The Facts About Dinosaurs & Feathers
The Facts About Dinosaurs & Feathers
Published: 2017/11/27
Channel: PBS Eons
IS THIS A T-REX??? * Dinosaurs Documentary National Geographic * The Colors of Dinosaurs
IS THIS A T-REX??? * Dinosaurs Documentary National Geographic * The Colors of Dinosaurs
Published: 2016/10/30
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Did Dinosaurs Really Have Feathers?
Did Dinosaurs Really Have Feathers?
Published: 2015/10/12
Channel: SciShow
Which Dinosaurs Had Feathers?
Which Dinosaurs Had Feathers?
Published: 2015/06/15
Channel: TREY the Explainer
HKU Earth Scientist Reconstructs Feathered Dinosaurs in the Flesh with High Power Lasers
HKU Earth Scientist Reconstructs Feathered Dinosaurs in the Flesh with High Power Lasers
Published: 2017/03/01
Channel: TELI
Dinosaur's Feathered Tail Found Remarkably Preserved in Amber | National Geographic
Published: 2016/12/09
Channel: National Geographic
Feathered Dinosaurs: Bird Ancestors?!
Feathered Dinosaurs: Bird Ancestors?!
Published: 2013/06/26
Channel: Dinosaurs
Feathered dinosaur tail found preserved in amber
Feathered dinosaur tail found preserved in amber
Published: 2016/12/09
Channel: CNET
15 Amazing
15 Amazing ''Feathered Dinosaurs'' that may have flown millions of years ago
Published: 2017/10/16
Channel: Extinction Blog
Feathered Raptor Dinosaur Animatronic at IAAPA 2015
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Published: 2015/11/21
Channel: Attractions Magazine
Sinosauropteryx - a “bandit-masked” feathered dinosaur
Sinosauropteryx - a “bandit-masked” feathered dinosaur
Published: 2017/10/26
Channel: SciNews
The Real Reason The Dinosaurs In Jurassic World Don
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Published: 2018/01/12
Channel: Klayton Fioriti
the Feathered Dinosaurs Fossil 长羽毛的恐龙
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Published: 2009/03/28
Channel: fumei008008
Jurassic World 2 Feathered Dinosaurus Discussion
Jurassic World 2 Feathered Dinosaurus Discussion
Published: 2015/11/16
Channel: The Stupendous Wave
Velociraptor Makeover! Expert Dinosaur Artist Updates Jurassic Park Raptors
Velociraptor Makeover! Expert Dinosaur Artist Updates Jurassic Park Raptors
Published: 2015/06/16
Channel: The Doodling Dino
Feathered Dinosaur That Looked Like a Giant Chicken
Feathered Dinosaur That Looked Like a Giant Chicken
Published: 2017/05/04
Channel: ParanormalLibrary
Esther's Rant: Feathered Dinosaurs Are Stupid
Published: 2012/08/24
Channel: io9futureshow
Feathered Dinosaurs!! - The Archotek Project
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Published: 2017/05/17
Channel: TheGamingBeaver
Scientists Confirm T. Rex Didn’t Have Feathers
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Published: 2017/06/09
Channel: InformOverload
Painting Feathered Dinosaurs with James Gurney
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Published: 2017/02/23
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Microraptor | Flying Dinosaur | Planet Dinosaur | BBC
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Published: 2013/05/24
Channel: BBC Earth
Everything You Know About Dinosaurs Is WRONG!
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Published: 2017/03/06
Channel: Life Noggin
What did feathers look like on Velociraptor?
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Published: 2015/07/25
Channel: TREY the Explainer
DINOSAURS WITH FEATHERS!!! - Saurian Demo Gameplay | Ep1
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Published: 2017/08/02
