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Daijōbu Dames - Patchouli
Daijōbu Dames - Patchouli's Linguistic Filler
Published: 2013/07/23
Channel: TheJogolandGroup
Filler Words in Different Languages!
Filler Words in Different Languages!
Published: 2017/10/25
Channel: DarkStarMedia
What Kind Of Word Is Umm??
What Kind Of Word Is Umm??
Published: 2017/12/07
Channel: Vernie Liefer Tipz
Filler Words/Expanding My Vocabulary
Filler Words/Expanding My Vocabulary
Published: 2014/12/09
Channel: Kalliyan Lay
Cinemologists Radio Episode 1: What We
Cinemologists Radio Episode 1: What We've Been Watching
Published: 2015/04/11
Channel: The Cinemologists
How to stop using filler words like
How to stop using filler words like 'um' and 'uh'
Published: 2016/12/09
Channel: Tech Insider
"Conversational Fillers" DISCOURSE MARKERS in G.I. Joe
"Conversational Fillers" DISCOURSE MARKERS in G.I. Joe
Published: 2013/07/09
Channel: José Aliaga Giacosa
Old Vs. Young MGTOW
Old Vs. Young MGTOW
Published: 2017/01/08
Channel: Square.Peg
Do Sounds Carry Their Own Meanings? Onomatopoeia and Arbitrariness of the Sign
Do Sounds Carry Their Own Meanings? Onomatopoeia and Arbitrariness of the Sign
Published: 2016/04/06
Channel: The Ling Space
drift filler
drift filler
Published: 2016/09/09
Channel: BindedButtons
The science of analyzing conversations, second by second | Elizabeth Stokoe | TEDxBermuda
The science of analyzing conversations, second by second | Elizabeth Stokoe | TEDxBermuda
Published: 2014/12/04
Channel: TEDx Talks
Linguistic Micro-Lectures: Onomatopoeia
Linguistic Micro-Lectures: Onomatopoeia
Published: 2015/04/16
Channel: The Virtual Linguistics Campus
What Changes in a Sentence When We Swap Verbs? Raising vs. Control Verbs
What Changes in a Sentence When We Swap Verbs? Raising vs. Control Verbs
Published: 2015/11/04
Channel: The Ling Space
ASL in Academic Settings: Language Features
ASL in Academic Settings: Language Features
Published: 2017/04/18
Channel: ASLized!
Accent Reduction: An Introduction
Accent Reduction: An Introduction
Published: 2012/07/17
Channel: UnivSouthCarolinaCTE
Final Project - Linguistics
Final Project - Linguistics
Published: 2013/12/10
Channel: Hannah Johnson
Avoiding Linguistic Discrimination
Avoiding Linguistic Discrimination
Published: 2007/06/06
Channel: J Seay
Linguist 130a - Semantic composition 3: Semantic grammar
Linguist 130a - Semantic composition 3: Semantic grammar
Published: 2015/12/08
Channel: Chris Potts
FLAT EARTH AND DINOSAUR CONSCIOUSNESS | GAP FILLER EVOLUTION
FLAT EARTH AND DINOSAUR CONSCIOUSNESS | GAP FILLER EVOLUTION
Published: 2016/03/11
Channel: Subtle Infinity
Robust Shallow Semantic Parsing of Text
Robust Shallow Semantic Parsing of Text
Published: 2016/07/27
Channel: Microsoft Research
Cinemologists Radio Episode 1: What Weve Been Watching
Cinemologists Radio Episode 1: What Weve Been Watching
Published: 2017/07/23
Channel: William Hernandez
Lecture - 18 Semantic Net
Lecture - 18 Semantic Net
Published: 2008/10/15
Channel: nptelhrd
Paris Hilton example answer - fillers
Paris Hilton example answer - fillers
Published: 2016/09/29
Channel: BPC English
What your speaking style, like, says about you | Vera Regan | TEDxDublin
What your speaking style, like, says about you | Vera Regan | TEDxDublin
Published: 2014/11/21
Channel: TEDx Talks
Are You Using Filler Words In Your Presentations?
Are You Using Filler Words In Your Presentations?
Published: 2014/05/07
Channel: Andy Harrington
Is
Is 'Huh?' a universal word?
Published: 2014/07/03
Channel: Huh?
What Happens If We Throw an Elephant From a Skyscraper? Life & Size 1
What Happens If We Throw an Elephant From a Skyscraper? Life & Size 1
