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Ferro Alloy Plant
Ferro Alloy Plant
Published: 2016/10/05
Channel: ANESDESIGN
Stork Ferro Alloy Plant, Balasore, Odhisha, India
Stork Ferro Alloy Plant, Balasore, Odhisha, India
Published: 2014/04/14
Channel: Stork Group
Ferro Alloys and Minerals Division of TATA STEEL - 3 min video
Ferro Alloys and Minerals Division of TATA STEEL - 3 min video
Published: 2011/08/01
Channel: Prabhash Gokarn
Ferroalloys Production, Manufacturing, Detailed Project Report,Market Research,Manufacturing Process
Ferroalloys Production, Manufacturing, Detailed Project Report,Market Research,Manufacturing Process
Published: 2016/05/18
Channel: Niir Project Consultancy Services Delhi
Ferro Alloy
Ferro Alloy
Published: 2011/07/04
Channel: BorgestadIndustries
Ferroalloy crushing installation
Ferroalloy crushing installation
Published: 2017/02/24
Channel: Laarmann
Production of Ferroalloys(Manganese,Boron,Titanium,Tungsten,Silicon,Nickel,Chrome)
Production of Ferroalloys(Manganese,Boron,Titanium,Tungsten,Silicon,Nickel,Chrome)
Published: 2016/05/14
Channel: Niir Project Consultancy Services Delhi
Submerged arc furnace for ferroalloy
Submerged arc furnace for ferroalloy
Published: 2016/12/23
Channel: Xian Tengye Metallurgical Engineering Co.,Ltd
FERRO ALLOY PLANT
FERRO ALLOY PLANT
Published: 2016/10/06
Channel: Mehmet Gktpe
Ferroalloy AND Graphite Electrode supplier.
Ferroalloy AND Graphite Electrode supplier.
Published: 2015/12/26
Channel: Sundy Shi
Ferroalloys Production(Ferro Manganese, Ferro Molybdenum, Ferro Silicon): Theory and Technology
Ferroalloys Production(Ferro Manganese, Ferro Molybdenum, Ferro Silicon): Theory and Technology
Published: 2015/11/21
Channel: Niir Project Consultancy Services Delhi
Ferro Silicon Tapping
Ferro Silicon Tapping
Published: 2014/12/14
Channel: Vaibh Metallurgical Solutions Pvt. Ltd.
LAUNCH OF INDIA
LAUNCH OF INDIA's FIRST FERRO ALLOY BRAND : SILCOMAG FROM TATA STEEL FERRO ALLOYS & MINERALS
Published: 2012/08/26
Channel: Prabhash Gokarn
Iran made Ferro Alloy & Molybdenum Alloy for Aviation Industries آلياژ موليبدن صنايع هوايي ايران
Iran made Ferro Alloy & Molybdenum Alloy for Aviation Industries آلياژ موليبدن صنايع هوايي ايران
Published: 2017/01/12
Channel: Persian_boy
Reverse air baghouse optimization - Ferroalloy
Reverse air baghouse optimization - Ferroalloy
Published: 2017/05/26
Channel: GORE® Filter Bags
Ferro Alloys plant
Ferro Alloys plant
Published: 2011/07/12
Channel: Sujeet Parmanik
FERRO ALLOY ADDITION IN RH
FERRO ALLOY ADDITION IN RH
Published: 2016/06/03
Channel: DEBJIT PATTANAYAK
Ferro Alloy Industry in India
Ferro Alloy Industry in India
Published: 2017/06/27
Channel: mymanagementlessons
Ferro alloy,ferro silicon,silicon  Factory from Anyhang by Sundy
Ferro alloy,ferro silicon,silicon Factory from Anyhang by Sundy
Published: 2016/01/28
Channel: Sundy Shi
Iron & Steel - Ferro Alloys, Steel
Iron & Steel - Ferro Alloys, Steel
Published: 2017/03/17
Channel: National Career Service - India
Ladle Ferro Alloy Addition Automation  Video
Ladle Ferro Alloy Addition Automation Video
Published: 2015/12/14
Channel: ACI Automation Private Ltd.
Ferroalloy Meaning
Ferroalloy Meaning
Published: 2015/04/22
Channel: SDictionary
running furnace.mp4
running furnace.mp4
Published: 2010/09/03
Channel: Vaibhav Gupta
DEMORA FERRO ALLOY PLANT
DEMORA FERRO ALLOY PLANT
Published: 2016/03/25
Channel: NİYAZİ ERDEM ALTUN
Ferro Alloy industry in india
Ferro Alloy industry in india
Published: 2015/01/11
Channel: Shepherd Jake
Ferro Alloy EISC
Ferro Alloy EISC
Published: 2013/09/12
Channel: bitzjam
Premium Ferro Alloys Ltd,Cochin,Kerala
Premium Ferro Alloys Ltd,Cochin,Kerala
Published: 2012/06/15
Channel: videomart kochi
Iran made FerroAlloy manufacturer for Steel production توليدكننده آلياژهاي فلزي صنايع فولاد ايران
Iran made FerroAlloy manufacturer for Steel production توليدكننده آلياژهاي فلزي صنايع فولاد ايران
Published: 2017/02/25
Channel: Persian_boy
Chandrapur ferro alloy plant Top  #5 Facts
Chandrapur ferro alloy plant Top #5 Facts