Channel: TheGamingBeaver
PaleoFAIL || # 5: Feathered Dinosaurs Are Not Scary
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Published: 2018/01/04
Channel: E.D.G.E
Bloody Feathered Dinosaur tail discovered trapped in amber
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Published: 2016/12/09
Channel: The Cosmos News
Feathered Dinosaurs - Picture Play
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Published: 2017/07/06
Channel: Kids Channel Anding
Feathered T-Rex-like Dinosaur Discovered is Largest Ever Found
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Published: 2012/04/05
Channel: Slate
Did T.rex have feathers?
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Published: 2016/03/12
Channel: TREY the Explainer
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Published: 2017/07/08
Channel: The Brown Fox
Scientists Find Rainbow-Feathered Dinosaur in China
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Published: 2018/01/17
Channel: United News International
Me drawing a feathered dinosaur
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Published: 2017/02/25
Channel: Shia
FEATHERED DINOSAURS ARE SCARY. Rant. (Viewer discretion is advised.)
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Published: 2015/04/23
Channel: TheAnzuGod
The Feathered Dinosaur   -   Documentary by NAIT Digital Cinema Students
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Published: 2014/03/01
Channel: NAIT Digital Cinema Production
Size comparison of dinosaurs | Ep:6 Feathered raptors
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Published: 2018/02/20
Channel: Kinky Data
How Did Dinosaurs Evolve Into Birds?
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Published: 2014/08/06
Channel: Seeker
Researchers Find A Crow-Sized Feathered Dinosaur That Was Extra Fluffy
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Published: 2017/11/30
Channel: GeoBeats News
TW Webcast:  A Feathered-Dinosaur Tail or Tale?
TW Webcast: A Feathered-Dinosaur Tail or Tale?
Published: 2016/12/16
Channel: Tomorrow's World
Dinosaurs Had Feathers?
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Published: 2014/09/01
Channel: WheezyNews
Unfiltered: Matt McClain on Feathered Dinosaurs
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Published: 2017/10/20
Channel: The Master's University
Tribute to Feathered Dinosaurs
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Published: 2012/07/11
Channel: Leandro Machado Rocha
Feathered dinosaur tail discovered in amber
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Published: 2016/12/09
Channel: Fox News
Chester Zoo
Chester Zoo's Feathered Dinosaurs
Published: 2016/07/31
Channel: Dane Pavitt
Walking With Dinosaurs: Muscle Simulation and Feathered Effects Exclusive-Design FX-WIRED
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Published: 2014/01/16
Channel: WIRED
Feathered dinosaurs?
Feathered dinosaurs?
Published: 2014/02/28
Channel: CMIcreationstation
New science shows dinosaurs had feathers
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Published: 2015/06/14
Channel: Khmer Music
Feathered Dinosaur Plumage
Feathered Dinosaur Plumage
Published: 2010/02/10
Channel: djarm67
Dinosaur Feathers
Dinosaur Feathers
Published: 2014/07/25
Channel: UCCIreland
A new dinosaur: Flying without feathers
A new dinosaur: Flying without feathers
Published: 2015/04/29
Channel: nature video
Feathers: Your Dinosaurs Are Wrong #15
Feathers: Your Dinosaurs Are Wrong #15
Published: 2015/06/08
Channel: thegeekgroup
GO TO RESULTS [51 .. 100]