Published: 2017/08/10
Channel: Kurzgesagt – In a Nutshell
Linguistics Term Project 2014
Linguistics Term Project 2014
Published: 2014/12/15
Channel: Alexia Marroquin
Blocks Filler
Blocks Filler
Published: 2010/11/06
Channel: gggggggames
Linguistics: Hesitation
Linguistics: Hesitation
Published: 2010/06/14
Channel: jsenglerify
Linguistic Genius   Vocabulary Wizard   Elegant Speaker
Linguistic Genius Vocabulary Wizard Elegant Speaker
Published: 2016/04/04
Channel: MINDMATRIX PROGRAMMING
Why Germans Can Say Things No One Else Can
Why Germans Can Say Things No One Else Can
Published: 2017/02/01
Channel: The School of Life
What Is A Linguistic Anthropologist?
What Is A Linguistic Anthropologist?
Published: 2017/09/27
Channel: Another Question II
[Mathematical Linguistics] Tree Adjoining Grammar
[Mathematical Linguistics] Tree Adjoining Grammar
Published: 2017/05/30
Channel: TheTrevTutor
Linguistics Final Video Project
Linguistics Final Video Project
Published: 2013/05/01
Channel: jacobkruse92
India in 3 decades - politics, demographics & economy - Pitch for an InfoViz Project
India in 3 decades - politics, demographics & economy - Pitch for an InfoViz Project
Published: 2016/04/06
Channel: Sagar Dubey
Lecture 2.5: Long-Distance Dependencies (part 1)
Lecture 2.5: Long-Distance Dependencies (part 1)
Published: 2015/03/10
Channel: fcgdemos
"sh" Articulation & Word Pronunciation
"sh" Articulation & Word Pronunciation
Published: 2014/04/06
Channel: Jillian Smith
Have a filler
Have a filler
Published: 2011/11/13
Channel: DarkSpacer1
[Flat Earth Series: Pt. 2] Logic, Linguistics and the Scientific Method
[Flat Earth Series: Pt. 2] Logic, Linguistics and the Scientific Method
Published: 2016/03/10
Channel: Eric Daniel Brown
The Tch
The Tch
Published: 2014/01/11
Channel: TJ Tubular
Um...Filler Words?
Um...Filler Words?
Published: 2012/01/09
Channel: SterlingChaos
Noam Chomsky: What is Special About Language?
Noam Chomsky: What is Special About Language?
Published: 2012/02/13
Channel: The University of Arizona
The Language of Food: A Linguist Reads the Menu
The Language of Food: A Linguist Reads the Menu
Published: 2016/08/15
Channel: ClipAdvise Cookbooks
Back-Channelling
Back-Channelling
Published: 2015/11/03
Channel: Kezzie Moynihan
English Language AS Sexy and I Know It - COVER
English Language AS Sexy and I Know It - COVER
Published: 2012/04/18
Channel: lollyhunni12
Noun and Verb Phrases (to Lack, to blame and to discuss) - English Lessons
Noun and Verb Phrases (to Lack, to blame and to discuss) - English Lessons
Published: 2015/08/18
Channel: inlingua Vancouver
Studying Languages with FlashAcademy
Studying Languages with FlashAcademy
Published: 2017/04/06
Channel: Weilà Tom
The Attention Whore
The Attention Whore
Published: 2006/08/24
Channel: Mr Pregnant - Atelston Fitzgerald Holder 1st
Look More Confident When You Speak English
Look More Confident When You Speak English
Published: 2017/10/16
Channel: Julian Northbrook
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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In linguistics, a filler is a sound or word that is spoken in conversation by one participant to signal to others a pause to think without giving the impression of having finished speaking.[1] These are not to be confused with placeholder names, such as thingamajig, whatsamacallit, whosawhatsa and whats'isface, which refer to objects or people whose names are temporarily forgotten, irrelevant, or unknown. Fillers fall into the category of formulaic language, and different languages have different characteristic filler sounds. The term filler also has a separate use in the syntactic description of wh-movement constructions.

