Colombia has the largest number of endemisms (species that are not found naturally anywhere else)worldwide. About 10% of the species in the world live in Colombia. Some determinant factors In the distribution range of the species are the weather conditions, temperature, humidity and sunlight availability.
According to the Colombian Ministry of Environment, the following ecoregions have the highest percentage of endemic species:
The condor is one of the largest birds on Earth with a wingspan ranging from 274–310 cm (108–122 in) and weighting up to 11–15 kg (24–33 lb) for males and 7.5–11 kg (16–24 lb) for females, but overall length can range from 117 to 135 cm (46 to 53 inches).
The adult plumage is of a uniform black, with the exception of a frill of white feathers nearly surrounding the base of the neck and, especially in the male, large patches or bands of white on the wings which do not appear until the completion of the first moulting.
There are 456 reported species of mammals in Colombia.  Of these, about 22% are endangered or critically endangered. Most of the threatened species status are due to human activities, in particular destruction of plant and animal habitats driven by local consumption of organic resources, especially related to tropical forest destruction.
Colombia has the largest number of terrestrial mammals species in the world, including among others:
Colombia has the largest number of amphibians in the world (including frogs, toads, salamanders and caecilians) with 208 endangered species, being the zoological group with the highest rate of endangerment. Some causes related with the decline of the amphibians are: chytridiomycosis, habitat destruction, drought, air pollution, water pollution and illegal trade.
Phyllobates terribilis is the most venomous vertebrate worldwide
Hyalinobatrachium ruedai Glass frog.
Hyalinobatrachium fleischmanni Fleischmann's Glass Frog.
Eleutherodactylus marnockii. Rain frog
Phyllobates Aurotaenia. Kokoe Dart Frog
Harlequin Poison Frog, Dendrobates histrionicus.
Giant leaf frog (Phyllomedusa bicolor)
Black-legged Dart Frog (Phyllobates bicolor)
Sapo Toro, Leptodactylus pentadactylus
Sapo de Celdas, Pipa pipa
Pelamis platurus, Pelagic Sea Snake
Cuvier's Dwarf Caiman (Paleosuchus palpebrosus)
Orinoco crocodile, Crocodylus intermedius
Spectacled Caiman (Caiman crocodilus)
Black Caiman (Melanosuchus niger)
Mata mata (Chelus fimbriatus)
Red-footed tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria)
Common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina)
Tupinambis teguixin. Gold tegu or Colombian tegu
Ram cichlid, Mikrogeophagus ramirezi
Pirarucu, (Arapaima gigas) is the largest fresh-water fish in the world.
There are more than 80 genera of land gastropods in (continental) Colombia.
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