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Fossil of Microraptor gui includes impressions of feathered wings (see arrows)

A feathered dinosaur is any species of dinosaur possessing feathers.[1][2] For over 150 years, since scientific research began on dinosaurs in the early 1800s, dinosaurs were generally believed to be most closely related to squamata ("scaled reptiles"); the word "dinosaur", coined in 1842 by paleontologist Richard Owen, comes from the Greek for "fearsome lizard". This view began to shift during the so-called dinosaur renaissance in scientific research in the late 1960s, and by the mid-1990s significant evidence had emerged that dinosaurs are much more closely related to birds. In fact, birds are now believed to have descended directly from the theropod group of dinosaurs,[3] and are thus classified as dinosaurs themselves, meaning that any modern bird can in cladistic terms be considered a feathered dinosaur.[4]

Among extinct dinosaurs, feathers or feather-like integument have been discovered on dozens of genera via both direct and indirect fossil evidence. The vast majority of feather discoveries have been for coelurosaurian theropods. However, integument has also been discovered on at least three ornithischians, raising the likelihood that proto-feathers were also present in earlier dinosaurs.

In 2017, Baron, Norman, and Barrett proposed that feathers or featherlike structures may have originated with the common ancestor of the Ornithoscelida, a group of dinosaurs which includes both theropods and ornithischians, the only two dinosaurian clades in which feathers have been observed so far.[5] It is possible that feathers first developed in an even earlier group, in light of the discovery of pycnofibers of pterosaurs. Crocodilians also possess beta keratin very similar to those of birds, which suggests that they evolved from common ancestral genes.[6]

History of research[edit]


The Berlin Archaeopteryx

Shortly after the 1859 publication of Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species, British biologist Thomas Henry Huxley proposed that birds were descendants of dinosaurs. He compared the skeletal structure of Compsognathus, a small theropod dinosaur, and the 'first bird' Archaeopteryx lithographica (both of which were found in the Upper Jurassic Bavarian limestone of Solnhofen). He showed that, apart from its hands and feathers, Archaeopteryx was quite similar to Compsognathus. Thus Archaeopteryx represents a transitional fossil. In 1868 he published On the Animals which are most nearly intermediate between Birds and Reptiles, making the case.[7][8] The first restoration of a feathered dinosaur was Thomas Henry Huxley's depiction in 1876 of a feathered Compsognathus to accompany a lecture on the evolution of birds he delivered in New York in which he speculated that the aforementioned dinosaur might have been in possession of feathers.[9] The leading dinosaur expert of the time, Richard Owen, disagreed, claiming Archaeopteryx as the first bird outside dinosaur lineage. For the next century, claims that birds were dinosaur descendants faded, with more popular bird-ancestry hypotheses including 'crocodylomorph' and 'thecodont' ancestors, rather than dinosaurs or other archosaurs.

'Dinosaur renaissance'[edit]

In 1969, John Ostrom described Deinonychus antirrhopus, a theropod that he had discovered in Montana in 1964 and whose skeletal resemblance to birds seemed unmistakable. Ostrom became a leading proponent of the theory that birds are direct descendants of dinosaurs. Further comparisons of bird and dinosaur skeletons, as well as cladistic analysis strengthened the case for the link, particularly for a branch of theropods called maniraptors. Skeletal similarities include the neck, the pubis, the wrists (semi-lunate carpal), the 'arms' and pectoral girdle, the shoulder blade, the clavicle and the breast bone. In all, over a hundred distinct anatomical features are shared by birds and theropod dinosaurs.[citation needed] Other researchers drew on these shared features and other aspects of dinosaur biology and began to suggest that at least some theropod dinosaurs were feathered.

At the same time, paleoartists began to create modern restorations of highly active dinosaurs. In 1969, Robert T. Bakker drew a running Deinonychus. His student Gregory S. Paul depicted non-avian maniraptoran dinosaurs with feathers and protofeathers, starting in the late 1970s. In 1975, Eleanor M. Kish began to paint accurate images of dinosaurs, her Hypacrosaurus being the first one shown with its camouflage.[10]

Before the discovery of feathered dinosaur fossils, the evidence was limited to Huxley and Ostrom's comparative anatomy. Some mainstream ornithologists, including Smithsonian Institution curator Storrs L. Olson, disputed the links, specifically citing the lack of fossil evidence for feathered dinosaurs.[citation needed] By the 1990s, however, most paleontologists considered birds to be surviving dinosaurs and referred to 'non-avian dinosaurs' (all extinct), to distinguish them from birds (Avialae).

Fossil discoveries[edit]

One of the earliest discoveries of possible feather impressions by non-avian dinosaurs is an ichnofossil (Fulicopus lyellii) of the 195-199 million year old Portland Formation in the northeastern United States. Gierlinski (1996, 1997, 1998) and Kondrat (2004) have interpreted traces between two footprints in this fossil as feather impressions from the belly of a squatting dilophosaurid. Although some reviewers have raised questions about the naming and interpretation of this fossil, if correct, this early Jurassic fossil is the oldest known evidence of feathers, almost 30 million years older than the next-oldest-known evidence.[11][12][13]

Sinosauropteryx fossil, the first fossil of a definitively non-avialan dinosaur with feathers

After a century of hypotheses without conclusive evidence, well-preserved fossils of feathered dinosaurs were discovered during the 1990s, and more continue to be found. The fossils were preserved in a Lagerstätte—a sedimentary deposit exhibiting remarkable richness and completeness in its fossils—in Liaoning, China. The area had repeatedly been smothered in volcanic ash produced by eruptions in Inner Mongolia 124 million years ago, during the Early Cretaceous epoch. The fine-grained ash preserved the living organisms that it buried in fine detail. The area was teeming with life, with millions of leaves, angiosperms (the oldest known), insects, fish, frogs, salamanders, mammals, turtles, and lizards discovered to date.