In English[edit]

In English, the most common filler sounds are ah or uh /ʌ/, er /ɜː/, and um /ʌm/.[2] Among younger speakers, the fillers "like",[3] "you know", "I mean", "okay", "so", "actually", "basically", and "right" are among the more prevalent. The use of the Valleyspeak word "like" as a discourse marker or vocalized pause is a particularly prominent example of the "Californianization of American youth-speak",[4] and its further recent spread throughout other English dialects via the mass-media.

Ronald Reagan was famous for beginning his answers to questions with "Well..."[citation needed]. Barack Obama is known for often beginning statements with "Look..." "If, if, if", "lemme be clear" as well as ahs and stammers that characterized the speaking style of William F. Buckley.[citation needed]

Filler words in different languages[edit]

  • In Afrikaans, ah, um, and uh are common fillers (um, and uh being in common with English).
  • In Arabic, يعني yaʿni ("means") and وﷲ wallāh(i) ("by God") are common fillers. In Moroccan Arabic, زعمة z3ma ("like") is a common filler.[5][6][7]
  • In American Sign Language, UM can be signed with open-8 held at chin, palm in, eyebrows down (similar to FAVORITE); or bilateral symmetric bent-V, palm out, repeated axial rotation of wrist (similar to QUOTE).
  • In Assyrian, yeni ("I mean"), aya, mindy or hina ("thingy" and "uh"), akh ("like") and kheena ("well") are common fillers.
  • In Bengali, mane ("it means","I mean","that is") and thuri ("..er..that is") are common fillers.
  • In Bislama, ah is the common filler.
  • In Bulgarian, common fillers are ъ (uh), амии (amii, 'well'), тъй (tui, 'so'), така (taka, 'thus'), добре (dobre, 'well'), такова (takova, 'this') and значи (znachi, 'it means'), нали (nali, 'right').
  • In Cantonese, speakers often say 即係 zik1 hai6 ("that is"/"meaning") as a filler.
  • In Catalan, eh /ə/, doncs ("so"), llavors ("therefore"), and o sigui ("it means") are common fillers.
  • In Chinese, 這個 zhe4 ge ("this"), 那個 na4 ge ("that") and prolonged 嗯 en (in common with "um" in English).
  • In Croatian, the words ovaj (literally "this one", but the meaning is lost) and dakle ("so"), and znači ("meaning", "it means") are frequent.
  • In Czech, fillers are called "slovní vata", meaning "word cotton/padding", or "parasitické výrazy", meaning "parasitic expressions". The most frequent fillers are čili or takže ("so"), prostě ("simply"), jako ("like").
  • In Danish, øh is one of the most common fillers.
  • In Dutch, ehm, and dus ("thus") are some of the more common fillers. Also eigenlijk ("actually"), zo ("so"), nou ("well") and zeg maar ("so to say") in Netherlandic Dutch, allez ("come on") or (a)wel ("well") in Belgian Dutch, weet je? ("you know?") etc.
  • In Esperanto, do ("therefore") is the most common filler.
  • In Estonian, nii ("so") is one of the most common fillers.
  • In Filipino, ah, eh, ay, and ano ("what") , "kuwan", "ganun"(Something like that), "parang"(like), "Lam mo yan, teh!"(You know, sistah!) are the most common fillers.
  • In Finnish, niinku ("like"), tuota, and öö are the most common fillers. Swearing is also used as a filler often, especially among youth. The most common swear word for that is "vittu", which is a word for female genitalia.
  • In French, euh /ø/ is most common; other words used as fillers include quoi ("what"), bah, ben ("well"), tu vois ("you see"), t'vois c'que j'veux dire? ("you see what I mean?"), tu sais, t'sais ("you know"), and eh bien (roughly "well", as in "Well, I'm not sure"). Outside France other expressions are t'sais veux dire? ("ya know what I mean?"; Québec), or allez une fois ("go one time"; especially in Brussels, not in Wallonia). Additional filler words used by youngsters include genre ("kind"), comme ("like"), and style ("style"; "kind").
  • In German, traditional filler words include äh /ɛː/, hm, so /zoː/, tja, halt, and eigentlich ("actually"). So-called modal particles share some of the features of filler words, but they actually modify the sentence meaning.
  • In Greek, ε (e), εμ (em), λοιπόν (lipon, "so") and καλά (kala, "good") are common fillers.
  • In Hebrew, eh (אֶה) is the most common filler. Em (אֶמ) is also quite common. Millennials and the younger Generation X speakers commonly use kilu: (an abbreviation of ke'ilu כאילו – the Hebrew version of "like"). Additional filler words include sto'meret (סתומרת – short for zot o'meret זאת אומרת – "that means"), az (אז – "so") and bekit'sur (בקיצור – "in short"). Use of fillers of Arabic origin such as yaʿnu (יענו – a mispronunciation of the Arabic yaʿni) is also common.
  • In Hindi, matlab ("it means"), asal mein ("actually") and aisa hai ("what it is") are some word fillers. Sound fillers include hoon (हूँ or ɧuːm̩), aa (आ or äː).
  • In Hungarian, filler sound is ő, common filler words include hát, nos (well...) and asszongya (a variant of azt mondja, which means "it says here..."). Among intellectuals, ha úgy tetszik (if you like) is used as filler.
  • In Icelandic, a common filler is hérna ("here"). Þúst, a contraction of þú veist ("you know"), is popular among younger speakers.
  • In Indonesian (Bahasa Indonesia), anu is one of the most common fillers.
  • In Italian, common fillers include "tipo" ("like"), "ecco" ("there") and "cioè" ("actually")