Published: 2016/01/30
Channel: Rishika Janaki
Британская «Ferro- Alloy Resources» выходит на ІРО на KASE
Британская «Ferro- Alloy Resources» выходит на ІРО на KASE
Published: 2017/06/07
Channel: Atameken Business Channel
Anyang Wanhua Metal Material Co.,Ltd is a professional ferroalloy -deep processing enterprise.
Anyang Wanhua Metal Material Co.,Ltd is a professional ferroalloy -deep processing enterprise.
Published: 2015/09/07
Channel: metal wanhua
Insmart Make Ferro Alloys System
Insmart Make Ferro Alloys System
Published: 2017/04/26
Channel: INSMART SYSTEMS Hyderabad
Pertama ferroalloys to samalaju port
Pertama ferroalloys to samalaju port
Published: 2017/03/22
Channel: Abu Nawas
Pulse-jet baghouse optimization - Ferroalloy
Pulse-jet baghouse optimization - Ferroalloy
Published: 2017/05/26
Channel: GORE® Filter Bags
Lap ka KSU ia ka Jingleh Torti ka Company Ferro Alloy Pvt Ltd
Lap ka KSU ia ka Jingleh Torti ka Company Ferro Alloy Pvt Ltd
Published: 2015/07/25
Channel: T7 News Channel
Завод Ферросплавов. Вакансии. ( Zaporizhzhya Ferroalloy Plant. Vacancies. )
Завод Ферросплавов. Вакансии. ( Zaporizhzhya Ferroalloy Plant. Vacancies. )
Published: 2017/10/30
Channel: Alina Vidisheva
How to say ferro alloy in Italian
How to say ferro alloy in Italian
Published: 2014/03/08
Channel: How to say in Italian ?
Vasyl Gerega, director of Zestaphoni Ferroalloy Plant
Vasyl Gerega, director of Zestaphoni Ferroalloy Plant
Published: 2016/10/30
Channel: Imernews
Outotec SAF smelting
Outotec SAF smelting
Published: 2014/12/22
Channel: OutotecOyj
4th facility of ferroalloy plant reaches design capacity in Aktobe - Kazakh TV
4th facility of ferroalloy plant reaches design capacity in Aktobe - Kazakh TV
Published: 2016/10/03
Channel: Kazakh TV
Ferro Alloys Industry lockout, Workers stage agitation | 10TV
Ferro Alloys Industry lockout, Workers stage agitation | 10TV
Published: 2015/09/14
Channel: 10TVNewsChannel
DLA Ferroalloy Recovery Project, Curtis Bay, MD 2010
DLA Ferroalloy Recovery Project, Curtis Bay, MD 2010
Published: 2010/10/15
Channel: John Wilson
Fume Free Offline System for Ferro Alloy
Fume Free Offline System for Ferro Alloy
Published: 2014/04/24
Channel: Vikas Mehra
Recovering of  ferroalloy from Stainless steel smelting slag
Recovering of ferroalloy from Stainless steel smelting slag
Published: 2016/05/21
Channel: YouWei Zhao
FROM ENGLISH TO GERMAN = ferro alloy
FROM ENGLISH TO GERMAN = ferro alloy
Published: 2011/12/13
Channel: YTenglish2german
Ferro Alloy Products By Hindustan Alloys Pvt. Ltd, Delhi
Ferro Alloy Products By Hindustan Alloys Pvt. Ltd, Delhi
Published: 2016/07/29
Channel: IndiaMARTSuppliers
Pollution by Ferro alloy producers in Bokaro
Pollution by Ferro alloy producers in Bokaro
Published: 2017/11/05
Channel: Bijay Vikram Singh
A Day in the Life of a Production Engineer
A Day in the Life of a Production Engineer
Published: 2015/05/25
Channel: Sarawak YES
Ferro Alloys / Ferro Alloy Powders / Pieces / Ferrous Alloy Powder
Ferro Alloys / Ferro Alloy Powders / Pieces / Ferrous Alloy Powder
Published: 2013/01/31
Channel: ReadeInternational
Russian ferroalloy plant
Russian ferroalloy plant
Published: 2017/01/13
Channel: My Russia
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Ferroalloys)
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Ferroalloy refers to various alloys of iron with a high proportion of one or more other elements such as manganese, aluminium, or silicon.[1] They are used in the production of steels and alloys.[2][3] The alloys impart distinctive qualities to steel and cast iron or serve important functions during production and are, therefore, closely associated with the iron and steel industry, the leading consumer of ferroalloys. The leading ferroalloy-producing countries in 2008 were Ukraine, China, South Africa and Russia, which accounted for 77% of the world production. World production of bulk chromium, manganese and silicon ferroalloys was estimated as 29.1 million tonnes (Mt) in 2008, a 3% decrease compared with 2007.[2]