The most important discoveries at Liaoning have been a host of feathered dinosaur fossils, with a steady stream of new finds filling in the picture of the dinosaur–bird connection and adding more to theories of the evolutionary development of feathers and flight. Turner et al. (2007) reported quill knobs from an ulna of Velociraptor mongoliensis, and these are strongly correlated with large and well-developed secondary feathers.[14]

A nesting Citipati osmolskae specimen, at the AMNH

Behavioural evidence, in the form of an oviraptorosaur on its nest, showed another link with birds. Its forearms were folded, like those of a bird.[15] Although no feathers were preserved, it is likely that these would have been present to insulate eggs and juveniles.[16]

Not all of the Chinese fossil discoveries proved valid however. In 1999, a supposed fossil of an apparently feathered dinosaur named Archaeoraptor liaoningensis, found in Liaoning Province, northeastern China, turned out to be a forgery. Comparing the photograph of the specimen with another find, Chinese paleontologist Xu Xing came to the conclusion that it was composed of two portions of different fossil animals. His claim made National Geographic review their research and they too came to the same conclusion.[17] The bottom portion of the "Archaeoraptor" composite came from a legitimate feathered dromaeosaurid now known as Microraptor, and the upper portion from a previously known primitive bird called Yanornis.

In 2011, samples of amber were discovered to contain preserved feathers from 75 to 80 million years ago during the Cretaceous era, with evidence that they were from both dinosaurs and birds. Initial analysis suggests that some of the feathers were used for insulation, and not flight.[18][19] More complex feathers were revealed to have variations in coloration similar to modern birds, while simpler protofeathers were predominantly dark. Only 11 specimens are currently known. The specimens are too rare to be broken open to study their melanosomes, but there are plans for using non-destructive high-resolution X-ray imaging.[20]

In 2016, the discovery was announced of a feathered dinosaur tail preserved in amber that is estimated to be 99 million years old. Lida Xing, a researcher from the China University of Geosciences in Beijing, found the specimen at an amber market in Myanmar. It is the first definitive discovery of dinosaur material in amber.[1][2][21][22]

Current knowledge[edit]

Non-avian dinosaur species preserved with evidence of feathers[edit]

Fossil of Sinornithosaurus millenii, the first evidence of feathers in dromaeosaurids
Cast of a Caudipteryx fossil with feather impressions and stomach content
Fossil cast of a Sinornithosaurus millenii

Several non-avian dinosaurs are now known to have been feathered. Direct evidence of feathers exists for several species. In all examples, the evidence described consists of feather impressions, except those genera inferred to have had feathers based on skeletal or chemical evidence, such as the presence of quill knobs (the anchor points for wing feathers on the forelimb) or a pygostyle (the fused vertebrae at the tail tip which often supports large feathers).[23]

Primitive feather types[edit]

Integumentary structures that gave rise to the feathers of birds are seen in the dorsal spines of reptiles and fish. A similar stage in their evolution to the complex coats of birds and mammals can be observed in living reptiles such as iguanas and Gonocephalus agamids. Feather structures are thought to have proceeded from simple hollow filaments through several stages of increasing complexity, ending with the large, deeply rooted feathers with strong pens (rachis), barbs and barbules that birds display today.[24]

