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1
The Legacy of German Expressionism
The Legacy of German Expressionism
::2012/05/01::
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2
Kafka
Kafka's The Metamorphosis - Black Moon Theatre Company
::2007/07/04::
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3
IB1 Theatre Block H -- Expressionism
IB1 Theatre Block H -- Expressionism
::2011/03/30::
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4
The expressionist theatre of OzFrank - Screener
The expressionist theatre of OzFrank - Screener
::2013/04/26::
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Expressionism: A Retrospective
Expressionism: A Retrospective
::2010/11/28::
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IB1 Theatre Block F: Expressionism part1
IB1 Theatre Block F: Expressionism part1
::2011/03/30::
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IB1 Theatre Block F: Expressionism part2
IB1 Theatre Block F: Expressionism part2
::2011/03/30::
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8
groundtocloudminitour.mov
groundtocloudminitour.mov
::2010/10/11::
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Naturalism/Expressionism Play
Naturalism/Expressionism Play
::2007/09/23::
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10
05 - German Expressionism
05 - German Expressionism
::2011/02/12::
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11
Expressionism "That was I" starring Kharyzma
Expressionism "That was I" starring Kharyzma
::2010/06/19::
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12
German Expressionism Leicester - Ishi Khan-Jackson
German Expressionism Leicester - Ishi Khan-Jackson
::2014/07/17::
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13
4 Boxes-Intro II Act(German Expressionism- Nosferatu, A Symphony of Horror by F.W. Murnau
4 Boxes-Intro II Act(German Expressionism- Nosferatu, A Symphony of Horror by F.W. Murnau
::2012/01/27::
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14
4 boxes- Intro (German expressionism - Surrealism)
4 boxes- Intro (German expressionism - Surrealism)
::2012/01/27::
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15
German Expressionism Panel Discussion
German Expressionism Panel Discussion
::2012/10/19::
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16
Trust Theatre School UK
Trust Theatre School UK
::2014/08/02::
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17
Bitter  and  Sweet - an expressionist drama by _MdFa International Film Institute_
Bitter and Sweet - an expressionist drama by _MdFa International Film Institute_
::2013/04/21::
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18
Black Moon Theatre Company
Black Moon Theatre Company
::2009/06/16::
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19
Apo - German Expressionism Film - Student Project
Apo - German Expressionism Film - Student Project
::2012/09/17::
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20
German Expressionist Christmas Pageant
German Expressionist Christmas Pageant
::2013/12/22::
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21
Expressionism
Expressionism
::2010/11/17::
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22
expressionist theater
expressionist theater
::2007/01/02::
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23
The Tragical History of Jackson Pollock, Abstract Expressionist
The Tragical History of Jackson Pollock, Abstract Expressionist
::2012/08/20::
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24
Surrealism/Expressionism in Film
Surrealism/Expressionism in Film
::2014/04/10::
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25
"   Satire Theater  "   expressionist Sarkis Yerevanci
" Satire Theater " expressionist Sarkis Yerevanci
::2011/10/13::
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26
Los Angeles County Museum Of Art - Expressionism
Los Angeles County Museum Of Art - Expressionism
::2014/08/16::
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27
Art Styles with Mrs. G - Abstract Expressionism
Art Styles with Mrs. G - Abstract Expressionism
::2013/01/23::
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28
The Coffee Shop Series "Expressionism"
The Coffee Shop Series "Expressionism"
::2014/07/09::
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29
Expressionism
Expressionism
::2010/02/03::
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30
German Expressionism
German Expressionism
::2010/09/14::
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31
Silence is Golden: German Expressionism
Silence is Golden: German Expressionism
::2013/08/01::
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32
Realism and Expressionism in the Work of Tennessee Williams
Realism and Expressionism in the Work of Tennessee Williams
::2011/04/06::
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33
Dybbuk between two worlds funny horror puppet theater show
Dybbuk between two worlds funny horror puppet theater show
::2010/04/25::
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34
Module 16: Expressionism and Picasso
Module 16: Expressionism and Picasso
::2013/08/01::
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35
Panel: German Expressionism
Panel: German Expressionism
::2013/05/31::
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36
Aisling & Gabriela  A Work of Expressionism
Aisling & Gabriela A Work of Expressionism
::2014/04/03::
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37
German Expressionism
German Expressionism
::2011/06/25::
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38
Music History: Impressionism & Expressionism
Music History: Impressionism & Expressionism
::2012/07/27::
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39
Expressionism
Expressionism
::2013/03/05::
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40
[FREE PDF] Expressionism in Germany and France: From Van Gogh to Kandinsky by Timothy O. Benson
[FREE PDF] Expressionism in Germany and France: From Van Gogh to Kandinsky by Timothy O. Benson
::2014/07/08::
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41
SME Theatre Machinal
SME Theatre Machinal
::2010/10/25::
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42
German Expressionism, Grotesque Movement and Leadership Workshop Year 1
German Expressionism, Grotesque Movement and Leadership Workshop Year 1's
::2014/02/18::
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43
Another Piece of Relentlessly Confusing Bipolar Expressionism Version Two
Another Piece of Relentlessly Confusing Bipolar Expressionism Version Two
::2014/07/03::
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44
Victor DEL - GERMAN EXPRESSIONISM CARTOON
Victor DEL - GERMAN EXPRESSIONISM CARTOON
::2014/08/19::
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45
Expressionism - A2 LEVEL Experimental Film
Expressionism - A2 LEVEL Experimental Film
::2014/01/01::
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46
Boy Blue Entertainment: Emancipation of Expressionism at Breakin
Boy Blue Entertainment: Emancipation of Expressionism at Breakin' Convention 2013
::2013/06/27::
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47
Forget, To Remember - German Expressionistic Film
Forget, To Remember - German Expressionistic Film
::2008/12/19::
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48
Tribute to German Expressionism
Tribute to German Expressionism
::2012/05/23::
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49
EXPRESSIONISM (1909) - vine
EXPRESSIONISM (1909) - vine
::2014/04/08::
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The Greg Pitts Expressionism Collection
The Greg Pitts Expressionism Collection
::2012/03/14::
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Expressionism on the American stage: Paul Green and Kurt Weill's Johnny Johnson (1936).