  • In Irish Gaelic, abair /ˈabˠəɾʲ/ ("say"), bhoil /wɛlʲ/ ("well"), and era /ˈɛɾˠə/ are common fillers, along with emm as in Hiberno-English. This accent tends to have the most fillers as Irish people tend to use the word like as well
  • In Japanese, common fillers include ええと (e-,eto, or "um"), あの (ano, literally "that over there", used as "um"), (ma, or "well"), そう (so-, used as "hmmm"), and ええ (e-e, a surprise reaction, with tone and duration indicating positive/negative).
  • In Kannada, Matte for also,Enappa andre for the matter is are common fillers.
  • In Korean, 응 (eung), 어 (eo), 그 (geu), and 음 (eum) are commonly used as fillers.
  • In Lithuanian, nu, am, žinai ("you know"), ta prasme ("meaning"), tipo ("like") are some of common fillers.
  • In Maltese and Maltese English, mela ("then"), or just la, is a common filler.
  • In Mandarin Chinese, speakers often say 這個 zhège/zhèige ("this") or 那個 nàge/nèige ("that"). Other common fillers are jìu ("just") and 好像 hǎoxiàng ("as if/kind of like").
  • In Nepali, maane or error: {{lang}}: unknown language code: np (help) ("meaning"), chaine or error: {{lang}}: unknown language code: np (help), chai or error: {{lang}}: unknown language code: np (help), and haina or error: {{lang}}: unknown language code: np (help) ("No?") are commonly used as fillers.
  • In Norwegian, common fillers are øh, altså, på en måte ("in a way"), bare ("Just") ikke sant (literally "not true?", meaning "don't you agree?", "right?", "no kidding" or "exactly"), vel ("well"), and liksom ("like"). In Bergen, sant ("true") is often used instead of ikke sant. In the Trøndelag region, skjø' (comes from "skjønner" which means "see(?)" or "understand?") is also a common filler.
  • In Persian, bebin ("you see"), چیز "chiz" ("thing"), and مثلا masalan ("for instance") are commonly used filler words. As well as in Arabic and Urdu, يعني yaʿni ("I mean") is also used in Persian. Also, eh is a common filler in Persian.
  • In Portuguese, é, hum, então ("so"), tipo ("like") and bem ("well") are the most common fillers.
  • In Punjabi, matlab ("it means") is a common filler.
  • In Polish, the most common filler sound is yyy /ɨ/ and also eee /ɛ/ (both like English "um") and while common its use is frowned upon. Other examples include, no /nɔ/ (like English "well"), wiesz /vjeʂ/ ("you know").
  • In Romanian, deci /detʃʲ/ ("therefore") is common, especially in school, and ă /ə/ is also very common (can be lengthened according to the pause in speech, rendered in writing as ăăă), whereas păi /pəj/ is widely used by almost anyone. A modern filler has gained popularity among the youths – gen /dʒɛn/, analogous to the English "like", literally translated as "type".
  • In Russian, fillers are called слова-паразиты ("parasite words"); the most common are Э-э ("eh"), вот ("here it is"), это ("this"), того ("that"), ну ("well"), значит ("it means"), так ("so"), как его ("what's it [called]"), типа ("like"), and как бы ("[just] like"), понимаешь? ("understand?").
  • In Serbian, znači ("means") and ovaj ("this") are common fillers.
  • In Slovak, oné ("that"), tento ("this"), proste ("simply"), or akože ("it's like…") are used as fillers. The Hungarian izé (or izí in its Slovak pronunciation) can also be heard, especially in parts of the country with a large Hungarian population. Ta is a filler typical of Eastern Slovak and one of the most parodied features.
  • In Slovene, pač ("indeed", "just", "merely"), a ne? ("right?"), and no ("well") are some of the fillers common in central Slovenia, including Ljubljana.
  • In Spanish, fillers are called muletillas. Some of the most common in American Spanish are e /e/, este (roughly equivalent to "uhm", literally means "this"), and o sea (roughly equivalent to "I mean", literally means "or be it").,[8] in Spain the previous fillers are also used, but ¿Vale? ("right?") and ¿no? are very common too.
  • In Swedish, fillers are called utfyllnadsord; some of the most common are öhm or "öh", ja ("yes"), "Ehm" or "eh" Ex "eh jag vet inte" or ba (comes from "bara", which means "only"), asså or alltså ("therefore", "thus"), va (comes from "vad", which means "what"), and liksom and typ (both similar to the English "like").
  • In Ukrainian, е ("eh", similar to "um"), ну ("Nu (well)"), і ("and"), цей ("this"), той-во ("this one") are common fillers.
  • In Urdu, yani ("meaning..."), flana flana ("this and that"; "blah blah"), haan haan ("yeah yeah") and acha ("ok") are also common fillers.
  • In Telugu, ikkada entante ("Whats here is...") and tarwatha ("then...") are common and there are numerous like this.
  • In Malayalam, athayathu ("that means...") and ennu vechaal ("then...") are common.
  • In Tamil, paatheenga-na ("if you see...") and apparam ("then...") are common.
  • In Turkish, yani ("meaning..."), şey ("thing"), işte ("that is"), and falan ("as such", "so on") are common fillers.
  • In Welsh, de or ynde is used as a filler (loosely the equivalent of "You know?" or "Isn't it?"); "'lly" (from "felly" – so/like in English, used in northern Wales) and also "iawn" (translated 'ok' is used as a filler at the beginning, middle or end of sentences); "'na ni" (abbreviation of "dyna ni" – there we are); Ym... and Y... are used similarly to the English "um...".