According to Prum's (1999) proposed model, at stage I, the follicle originates with a cylindrical epidermal depression around the base of the feather papilla. The first feather resulted when undifferentiated tubular follicle collar developed out of the old keratinocytes being pushed out. At stage II, the inner, basilar layer of the follicle collar differentiated into longitudinal barb ridges with unbranched keratin filaments, while the thin peripheral layer of the collar became the deciduous sheath, forming a tuft of unbranched barbs with a basal calamus. Stage III consists of two developmental novelties, IIIa and IIIb, as either could have occurred first. Stage IIIa involves helical displacement of barb ridges arising within the collar. The barb ridges on the anterior midline of the follicle fuse together, forming the rachis. The creation of a posterior barb locus follows, giving an indeterminate number of barbs. This resulted in a feather with a symmetrical, primarily branched structure with a rachis and unbranched barbs. In stage IIIb, barbules paired within the peripheral barbule plates of the barb ridges, create branched barbs with rami and barbules. This resulting feather is one with a tuft of branched barbs without a rachis. At stage IV, differentiated distal and proximal barbules produce a closed, pennaceous vane. A closed vane develops when pennulae on the distal barbules form a hooked shape to attach to the simpler proximal barbules of the adjacent barb. Stage V developmental novelties gave rise to additional structural diversity in the closed pennaceous feather. Here, asymmetrical flight feathers, bipinnate plumulaceous feathers, filoplumes, powder down, and bristles evolved.[25]

Some evidence suggests that the original function of simple feathers was insulation. In particular, preserved patches of skin in large, derived, tyrannosauroids show scutes, while those in smaller, more primitive, forms show feathers. This may indicate that the larger forms had complex skins, with both scutes and filaments, or that tyrannosauroids may be like rhinos and elephants, having filaments at birth and then losing them as they developed to maturity.[26][citation needed] An adult Tyrannosaurus rex weighed about as much as an African elephant. If large tyrannosauroids were endotherms, they would have needed to radiate heat efficiently.[27] However, due to the different structural properties of feathers compared to fur,[28] as well as a larger surface area per cubic square meter, it is extremely unlikely even the largest theropods would suffer overheating issues from an extensive feather coat.

There is an increasing body of evidence that supports the display hypothesis, which states that early feathers were colored and increased reproductive success.[29][30] Coloration could have provided the original adaptation of feathers, implying that all later functions of feathers, such as thermoregulation and flight, were co-opted.[29] This hypothesis has been supported by the discovery of pigmented feathers in multiple species.[31][32][33] Supporting the display hypothesis is the fact that fossil feathers have been observed in a ground-dwelling herbivorous dinosaur clade, making it unlikely that feathers functioned as predatory tools or as a means of flight.[34] Additionally, some specimens have iridescent feathers.[35] Pigmented and iridescent feathers may have provided greater attractiveness to mates, providing enhanced reproductive success when compared to non-colored feathers. Current research shows that it is plausible that theropods would have had the visual acuity necessary to see the displays. In a study by Stevens (2006), the binocular field of view for Velociraptor has been estimated to be 55 to 60 degrees, which is about that of modern owls. Visual acuity for Tyrannosaurus has been predicted to be anywhere from about that of humans to 13 times that of humans.[36] However, as both Velociraptor and Tyrannosaurus have a rather extended evolutionary relationship with the more basal theropods, it is unclear how much of this visual acuity data can be extrapolated.[citation needed]

The idea that precursors of feathers appeared before they were co-opted for insulation is already stated in Gould and Vrba, 1982.[37] The original benefit might have been metabolic. Feathers are largely made of the keratin protein complex, which has disulfide bonds between amino acids that give it stability and elasticity. The metabolism of amino acids containing sulfur can be toxic; however, if the sulfur amino acids are not catabolized at the final products of urea or uric acid but used for the synthesis of keratin instead, the release of hydrogen sulfide is extremely reduced or avoided. For an organism whose metabolism works at high internal temperatures of 40 °C or greater, it can be extremely important to prevent the excess production of hydrogen sulfide. This hypothesis could be consistent with the need for high metabolic rate of theropod dinosaurs.[38][39]

