Field-reversed configuration: a toroidal electric current is induced inside a cylindrical plasma, making a poloidal magnetic field, reversed in respect to the direction of an externally applied magnetic field. The resultant high-beta axisymmetric compact toroid is self-confined.
One approach to producing fusion power is to confine the plasma with magnetic fields. This is most effective if the field lines do not penetrate solid surfaces but close on themselves into circles or toroidal surfaces. The mainline confinement concepts of tokamak and stellarator do this in a toroidal chamber, which allows a great deal of control over the magnetic configuration, but requires a very complex construction. The field-reversed configuration offers an alternative in that the field lines are closed, providing good confinement, but the chamber is cylindrical, allowing simpler, easier construction and maintenance.
Field-reversed configurations and spheromaks are together known as compact toroids. Unlike the spheromak, where the strength of the toroidal magnetic field is similar to that of the poloidal field, the FRC has little to no toroidal field component and is confined solely by a poloidal field. The lack of a toroidal field means that the FRC has no magnetic helicity and that it has a high beta. The high beta makes the FRC attractive as a fusion reactor and uniquely suited to aneutronic fuels because of the low required magnetic field. Spheromaks have β ≈ 0.1 whereas a typical FRC has β ≈ 1.
The Dimensions of an FRC, including the S-parameter.
In modern FRC experiments, the plasma current that reverses the magnetic field can be induced in a variety of ways.
When a field-reversed configuration is formed using the theta-pinch (or inductive electric field) method, a cylindrical coil first produces an axial magnetic field. Then the gas is pre-ionized, which "freezes in" the bias field from a magnetohydrodynamic standpoint, finally the axial field is reversed, hence "field-reversed configuration." At the ends, reconnection of the bias field and the main field occurs, producing closed field lines. The main field is raised further, compressing and heating the plasma and providing a vacuum field between the plasma and the wall.
Neutral beams are known to drive current in Tokamaks by directly injecting charged particles. FRCs can also be formed, sustained, and heated by application of neutral beams. In such experiments, as above, a cylindrical coil produces a uniform axial magnetic field and gas is introduced and ionized, creating a background plasma. Neutral particles are then injected into the plasma. They ionize and the heavier, positively-charged particles form a current ring which reverses the magnetic field.
Spheromaks are FRC-like configurations with finite toroidal magnetic field. FRCs have been formed through the merging of spheromaks of opposite and canceling toroidal field.
Rotating magnetic fields have also been used to drive current. In such experiments, as above, gas is ionized and an axial magnetic field is produced. A rotating magnetic field is produced by external magnetic coils perpendicular to the axis of the machine, and the direction of this field is rotated about the axis. When the rotation frequency is between the ion and electron gyro-frequencies, the electrons in the plasma co-rotate with the magnetic field (are "dragged"), producing current and reversing the magnetic field. More recently, so-called odd parity rotating magnetic fields have been used to preserve the closed topology of the FRC.
FRC particle trajectory in which a particle starts with cyclotron motion inside the null, transitions to betatron motion, and ends as cyclotron motion outside the null. This motion is in the midplane of the machine. Coils are above and below the figure.
FRCs contain an important and uncommon feature: a "magnetic null," or circular line on which the magnetic field is zero. This is necessarily the case, as inside the null the magnetic field points one direction and outside the null the magnetic field points the opposite direction. Particles far from the null trace closed cyclotron orbits as in other magnetic fusion geometries. Particles which cross the null, however, trace not cyclotron or circular orbits but betatron or figure-eight-like orbits, as the orbit's curvature changes direction when it crosses the magnetic null.
Because the particles orbits are not cyclotron, models of plasma behavior based on cyclotron motion like Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) are entirely inapplicable in the region around the null. The size of this region is related to the s-parameter, or the ratio of the distance between the null and separatrix, and the thermal ion gyroradius. At high-s, most particles do not cross the null and this effect is negligible. At low-s, ~2, this effect dominates and the FRC is said to be "kinetic" rather than "MHD."
As of 2000[update], several remaining instabilities are being studied:
The tilt and shift modes. Those instabilities can be mitigated by either including a passive stabilizing conductor, or by forming very oblate plasmas (i.e. very elongated plasmas), or by creating a self-generated toroidal field. The tilt mode has also been stabilized in FRC experiments by increasing the ion gyroradii.
The magnetorotational instability. This mode causes a rotating elliptical distortion of the plasma boundary, and can destroy the FRC when the distorted plasma comes in contact with the confinement chamber. Successful stabilization methods include the use of a quadrupole stabilizing field, and the effects of a rotating magnetic field (RMF).
^Hoffman, Alan L.; Carey, Larry L.; Crawford, Edward A.; Harding, Dennis G.; DeHart, Terence E.; McDonald, Kenneth F.; McNeil, John L.; Milroy, Richard D.; Slough, John T.; Maqueda, Ricardo; Wurden, Glen A. (March 1993). "The Large-s Field-Reversed Configuration Experiment". Fusion Science and Technology. American Nuclear Society. 23 (2): 185–207. OSTI6514222.
^Slough, John; Pancotti, Anthony; Kirtley, David; Votroubek, George (6–10 October 2013). Electromagnetically Driven Fusion Propulsion(PDF). 33rd International Electric Propulsion Conference (IEPC-2013). Washington, D.C.: George Washington University.
^Rostoker, N.; Binderbauer, M. W.; Wessel, F. J.; Monkhorst, H. J. Colliding Beam Fusion Reactor(PDF). Invited Paper, Special Session on Advanced Fuels APS-DPP. American Physical Society. Archived from the original(PDF) on December 20, 2005.