
Published: 2017/03/02
Channel: NuclearIndustryUK
Impact of Euratom - BBC News
Impact of Euratom - BBC News
Published: 2017/03/03
Channel: NuclearIndustryUK
European Atomic Energy Community
European Atomic Energy Community
Published: 2016/01/01
Channel: WikiAudio
Expansionist EU federal state is bad for the people of Europe - @BillDudleyNorth
Expansionist EU federal state is bad for the people of Europe - @BillDudleyNorth
Published: 2014/11/13
Channel: UKIP MEPs
Euratom explained in under 60 seconds
Euratom explained in under 60 seconds
Published: 2017/07/14
Channel: ProspectTV
Euratom: Reactor Systems
Euratom: Reactor Systems
Published: 2011/04/24
Channel: Gustav Hall
Euratom Agreement Signed (1959)
Euratom Agreement Signed (1959)
Published: 2014/04/13
Channel: British Pathé
Why Was The European Community Created?
Why Was The European Community Created?
Published: 2017/09/10
Channel: Frequent Question
25th March 1957: Treaty of Rome establishes the EEC
25th March 1957: Treaty of Rome establishes the EEC
Published: 2016/03/25
Channel: HistoryPod
Brexit, euratom and the problem with stifling bureaucracy - capx
Brexit, euratom and the problem with stifling bureaucracy - capx
Published: 2017/08/02
Channel: News Today USA
UK is leaving Euratom - why?
UK is leaving Euratom - why?
Published: 2017/03/30
Channel: Scientists for EU
Unhappy Birthday Euratom!
Unhappy Birthday Euratom!
Published: 2007/03/23
Channel: EURACTIV
Govt: Cancer patients safe when we leave Euratom
Govt: Cancer patients safe when we leave Euratom
Published: 2017/07/12
Channel: BrexitCentral
Can the EURATOM Treaty Inspire the Middle East?
Can the EURATOM Treaty Inspire the Middle East?
Published: 2009/03/17
Channel: Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey
How was the EU founded?
How was the EU founded?
Published: 2017/02/26
Channel: Avery Thing
More than 600.000 anti-nuclear signatures against EURATOM
More than 600.000 anti-nuclear signatures against EURATOM
Published: 2007/12/06
Channel: FoEEtube
Interpreting negotiations of Treaty of Rome
Interpreting negotiations of Treaty of Rome
Published: 2011/06/26
Channel: EU Interpreters
Tom Greatrex discusses the UK
Tom Greatrex discusses the UK's withdrawal from Euratom on the World at One (03/07/17)
Published: 2017/07/03
Channel: NuclearIndustryUK
Revoking our Euratom withdrawal notification
Revoking our Euratom withdrawal notification
Published: 2017/07/13
Channel: Scientists for EU
It is not in the national interest to leave Euratom after Brexit
It is not in the national interest to leave Euratom after Brexit
Published: 2017/08/13
Channel: Brexit News
Signing of the treaties of Rome
Signing of the treaties of Rome
Published: 2013/10/18
Channel: SEAGoRM
Intervention in Euratom debate
Intervention in Euratom debate
Published: 2017/07/13
Channel: Seema Malhotra
When Did The UK Sign The Treaty Of Rome?
When Did The UK Sign The Treaty Of Rome?
Published: 2017/08/12
Channel: Omega Omega
The Treaty of Rome – 60 years on – why is it cause to celebrate?
The Treaty of Rome – 60 years on – why is it cause to celebrate?
Published: 2017/03/26
Channel: DEUTSCHLAND.de
Brexit fallout: Cancer treatment and jobs at risk from EURATOM withdrawal
Brexit fallout: Cancer treatment and jobs at risk from EURATOM withdrawal
Published: 2017/07/15
Channel: I Am Incorrigible
Euroatom
Euroatom
Published: 2007/08/20
Channel: Lukas Bogacki
Šarūnas Birutis on Euratom Supply Agency