It is not known with certainty at what point in archosaur phylogeny the earliest simple "protofeathers" arose, or whether they arose once or independently multiple times. Filamentous structures are clearly present in pterosaurs, and long, hollow quills have been reported in specimens of the ornithischian dinosaurs Psittacosaurus and Tianyulong.[40][41][citation needed] In 2009, Xu et al. noted that the hollow, unbranched, stiff integumentary structures found on a specimen of Beipiaosaurus were strikingly similar to the integumentary structures of Psittacosaurus and pterosaurs. They suggested that all of these structures may have been inherited from a common ancestor much earlier in the evolution of archosaurs, possibly in an ornithodire from the Middle Triassic or earlier.[42] More recently, findings in Russia of the basal neornithischian Kulindadromeus report that although the lower leg and tail seemed to be scaled, "varied integumentary structures were found directly associated with skeletal elements, supporting the hypothesis that simple filamentous feathers, as well as compound feather-like structures comparable to those in theropods, were widespread amongst the whole dinosaur clade."[43]

Display feathers are also known from dinosaurs that are very primitive members of the bird lineage, or Avialae. The most primitive example is Epidexipteryx, which had a short tail with extremely long, ribbon-like feathers. Oddly enough, the fossil does not preserve wing feathers, suggesting that Epidexipteryx was either secondarily flightless, or that display feathers evolved before flight feathers in the bird lineage.[44][citation needed] Plumaceous feathers are found in nearly all lineages of Theropoda common in the northern hemisphere, and pennaceous feathers are attested as far down the tree as the Ornithomimosauria. The fact that only adult Ornithomimus had wing-like structures suggests that pennaceous feathers evolved for mating displays.[45]

Phylogeny and the inference of feathers in other dinosaurs[edit]

Cladogram showing distribution of feathers in Dinosauria, as of 2015

Fossil feather impressions are extremely rare and they require exceptional preservation conditions to form. Therefore, only a few feathered dinosaur genera have been identified. All fossil feather specimens have been found to show certain similarities. Due to these similarities and through developmental research, almost all scientists agree that feathers have only evolved once in dinosaurs. Feathers would then have been passed down to all later, more derived species, unless some lineages lost feathers secondarily. If a dinosaur falls at a point on an evolutionary tree within the known feather-bearing lineages, then its ancestors had feathers, and it is quite possible that it did as well. This technique, called phylogenetic bracketing, can also be used to infer the type of feathers a species may have had, since the developmental history of feathers is now reasonably well-known. All feathered species had filamentaceous or plumaceous (downy) feathers, with pennaceous feathers found among the more bird-like groups. The following cladogram is adapted from Godefroit et al., 2013.[46]

Grey denotes a clade that is not known to contain any feathered specimen at the time of writing (although this does not imply that members of the clade lacked feathers).








Sciurumimus - filamentous feathers


Tyrannosauroidea (Dilong, Yutyrannus) – plumulaceous feathers

Sinocalliopteryx – plumulaceous feathers

Compsognathidae (Sinosauropteryx, GMV 2124) – plumulaceous feathers

Juravenator – filamentous feathers



Ornithomimosauria (Ornithomimus, Deinocheirus) – plumulaceous feathers


Alvarezsauridae (Shuvuuia) – plumulaceous feathers

Therizinosauroidea (Beipiaosaurus, Jianchangosaurus) – plumulaceous feathers


Oviraptorosauria (Avimimus, Nomingia, Caudipteryx, Similicaudipteryx, Protarchaeopteryx, Ningyuansaurus, Citipati, Conchoraptor) – pennaceous feathers


Scansoriopterygidae (Scansoriopteryx, Epidexipteryx) – pennaceous feathers

Eosinopteryx – pennaceous feathers


Dromaeosauridae (Sinornithosaurus, Microraptor, Velociraptor, Changyuraptor) – pennaceous feathers

Troodontidae (Jinfengopteryx) – pennaceous feathers

Avialae (birds)