Among language learners, a common pitfall is using fillers from their native tongue. For example, "Quiero una umm.... quesadilla". While less of a shibboleth, knowing the placeholder names (sometimes called kadigans) of a language (e.g. the equivalent of "thingy") can also be useful to attain fluency, such as the French truc: "Je cherche le truc qu'on utilise pour ouvrir une boîte" ("I'm looking for the thingy that you use to open up a can").

In syntax[edit]

The linguistic term "filler" has another, unrelated use in syntactic terminology. It refers to the pre-posed element that fills in the "gap" in a wh-movement construction. In the following example, there is an object gap associated with the transitive verb saw, and the filler is the wh-phrase how many angels:

  • I don't care [how many angels] she told you she saw.

Wh-movement is said to create a long-distance or unbounded "filler-gap dependency".

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Juan, Stephen (2010). "Why do we say 'um', 'er', or 'ah' when we hesitate in speaking?", accessed online here
  2. ^ BORTFELD & al. (2001). "Disfluency Rates in Conversation: Effects of Age, Relationship, Topic, Role, and Gender" (PDF). LANGUAGE AND SPEECH. 44 (2): 123–147. 
  3. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-11426737
  4. ^ http://www.vanityfair.com/culture/2010/01/hitchens-like-201001 Accessed 2016-12-11
  5. ^ Unilang.org
  6. ^ "Egyptian Arabic Dialect Course"
  7. ^ Perspectives on Arabic Linguistics XV
  8. ^ "Filler Words and Vocal Pauses"

External links[edit]

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