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Learn to FLARE In Only 5 Minutes | ASAP
Learn to FLARE In Only 5 Minutes | ASAP
Published: 2016/08/03
Channel: pigmie
How To : Use A Road Flare
How To : Use A Road Flare
Published: 2013/08/18
Channel: cutlerylover
Homestuck Vol.8 - 03 Flare
Homestuck Vol.8 - 03 Flare
Published: 2011/10/25
Channel: MrAnonymas
The Script - Flares (Audio)
The Script - Flares (Audio)
Published: 2016/10/26
Channel: TheScriptVEVO
Quinn XCII - Flare Guns (ft. Chelsea Cutler)
Quinn XCII - Flare Guns (ft. Chelsea Cutler)
Published: 2017/09/15
Channel: Koala Kontrol
【Homestuck】 Flare 「+ original vocals & lyrics」 【horizon】
【Homestuck】 Flare 「+ original vocals & lyrics」 【horizon】
Published: 2012/04/12
Channel: horizon
How to Flare Tutorial by Bboy Kiki
How to Flare Tutorial by Bboy Kiki
Published: 2010/06/23
Channel: Strength Project
Lucy, Flare & Polly Pimplepants! Tricks, Pranks or Evil
Lucy, Flare & Polly Pimplepants! Tricks, Pranks or Evil
Published: 2017/03/01
Channel: SevenSuperGirls
Learn How To Flare | Power Move Basics | Beginner
Learn How To Flare | Power Move Basics | Beginner's Guide
Published: 2011/12/09
Channel: VincaniTV
Super Kids! Doing Crazy Moves!!! Flare and press ups
Super Kids! Doing Crazy Moves!!! Flare and press ups
Published: 2011/08/07
Channel: Strength Project
The Script - Flares (Lyrics)
The Script - Flares (Lyrics)
Published: 2014/09/13
Channel: Lisa LaBarbera
Bboy Tutorial I HOW TO FLARE I Different Way of Learning Flare I by EDEN ANG *with BAHASA SUBTITLE*
Bboy Tutorial I HOW TO FLARE I Different Way of Learning Flare I by EDEN ANG *with BAHASA SUBTITLE*
Published: 2014/10/31
Channel: Pie Chien Teddie
How to Flare Tutorial (Breakdance Powermove)
How to Flare Tutorial (Breakdance Powermove)
Published: 2010/10/30
Channel: pigmie
Highway Road Flare How To
Highway Road Flare How To
Published: 2012/02/06
Channel: Orion Safety Products
Rocket Flare sale ..Free Shipping
Rocket Flare sale ..Free Shipping
Published: 2016/06/04
Channel: displayfireworks1
Handheld Red Flare
Handheld Red Flare
Published: 2017/01/20
Channel: Orion Safety Products
Breakdance Flare Progression
Breakdance Flare Progression
Published: 2014/05/29
Channel: ElingoElingo
Flare Srebrni
Flare Srebrni
Published: 2010/10/17
Channel: AdastraBand
Timing Your Flare
Timing Your Flare
Published: 2013/09/21
Channel: FAACompliance
Flares, flare gun and rockets! Firing them off!
Flares, flare gun and rockets! Firing them off!
Published: 2013/03/05
Channel: HonorThePker
September 2017 Starts With Flare
September 2017 Starts With Flare
Published: 2017/09/11
Channel: NASA Goddard
Flare - Zaista
Flare - Zaista
Published: 2007/12/08
Channel: AdastraBand
How to Make Emergency Flares using Matches
How to Make Emergency Flares using Matches
Published: 2016/12/20
Channel: Junkyard - Origin of Creativity
Vol. 8 - Flare (Cascade Cut)
Vol. 8 - Flare (Cascade Cut)
Published: 2011/12/11
Channel: ShrekYourself
Channels - Flare (feat. Kat Kennedy)
Channels - Flare (feat. Kat Kennedy)
Published: 2016/08/04
Channel: Trap Nation
Emmure - Solar Flare Homicide
Emmure - Solar Flare Homicide
Published: 2011/10/02
Channel: emmureVEVO
BREAK TUTORIAL (FLARE SEGREDO) - JONAS FLEX
BREAK TUTORIAL (FLARE SEGREDO) - JONAS FLEX
Published: 2017/05/28
Channel: JonasFlexTV
Great Solar Flare | September 6, 2017
Great Solar Flare | September 6, 2017