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b St. Fleur, Nicholas (8 December 2016). "That Thing With Feathers Trapped in Amber? It Was a Dinosaur Tail". New York Times. Retrieved 8 December 2016. 
  2. ^ a b Romey, Kristin (8 December 2016). "First Dinosaur Tail Found Preserved in Amber". National Geographic Society. Retrieved 12 December 2016. 
  3. ^ Brown, J.W.; Van Tuinen, M. (2011). "Evolving Perceptions on the Antiquity of the Modern Avian Tree, in Living Dinosaurs". The Evolutionary History of Modern Birds. John Wiley & Sons LtD: 306–324. doi:10.1002/9781119990475.ch12. ISBN 9781119990475. 
  4. ^ "Bald chicken 'needs no plucking'". BBC. Israel. May 21, 2002. Retrieved March 16, 2015. 
  5. ^ Baron, M.G.; Norman, D.B.; Barrett, P.M. (2017). "A new hypothesis of dinosaur relationships and early dinosaur evolution". Nature. 543: 501–506. doi:10.1038/nature21700. 
  6. ^ Greenwold, M.; Sawyer, R. (2013), "Molecular evolution and expression of archosaurian β-keratins: Diversification and expansion of archosaurian β-keratins and the origin of feather β-keratins", Journal of Experimental Zoology, 320 (6): 393–405, doi:10.1002/jez.b.22514, PMID 23744807, 22514 
  7. ^ Huxley, T.H. (1868). "On the animals which are most nearly intermediate between birds and reptiles". Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 4th. 2: 66–75. 
  8. ^ Foster, Michael; Lankester, E. Ray 1898–1903. The scientific memoirs of Thomas Henry Huxley. 4 vols and supplement. London: Macmillan.
  9. ^ Huxley, Thomas Henry (1877). "The Hypothesis of Evolution. The Neutral and the Favourable Evidence.". In Huxley, Thomas Henry (ed.). American Addresses, With A Lecture On Biology. New York: D. Appleton And Company. 
  10. ^ "1970s: Dinosaurs Redesigned". Paleoartistry. Retrieved 15 June 2017. 
  11. ^ Gierliński, G. (1996). "Feather-like impressions in a theropod resting trace from the Lower Jurassic of Massachusetts". Museum of Northern Arizona Bulletin. 60: 179–184. 
  12. ^ Template:Cite Kundrát, M. 2004. When did theropods become feathered? – evidence for pre-Archaeopteryx feathery appendages. Journal of Experimental Zoology (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 302B, 355-364.
  13. ^  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  14. ^ Turner, A.H.; Makovicky, P.J.; Norell, M.A. (2007). "Feather quill knobs in the dinosaur Velociraptor" (pdf). Science. 317 (5845): 1721. Bibcode:2007Sci...317.1721T. doi:10.1126/science.1145076. PMID 17885130. 
  15. ^ Norell M.A., Clark J.M., Chiappe L.M., Dashzeveg D.; Clark; Chiappe; Dashzeveg (1995). "A nesting dinosaur". Nature. 378 (6559): 774–776. Bibcode:1995Natur.378..774N. doi:10.1038/378774a0. 
  16. ^ Hopp, Thomas J., Orsen, Mark J. (2004) "Feathered Dragons: Studies on the Transition from Dinosaurs to Birds. Chapter 11. Dinosaur Brooding Behavior and the Origin of Flight Feathers" Currie, Koppelhaus, Shugar, Wright. Indiana University Press. Bloomington, IN. USA.
  17. ^ "Transcript: The Dinosaur that Fooled the World". BBC. Retrieved 22 December 2006. 
  18. ^ Bock, Walter J. "American Zoologist". American Zoologist. 40: 478–485. doi:10.1668/0003-1569(2000)040[0478:ehotoo];2. 
  19. ^ Emily Chung (12 September 2011). "Dinosaur feathers found in Alberta amber". CBC. Retrieved 16 September 2011. 
  20. ^ Brian Switek (15 September 2011). "Amber inclusions showcase prehistoric feathers". Nature News. doi:10.1038/news.2011.539. Retrieved 22 September 2011. 
  21. ^ Rincon, Paul (8 December 2016). "'Beautiful' dinosaur tail found preserved in amber". BBC News. Retrieved 8 December 2016. 
  22. ^ Xing, L.; McKellar, R.C.; Xu, X; Li, G.; Bai, M.; Persons; Miyashita, T; Benton, M.J.; Zhang, J; Wolfe, A.P.; Yi, Q.; Tseng, K.; Ran, H.; Currie, P.J. "A Feathered Dinosaur Tail with Primitive Plumage Trapped in Mid-Cretaceous Amber". Current Biology. 26: 3352–3360. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2016.10.008. PMID 27939315. 
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