Šarūnas Birutis on Euratom Supply Agency
Published: 2007/11/13
Channel: ALDE ADLE
The way to the European Patent Convention
The way to the European Patent Convention
Published: 2013/10/28
Channel: EPOfilms
How to Pronounce Euro-pean Atomic Energy Community
How to Pronounce Euro-pean Atomic Energy Community
Published: 2016/12/11
Channel: Dictionary Voice
UK Referendum - After Decision On Leave Or Remain UK From EU - by roothmens
UK Referendum - After Decision On Leave Or Remain UK From EU - by roothmens
Published: 2016/06/24
Channel: Roothmens Armageddon
UPITN 21 11 70 SCIENCE PRESS CONFERENCE
UPITN 21 11 70 SCIENCE PRESS CONFERENCE
Published: 2015/07/23
Channel: AP Archive
Pr C.Busby on the EU Parliament Petition for EURATOM Justification
Pr C.Busby on the EU Parliament Petition for EURATOM Justification
Published: 2012/08/06
Channel: radioactivebsr
Download Proceedings of the Seventh ASTM Euratom Symposium on Reactor Dosimetry Strasbourg France 27
Download Proceedings of the Seventh ASTM Euratom Symposium on Reactor Dosimetry Strasbourg France 27
Published: 2016/12/03
Channel: Larina C.
EURATOM CONFERENCE - NO SOUND
EURATOM CONFERENCE - NO SOUND
Published: 2015/07/21
Channel: British Movietone
WASTE: Nuclear Nightmare - The Dark Side of Humanity; European Nuclear Atomic Energy Agency Secrets
WASTE: Nuclear Nightmare - The Dark Side of Humanity; European Nuclear Atomic Energy Agency Secrets
Published: 2014/02/21
Channel: SeedmanLuke811
Attacking Russia like playground bullies - Steven Woolfe MEP
Attacking Russia like playground bullies - Steven Woolfe MEP
Published: 2014/11/13
Channel: UKIP MEPs
BrExit: Euratom & The ECJ - Daily Politics  13 July 2017
BrExit: Euratom & The ECJ - Daily Politics 13 July 2017
Published: 2017/07/13
Channel: SkyEcho7
Nuclear Fission and Radiation Protection - 1st of 4 related videos
Nuclear Fission and Radiation Protection - 1st of 4 related videos
Published: 2009/10/19
Channel: WebteamRtdEuropa
UK Votes To Leave EU -  What Now - BBC News - by roothmens
UK Votes To Leave EU - What Now - BBC News - by roothmens
Published: 2016/06/25
Channel: Roothmens Armageddon
UKIP MEP Stuart Agnew questions Moldova
UKIP MEP Stuart Agnew questions Moldova's and Georgia's privileged status (AGRI committee)
Published: 2015/05/26
Channel: UKIP MEPs
2017-06-27 - Layla Moran MP - First Question - Euratom
2017-06-27 - Layla Moran MP - First Question - Euratom
Published: 2017/07/16
Channel: Oxfordshire Liberal Democrats
The European Parliament and the Construction of Europe [Part 1]
The European Parliament and the Construction of Europe [Part 1]
Published: 2014/04/27
Channel: European Union
Merger Treaty
Merger Treaty
Published: 2016/09/04
Channel: WikiWikiup
UK to work with the EU on NUCLEAR research and SPACE TRAVEL after Brexit
UK to work with the EU on NUCLEAR research and SPACE TRAVEL after Brexit
Published: 2017/09/06
Channel: 00Fast News
EURATOM treaty as base for EU & III WW. D.Rietuma & C.Busby
EURATOM treaty as base for EU & III WW. D.Rietuma & C.Busby
Published: 2015/01/03
Channel: radioactivebsr
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Map indicating the members of the European Atomic Energy Community
  Member states
  Participating associated state
Administrative body European Commission
Official languages 24 languages
Type International organisation
Members 28 EU member states
1 associated state
Establishment 1958
1 January 1958
1 July 1967