Published: 2017/09/06
Channel: Suspicious0bservers
How To Make A Survival Flare Grenade.
How To Make A Survival Flare Grenade.
Published: 2016/03/27
Channel: NorthSurvival
Detik Detik ~ Parachut "Rocket" Flare ~ Menyambar Almarhum Catur Yuliantono ||  Indonesia vs Fiji
Detik Detik ~ Parachut "Rocket" Flare ~ Menyambar Almarhum Catur Yuliantono || Indonesia vs Fiji
Published: 2017/09/03
Channel: B'Star Views
Flare Exercises | Strength, Stretching, Technique
Flare Exercises | Strength, Stretching, Technique
Published: 2016/09/27
Channel: MrJumptrix
How to Flare Tutorial
How to Flare Tutorial
Published: 2016/07/01
Channel: Kaio 2nd Channel
Como Dançar Break - Tutorial de Flare - Video Aula 17
Como Dançar Break - Tutorial de Flare - Video Aula 17
Published: 2014/09/19
Channel: Break Dance - Como Dançar
EJERCICIOS PARA FLARE (Flare Exercices)
EJERCICIOS PARA FLARE (Flare Exercices)
Published: 2015/11/24
Channel: SDCPOWERMOVE
Flare - Hiveswap
Flare - Hiveswap
Published: 2017/09/28
Channel: SiIvaGunner
Flares Tutorial By Bboy Baki
Flares Tutorial By Bboy Baki
Published: 2017/03/04
Channel: Bboy Baki
BF1 - The Flare In-Depth Guide - Scout
BF1 - The Flare In-Depth Guide - Scout's Best Friend
Published: 2016/12/06
Channel: Paper Cut2U Gaming
Tensions FLARE Between Hellmuth And Tonkaaaap | Match 2 Round 2 B - King of the Hill 2
Tensions FLARE Between Hellmuth And Tonkaaaap | Match 2 Round 2 B - King of the Hill 2
Published: 2017/10/19
Channel: Poker Night in America
How to make a DIY BLUE smoke flare 🔴 Tutorial
How to make a DIY BLUE smoke flare 🔴 Tutorial
Published: 2016/08/24
Channel: Roman UrsuHack
Breakdance Tutorial: How to Flare + Flare Transitions
Breakdance Tutorial: How to Flare + Flare Transitions
Published: 2009/06/30
Channel: Sloppy Stylez Krew
Aprender Como Hacer Flare - Breakdance tutorial power moves bailar break dance paso a paso
Aprender Como Hacer Flare - Breakdance tutorial power moves bailar break dance paso a paso
Published: 2012/04/10
Channel: StrengthProject ES
A Very Good FLARE TUTORIAL How To Flare For Beginners and Advanced Bboys!
A Very Good FLARE TUTORIAL How To Flare For Beginners and Advanced Bboys!
Published: 2016/11/18
Channel: Bboy Darky
DEVLOG #4 - FLARE EST CODÉ EN JAVA ?! 😱 (lol non)
DEVLOG #4 - FLARE EST CODÉ EN JAVA ?! 😱 (lol non)
Published: 2017/10/11
Channel: Le FLARE Crew
How To Flare - 4 Common Flare Mistakes (Spot And Correct Them)
How To Flare - 4 Common Flare Mistakes (Spot And Correct Them)
Published: 2016/12/06
Channel: Breakdance Decoded
[Homestuck - Horizon] Flare 〈cover FR〉
[Homestuck - Horizon] Flare 〈cover FR〉
Published: 2017/08/29
Channel: Sainte Séïa
Cherry Mobile Flare S6 Plus Unboxing, Demo, Hands On
Cherry Mobile Flare S6 Plus Unboxing, Demo, Hands On
Published: 2017/10/12
Channel: TechPinas
Flare Tip - Most Common Problem I See KICK HARDER
Flare Tip - Most Common Problem I See KICK HARDER
Published: 2012/05/23
Channel: pigmie
Suporter kampungan bakar flare di laga indonesia vs vietnam
Suporter kampungan bakar flare di laga indonesia vs vietnam
Published: 2016/12/05
Channel: Yuda Hermawan
Using a copper tube flaring tool
Using a copper tube flaring tool
Published: 2012/10/23
Channel: iScaper1
Free Background Flare
Free Background Flare
Published: 2013/02/10
Channel: isonicEnt
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Illumination flares being used during military training exercises