Expressionism is a modernist movement in drama and theatre that developed in Europe (principally Germany) in the early decades of the 20th century and later in the United States. It forms part of the broader movement of Expressionism in the arts.

History[edit]

There was a concentrated Expressionist movement in early 20th century German theatre of which Georg Kaiser and Ernst Toller were the most famous playwrights. Other notable Expressionist dramatists included Reinhard Sorge, Walter Hasenclever, Hans Henny Jahnn, and Arnolt Bronnen. They looked back to Swedish playwright August Strindberg and German actor and dramatist Frank Wedekind as precursors of their dramaturgical experiments.

Oskar Kokoschka's Murderer, the Hope of Women was the first fully Expressionist work for the theatre, which opened on 4 July 1909 in Vienna.[1] In it, an unnamed man and woman struggle for dominance. The Man brands the woman; she stabs and imprisons him. He frees himself and she falls dead at his touch. As the play ends, he slaughters all around him (in the words of the text) "like mosquitoes." The extreme simplification of characters to mythic types, choral effects, declamatory dialogue and heightened intensity would become characteristic of later Expressionist plays. The first full-length Expressionist play was The Son by Walter Hasenclever, which was published in 1914 and first performed in 1916.[2]

In the 1920s, Expressionism enjoyed a brief period of popularity in the theatre of the United States, including plays by Eugene O'Neill (The Hairy Ape, The Emperor Jones and The Great God Brown), Sophie Treadwell (Machinal), Lajos Egri (Rapid Transit) and Elmer Rice (The Adding Machine).

Style[edit]

Expressionist plays often dramatise the spiritual awakening and sufferings of their protagonists and are referred to as Stationendramen (station dramas), modeled on the episodic presentation of the suffering and death of Jesus in the Stations of the Cross. August Strindberg had pioneered this form with his autobiographical trilogy To Damascus (1898-1904). Early expressionism in particular testified to the failure of social values[3] with a predilection for ecstasy and despair and hence a tendency towards the inflated and the grotesque; a mystical, even religious element with frequent apocalyptic overtones; an urgent sense of the here and now.[4]

The plays often dramatise the struggle against bourgeois values and established authority, often personified in the figure of the Father. In Reinhard Sorge's The Beggar (Der Bettler), the young hero's mentally ill father raves about the prospect of mining the riches of Mars and is eventually poisoned by his son. In Arnolt Bronnen's Parricide (Vatermord), the son stabs his tyrannical father to death, only to have to fend off the frenzied sexual overtures of his mother. In Expressionist drama, the speech is heightened, whether expansive and rhapsodic, or clipped and telegraphic. Director Leopold Jessner became famous for his Expressionistic productions, often unfolding on stark, steeply raked flights of stairs (an idea originally developed by Edward Gordon Craig), which quickly became his trademark.