The European Atomic Energy Community (EAEC or Euratom) is an international organisation founded in 1957 with the purpose of creating a specialist market for nuclear power in Europe, developing nuclear energy and distributing it to its member states while selling the surplus to non-member states. It is legally distinct from the European Union (EU), but has the same membership, and is governed by many of the EU's institutions. Since 2014, Switzerland has also participated in Euratom programmes as an associated state.[1]

Currently, its main focus is on the construction of the International Fusion Reactor ITER[2] financed under the nuclear part of FP7. Euratom also provides a mechanism for providing loans to finance nuclear projects in the EU.

It was established by the Euratom Treaty on 25 March 1957 alongside the European Economic Community (EEC), being taken over by the executive institutions of the EEC in 1967. Although all other European postwar communities were merged into the EEC and then the EU, Euroatom has maintained its legally distinct nature and is the only remaining community organization that is independent from the European Union and therefore outside the regulatory control of the European Parliament.

History[edit]

April 1, 1957, Konrad Adenauer, Walter Hallstein and Antonio Segni, signing the European customs union and Euratom in Rome

The Common Assembly proposed extending the powers of the European Coal and Steel Community to cover other sources of energy. However, Jean Monnet, ECSC architect and President, wanted a separate community to cover nuclear power. Louis Armand was put in charge of a study into the prospects of nuclear energy use in Europe; his report concluded that further nuclear development was needed to fill the deficit left by the exhaustion of coal deposits and to reduce dependence on oil producers. However, the Benelux states and Germany were also keen on creating a general single market, although it was opposed by France due to its protectionism, and Jean Monnet thought it too large and difficult a task. In the end, Monnet proposed the creation of separate atomic energy and economic communities to reconcile both groups.[3]

The Intergovernmental Conference on the Common Market and Euratom at Val Duchesse in 1956 drew up the essentials of the new treaties. Euratom would foster co-operation in the nuclear field, at the time a very popular area, and would, along with the EEC, share the Common Assembly and Court of Justice of the ECSC, but not its executives. Euratom would have its own Council and Commission, with fewer powers than the High Authority of the European Coal and Steel Community. On 25 March 1957, the Treaties of Rome (the Euratom Treaty and the EEC Treaty) were signed by the ECSC members and on 1 January 1958 they came into force.[4][5][6]

To save on resources, these separate executives created by the Rome Treaties were merged in 1965 by the Merger Treaty. The institutions of the EEC would take over responsibilities for the running of the EEC and Euratom, with all three then becoming known as the European Communities even if each legally existed separately. In 1993, the Maastricht Treaty created the European Union, which absorbed the Communities into the European Community pillar, yet Euratom still maintained a distinct legal personality.

The European Constitution was intended to consolidate all previous treaties and increase democratic accountability in them. The Euratom treaty had not been amended as the other treaties had, so the European Parliament had been granted few powers over it. However, the reason it had gone unamended was the same reason the Constitution left it to remain separate from the rest of the EU: anti-nuclear sentiment among the European electorate, which may unnecessarily turn voters against the treaty.[7][8][9] The Euratom treaty thus remains in force relatively unamended from its original signing.

EU evolution timeline[edit]

Signed:
In force:
Document:
1948
1948
Brussels
Treaty
1951
1952
Paris
Treaty
1954
1955
Modified
Brussels
Treaty
1957
1958
Rome
Treaty
&
EURATOM
1965
1967
Merger
Treaty
1975
1976
Council
Agreement
on TREVI
1986
1987
Single
European
Act
1985+90
1995
Schengen
Treaty
&
Convention
1992
1993
Maastricht Treaty (TEU)
1997
1999
Amsterdam
Treaty
2001
2003
Nice
Treaty
2007
2009
Lisbon
Treaty
 
Content: (founded WUDO) (founded ECSC) (protocol amending WUDO to become WEU) (founded EEC and EURATOM) (merging the legislative & administrative bodies of the 3 European communities) (founded TREVI) (amended: EURATOM, ECSC, EEC)+
(founded EPC)
(founded Schengen)
(implemented Schengen)
(amended: EURATOM, ECSC, and EEC to transform it into EC)+
(founded: JHA+CFSP)
(amended: EURATOM, ECSC, EC to also contain Schengen, and TEU where PJCC replaced JHA) (amended with focus on institutional changes: EURATOM, ECSC, EC and TEU) (abolished the 3 pillars and WEU by amending: EURATOM, EC=>TFEU, and TEU)
(founded EU as an overall legal unit with Charter of Fundamental Rights, and reformed governance structures & decision procedures)
 
                         
Three pillars of the European Union:  
European Communities
(with a single Commission & Council)
 
European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM)   
European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) Treaty expired in 2002 European Union (EU)
    European Economic Community (EEC)   European Community (EC)
        Schengen Rules  
    Terrorism, Radicalism, Extremism and Violence Internationally (TREVI) Justice and Home Affairs
(JHA)
  Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters (PJCC)
  European Political Cooperation (EPC) Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP)
Western Union Defence Organization (WUDO) Western European Union (WEU)    
Treaty terminated in 2011    
                     