A flare, also sometimes called a fusee, is a type of pyrotechnic that produces a brilliant light or intense heat without an explosion. Flares are used for signalling, illumination, or defensive countermeasures in civilian and military applications. Flares may be ground pyrotechnics, projectile pyrotechnics, or parachute-suspended to provide maximum illumination time over a large area. Projectile pyrotechnics may be dropped from aircraft, fired from rocket or artillery, or deployed by flare guns or handheld percussive tubes.

History[edit]

The earliest recorded use of gunpowder for signalling purposes was the 'signal bomb' used by the Chinese Song Dynasty as the Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty besieged Yangzhou in 1276.[1] These soft-shelled bombs, timed to explode in mid-air, were used to send messages to a detachment of troops far in the distance. Another mention of the signal bomb appears in a text dating from 1293 requesting their collection from those still stored in Zhejiang.[1] A signal gun appears in Korea by 1600. The Wu I Thu Phu Thung Chih or Illustrated Military Encyclopedia written in 1791 depicts a signal gun in an illustration.[2]

Chemistry[edit]

Three road flares burning
A conventional flare pistol. This particular model uses 26.5mm flares (manufactured by Patel Ballistics).

Flares produce their light through the combustion of a pyrotechnic composition. The ingredients are varied, but often based on strontium nitrate, potassium nitrate, or potassium perchlorate and mixed with a fuel such as charcoal, sulfur, sawdust, aluminium, magnesium, or a suitable polymeric resin.[3] Flares may be colored by the inclusion of pyrotechnic colorants. Calcium flares are used underwater to illuminate submerged objects.

Non-perchlorate flares[edit]

Many in-service colored signal flares and spectrally balanced decoy flares contain perchlorate oxidizers. Perchlorate, a type of salt in its solid form, dissolves and moves rapidly in groundwater and surface water. Even in low concentrations in drinking water supplies, perchlorate is known to inhibit the uptake of iodine by the thyroid gland. While there are currently no US federal drinking water standards for perchlorate, some states have established public health goals, or action levels, and some are in the process of establishing state maximum contaminant levels. For example, the US Environmental Protection Agency have studied the impacts of perchlorate on the environment as well as drinking water.[4] California has also issued guidance regarding perchlorate use.[5]

US courts have taken action regarding the use of perchlorate in manufacturing pyrotechnic devices such as flares. For example, in 2003, a federal district court in California found that Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) applied because perchlorate is ignitable and therefore a “characteristic” hazardous waste. (see Castaic Lake Water Agency v. Whittaker, 272 F. Supp. 2d 1053, 1059–61 (C.D. Cal. 2003)).

Civilian use[edit]

Red Flares used at a demonstration in Vienna

In the civilian world, flares are commonly used as signals, and may be ignited on the ground or fired as an aerial signal from a pistol-like flare gun, or launched from a self-contained tube. Flares are commonly found in marine survival kits.

Maritime distress signal[edit]

Red flares, either sent as a rocket or held in the hand, are widely recognized as a maritime distress signal.[6] RMS Titanic however used rocket-launched distress shells to attract assistance, emitting white stars to a great height and a deafening sound.[citation needed]

Fusee[edit]

An Indiana Harbor Belt Railroad brakeman uses a fusee to demonstrate a hand signal indicating "stop".

Another type of flare is the fusee, which burns for 10–60 minutes with a bright red light. Fusees are commonly used to indicate obstacles or advise caution on roadways at night; in this usage they are also called highway flares, road flares, or ground flares. They are commonly found in roadside emergency kits.