The main ferroalloys are:

Production, by processes[edit]

Evolution of the global ferroalloys production, by processes.

Ferroalloys are produced generally by two methods : in a blast furnace or in an electric arc furnace. Blast furnace production continuously decreased during the 20th century, whereas the electric arc production is still increasing. Today, feromanganese can be still efficiently produced in a blast furnace, but, even in this case, electric arc furnace are spreading. More commonly, ferroalloys are produced by carbothermic reactions, involving reduction of oxides with carbon (as coke) in the presence of iron. Some ferroalloys are produced by the addition of elements into molten iron.

It is also possible to produce somme ferroalloys by direct reduction[fr] processes. For example, the Krupp-Renn process[fr] is used in Japan to produce ferronickel.[4]

Production and consumption, by ferroalloys[edit]

Ferrochromium[edit]

Ferrochromium

The leading world chromite ore-producing countries in 2008 were India (almost 4 Mt), Kazakhstan (more than 3 Mt), and South Africa (almost 10 Mt). More than 94% of chromite ore production was smelted in electric-arc furnaces to produce ferrochromium for the metallurgical industry. The leading world ferrochromium-producing countries in 2008 were China (more than 1 Mt), Kazakhstan (more than 1 Mt), and South Africa (more than 3 Mt). India and Russia each produced in excess of 0.5 Mt of ferrochromium. Most of the 7.84 Mt of ferrochromium produced worldwide was consumed in the manufacture of stainless steel which exceeded 26 Mt in 2008.[2] Production for this is very economical.

Ferromanganese[edit]

Two manganese ferroalloys, ferromanganese and silicomanganese, are key ingredients for steelmaking. China is the leading world producer of manganese ferroalloys (2.7 Mt), with output about much greater than that of the next three major producers—Brazil (0.34 Mt), South Africa (0.61 Mt) and Ukraine (0.38 Mt)—combined.[2]

Ferromolybdenum[edit]

Major producers of ferromolybdenum are Chile (16,918 t), China (40,000 t) and the United States which accounted for about 78% of world production of molybdenite ore in 2008, whereas Canada, Mexico and Peru accounted for the remainder. Molybdenite concentrates are roasted to form molybdic oxide, which can be converted into ferromolybdenum, molybdenum chemicals, or molybdenum metal. Although the United States was the second leading molybdenum-producing country in the world in 2008, it imported more than 70% of its ferromolybdenum requirements in 2008, mostly for the steel industry (83% of ferromolybdenum consumed).[2]