Expansion[edit]

European Union
Flag of the European Union

This article is part of a series on the
politics and government
of the European Union

Since 2014, Switzerland has participated in Euratom programmes as an associated state.[1]

As of 2016, the community had co-operation agreements of various scopes with eight countries: the United States, Japan, Canada, Australia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan and South Africa.[10]

Withdrawal of the United Kingdom[edit]

The United Kingdom announced its intention to withdraw from the EAEC on 26 January 2017, following on from its decision to withdraw from the European Union.[10][11][12][13] Formal notice to withdraw from the EAEC was provided in March 2017, within the Article 50 notification letter, where the withdrawal was made explicit.[14] Withdrawal will only become effective following negotiations on the terms of the exit, which are scheduled to last two years.

A report by the House of Commons Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy Committee, published in May 2017, questioned the legal necessity of leaving Euratom and called for a temporary extension of membership to allow time for new arrangements to be made.[15]

In June 2017, the European Commission's negotiations task force published a Position paper transmitted to EU27 on nuclear materials and safeguard equipment (Euratom), titled "Essential Principles on nuclear materials and safeguard equipment".[16] The following month, a briefing paper from the House of Commons Library assessed the implications of leaving Euratom.[17]

If the UK withdraws, it might raise the question of UK nuclear fuel availability after 2019 and the need for new treaties relating to the transportation of nuclear materials.[18]

UK politicians have raised the possibility of staying in the Euratom, but currently this is mostly theoretical speculation. Some argue that staying in the Euratom will require – beyond the consent of the EU27 – amendment or revocation of the Article 50 letter of March 2017.[19]

Achievements[edit]

In the history of European regulation, Article 37 of the Euratom Treaty represents pioneering legislation concerning binding transfrontier obligations with respect to environmental impact and protection of humans.[20]

Presidents of the EAEC[edit]

The five member Commission was led by only three presidents while it had independent executives (1958–1967), all from France:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Document 32014D0954, Council of the European Union. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
  2. ^ Fusion for Energy
  3. ^ 1957–1968 Successes and crises CVCE
  4. ^ A European Atomic Energy Community CVCE
  5. ^ The signing of the Rome Treaties CVCE
  6. ^ Drafting of the Rome Treaties CVCE
  7. ^ Euratom: nuking Europe's future Greenpeace International, 9 July 2003
  8. ^ One hundred civil society groups say abolish Euratom! Friends of the Earth Europe, 3 March 2003
  9. ^ Euratom reform
  10. ^ a b Alex Barker, Arthur Beesley (26 January 2017). "UK confirms plan to leave European atomic energy community". Financial Times. Retrieved 27 January 2017. 
  11. ^ Britain quits European nuclear body
  12. ^ Adam Vaughan (27 January 2017). "UK exit from EU atomic treaty under Brexit 'will delay power stations'". The Guardian. Retrieved 27 January 2017. 
  13. ^ http://www.nature.com/news/researchers-shocked-at-uk-s-plan-to-exit-eu-nuclear-agency-1.21388
  14. ^ "Prime Minister May's letter to EU" (PDF). Government of the United Kingdom. 2017-03-29. Retrieved 2017-04-01. 
  15. ^ "Government must act urgently to end Brexit risk to nuclear industry". UK Parliament. Retrieved 8 July 2017. 
  16. ^ "Position paper transmitted to EU27 on nuclear materials and safeguard equipment (Euratom)". European Commission. 23 June 2017. Retrieved 27 June 2017. 
  17. ^ Hinson, Suzanna (7 July 2017). "Briefing Paper CBP 8036: Euratom". UK Parliament. Retrieved 8 July 2017. 
  18. ^ https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/brexit-nuclear-power-euratom-hinckley-point-risks-nuclear-fusion-energy-bills-a7832136.html
  19. ^ "Brexit: what happens to Article 50 in a U-turn on Euratom?". Financial Times. Retrieved 11 July 2017. (Subscription required (help)). 
  20. ^ Heuel-Fabianek, B., Kümmerle, E., Möllmann-Coers, M., Lennartz, R. (2008): The relevance of Article 37 of the Euratom Treaty for the dismantling of nuclear reactors. atw – International Journal for Nuclear Power 6/2008 Archived 11 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine.

External links[edit]

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