Fusees are also known as railroad flares and are commonly used to perform hand signals in rail transport applications. Since they can be used only once, fusees nowadays are usually intended for emergency use (as opposed to the lanterns typically used during normal operating conditions). However, in the days before train radio communications, fusees were used to keep trains apart in dark territory. A railroad fusee was timed to burn for ten minutes and quantities were dropped behind a train to ensure a safe spacing. If a following train encountered a burning fusee it was not to pass until the fusee burned out. Fusees made specifically for railroad use can be distinguished from highway fusees by a sharp steel spike at one end, used to embed the fusee upright in a wooden railroad tie.

In forestry and firefighting, fusees are sometimes used in wildland fire suppression and in the ignition of controlled burns. They ignite at 191 °C (376 °F) and burn as hot as 1,600 °C (2,900 °F).[7] They are especially effective in igniting burnouts or backburns in very dry conditions, but not so effective when fuel conditions are moist. Since controlled burns are often done during relatively high humidity levels (on the grounds that they could not be safely contained during periods of very low humidity), the driptorch is more effective and more often used. Fusees are also commonly carried by wildland firefighters for emergency use, to ignite an escape fire in surrounding fuels in case of being overrun by a fire if no other escape routes are available.

Calcium phosphide is often used in naval flares, as in contact with water it liberates phosphine which self ignites in contact with air; it is often used together with calcium carbide which releases acetylene.

Military use[edit]

Maritime signal flare[edit]

In 1859, Martha Coston patented the Coston flare based on early work by her deceased husband Benjamin Franklin Coston.[8] It was used extensively by the U.S. Navy during the Civil War and by the United States Life-Saving Service to signal to other ships and to shore.

Illumination[edit]

In 1922, a "landing flare" was an aerial candle attached to a parachute and used for landing an airplane in the dark. The flare burned for less than 4 minutes and the candle power was about 40,000 lumens.[9]

Countermeasure[edit]

A special variety of flares is used in military aircraft as a defensive countermeasure against heat-seeking missiles. These flares are usually discharged individually or in salvos by the pilot or automatically by tail-warning devices, and are accompanied by vigorous evasive maneuvering. Since they are intended to deceive infrared missiles, these flares burn at temperatures of thousands of degrees, incandescing in the visible spectrum as well.[citation needed]

Regulation[edit]

Under the UN hazard number system, pyrotechnic flares are designated class 1.4 explosives.[10]

Several U.S. states, including California and Massachusetts, have begun regulating levels of potassium perchlorate, which can be unsafe at certain levels in drinking water. Contaminated drinking water can lead to such symptoms as gastric irritation, nausea, vomiting, fever, skin rashes, and even fatal aplastic anemia.[11]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Joseph Needham (1986). Science and Civilisation in China: The Gunpowder Epic. Cambridge University Press. p. 169. ISBN 978-0-521-30358-3. 
  2. ^ Needham (1986), p. 331.
  3. ^ "What is in road flares?". Retrieved 2009-01-16. 
  4. ^ http://www.epa.gov/safewater/contaminants/unregulated/perchlorate.html
  5. ^ http://www.cdph.ca.gov/certlic/drinkingwater/Pages/Perchlorate.aspx
  6. ^ "The Merchant Shipping (Distress Signals and Prevention of Collisions) Regulations 1996" (PDF). UK Maritime and Coast Guard Agency. 1996. Retrieved 23 July 2013. 
  7. ^ The New Generation Fire Shelter (PDF). National Wildfire Coordinating Group. March 2003. Retrieved 2009-01-16. 
  8. ^ Vare, Ethlie Ann; Ptacek, Greg (2002). Patently female : from AZT to TV dinners : stories of women inventors and their breakthrough ideas. New York: Wiley. p. 23. ISBN 0471023345. 
  9. ^ Hugh Chisholm (1922). The Encyclopædia Britannica: Abbe to English history ("The first of the new volumes"). The Encyclopædia Britannica Company. p. 86. Retrieved 2011-10-13. Electric-Ignition Parachute Flare-Bombs...a landing flare to enable pilots to land in the dark...The candles burn for from 2½ to 3½ min....the candle power is about 40,000 lumens. 
  10. ^ "History of Flares". SiriusSignal.com. Sirius Signal. Retrieved 8 June 2015. 
  11. ^ Borowicz, et. al. (18 December 2014). "Disposal of Pyrotechnic Visual Distress Signals" (PDF). 

Further reading[edit]

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