Expressionism in the theatre can be broken down into three categories. Geist performance was an abstract form that was completely spiritual avoiding complex plot structures and psychologically involved characters. Schrei or 'scream' performance was at the highest point of human emotion. Raw, dark and intense—this conveyed the image of a nightmare, time was non-existent and characters were warped. This often followed the struggle of an unnamed individual man who was a symbol for the darkest plights of humans. The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari is a perfect example of this style of performance—actors are often animalistic and relentless in their discharge of energy. The Ich 'ego' style focused on a central characters struggle against the world. This individual may have been the most grotesque or the least grotesque and interacts with 'bodies of people' rather than other individuals. Bodies of individuals may represent larger concepts/institution like 'industry' for example. The actors would perform in unison often with mechanical and monotonous movements. In all instances emotions were heightened and characters were grotesque as Sokel asserts when quoting Edschmid 'the sick man is not just the cripple who suffers. He becomes sickness itself' [5]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Berghaus (2005, 55-57).
  2. ^ Rorrison (1998, 475) and Schürer (1997b, ix, xiv).
  3. ^ Styan, J.L., (1981) “Expressionism and Epic Theatre”: Modern Drama in Theory and Practice, vol. 3, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  4. ^ Furness, R.S., (1973) Expressionism (Critical Idiom), London: Methuen Young Books.
  5. ^ The Writer in Extremis: Expressionism in Twentieth-century German Literature

Sources[edit]

  • Banham, Martin, ed. 1998. The Cambridge Guide to Theatre. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-43437-8.
  • Berghaus, Günter. 2005. Theatre, Performance, and the Historical Avant-Garde. Palgrave Studies in Theatre and Performance History ser. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-61752-0.
  • Brockett, Oscar G. and Franklin J. Hildy. 2003. History of the Theatre. Ninth edition, International edition. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. ISBN 0-205-41050-2.
  • Cardullo, Bert and Robert Knopf, eds. 2001. Theater of the Avant-Garde 1890-1950: A Critical Anthology. New Haven and London: Yale UP. ISBN 0-300-08526-5.
  • Carlson, Marvin. 1993. Theories of the Theatre: A Historical and Critical Survey from the Greeks to the Present. Expanded ed. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-8154-6.
  • Kuhns, David F. 1997. German Expressionist Theatre: The Actor and the Stage. New ed. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2006. ISBN 978-0-521-03522-4.
  • Ritchie, J[ames] M[cPherson], ed. 1968. Seven Expressionist Plays. Trans. J. M. Ritchie and H. F. Garten. German Expressionism ser. London: John Calder. ISBN 978-0-7145-4343-7.
  • Rorrison, Hugh. 1998. "Hasenclever, Walter." In Banham (1998, 475).
  • Schürer, Ernst, ed. 1997a. German Expressionist Plays. The German Library ser. vol. 66. New York: Continuum. ISBN 978-0-8264-0950-8.
  • ---. 1997b. Introduction. In Schürer (1997a, vii-xxi).
  • Styan, J[ohn]. L. 1981. Expressionism and Epic Theatre. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge UP. ISBN 978-0-521-29630-4. Vol. 3 of Modern Drama in Theory and Practice. 3 vols.
  • Szondi, Peter. 1965. Theory of the Modern Drama: A Critical Edition. Ed. and trans. Michael Hays. Theory and History of Literature ser. vol. 29. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 1987. ISBN 0-8166-1285-4.
  • Walker, Julia A. Expressionism and Modernism in the American Theatre: Bodies, Voices, Words. Cambridge Studies in American Theatre and Drama ser. vol. 21. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. ISBN 978-0-521-10891-1.
  • Yasami, Fatemeh. 2011. Expressionism and Expressionist Theatre: A Comparative Study of Rice's The Adding Machine and Kaiser's From Morn to Midnight. ISBN 978-3-639-33301-5.
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