Ferronickel[edit]

In 2008, the major ferronickel-producing countries were Japan (301,000 t), New Caledonia (144,000 t) and Colombia (105,000 t). Together, these three countries accounted for about 51% of world production if China is excluded. Ukraine, Indonesia, Greece, and Macedonia, in descending order of gross weight output, all produced between 68,000 t and 90,000 t of ferronickel, accounting for an additional 31%, excluding China. China was excluded from statistics because its industry produced large tonnages of nickel pig iron in addition to a spectrum of conventional ferronickel grades, for an estimated combined output of 590,000 t gross weight. The nickel content of individual Chinese products varied from about 1.6% to as much as 80%, depending upon customer end use.[2]

In the United States, the steel industry accounted for virtually all the ferronickel consumed in 2008, with more than 98% used in stainless and heat-resistant steels; no ferronickel was produced in the US in 2008.[2]

The nickel pig iron is a low grade ferronickel made in China, which is very popular since the 2010s.

Ferrosilicon[edit]

Ferrosilicon

Silicon ferroalloy consumption is driven by cast iron and steel production, where silicon alloys are used as deoxidizers. Some silicon metal was also used as an alloying agent with iron. On the basis of silicon content, net production of ferrosilicon and miscellaneous silicon alloys in the US was 148,000 t in 2008. China is the major supplier, which in 2008 produced more ferrosilicon (4.9 Mt) than the rest of the world combined. Other major manufacturers are Norway (0.21 Mt), Russia (0.85 Mt) and US (0.23 Mt).[2]

Ferrotitanium[edit]

Titanium is used in steelmaking for deoxidation, grain-size control, and carbon and nitrogen control and stabilization. During steelmaking, titanium is usually introduced as ferrotitanium because of its relatively low melting temperature and high density. Steels with relatively high titanium content include interstitial-free, stainless and high-strength low-alloy steels. Ferrotitanium is usually produced by induction melting of titanium scrap with iron or steel; however, it also is produced directly from titanium mineral concentrates. The standard grades of ferrotitanium are 30% and 70% titanium. Ferrosilicon-titanium also is produced to allow the simultaneous addition of silicon and titanium. The leading ferrotitanium producing countries include Brazil, China, India, Japan, Russia, Ukraine, United Kingdom and the United States.[2]

Ferrotungsten[edit]

Tungsten is an important alloying element in high-speed and other tool steels, and is used to a lesser extent in some stainless and structural steels. Tungsten is often added to steel melts as ferrotungsten, which can contain up to 80% tungsten. World ferrotungsten production is dominated by China, which in 2008 exported 4,835 t (gross weight) of the alloy. Ferrotungsten is relatively expensive, with the prices around $31–44 per kilogram of contained tungsten.[2]

Ferrovanadium[edit]

Ferrovanadium chunks

In 2008, China, Russia (12,000 t) and South Africa (17,000 t) accounted for 98% of world vanadium mine production. In these three countries, vanadium was primarily recovered from titanium-bearing magnetite ore processed to produce pig iron. The process entails aluminothermic reduction of vanadium(V) oxide, aluminium (as oxide getter), and scrap iron.[1] This produces a slag containing 20% to 24% vanadium pentoxide, which can be further processed to ferrovanadium containing 40% to 50% vanadium. Of the 5,090 t of vanadium consumed in the United States in 2008, 84% came from ferrovanadium and nearly all of it (99%) went into steel manufacturing.[2]

References[edit]

 This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Geological Survey document: "Ferroalloys" (PDF). 

  1. ^ a b Rudolf Fichte (2005), "Ferroalloys", Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Weinheim: Wiley-VCH, doi:10.1002/14356007.a10_305 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Lisa A. Corathers et al. Ferroalloys, USGS 2008 Minerals Yearbook
  3. ^ Moskalyk, R. R.; Alfantazi, A. M. (2003). "Processing of vanadium: a review". Minerals Engineering. 16 (9, September 2003): 793–805. doi:10.1016/S0892-6875(03)00213-9. 
  4. ^ Kudo, Akira. Japanese-German Business Relations: Co-operation and Rivalry in the Interwar. pp. 89–108. 

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