Play Video
1
Fort van Loncin
Fort van Loncin
::2014/05/14::
Play Video
2
Fort de Loncin
Fort de Loncin
::2014/08/23::
Play Video
3
"Les 3 Serments" - Extrait 03 - Loncin
"Les 3 Serments" - Extrait 03 - Loncin
::2014/06/19::
Play Video
4
Kleine verhalen in een Groote Oorlog - video 02 fort
Kleine verhalen in een Groote Oorlog - video 02 fort
::2014/08/08::
Play Video
5
De Verdediging van Loncin
De Verdediging van Loncin
::2014/02/05::
Play Video
6
Fort de Loncin
Fort de Loncin
::2014/09/15::
Play Video
7
Fort de Loncin
Fort de Loncin
::2007/08/15::
Play Video
8
96e Anniversaire de l
96e Anniversaire de l'Explosion du Fort de Loncin.flv
::2010/08/22::
Play Video
9
Son et lumière àu fort de loncin
Son et lumière àu fort de loncin
::2014/09/14::
Play Video
10
Fort de Loncin
Fort de Loncin
::2014/08/21::
Play Video
11
Fort de Loncin / 龙欣要塞
Fort de Loncin / 龙欣要塞
::2014/10/26::
Play Video
12
Les forts de Liège en 1914
Les forts de Liège en 1914
::2014/03/26::
Play Video
13
Visite Royale
Visite Royale
::2014/10/23::
Play Video
14
Visite du Roi Philippe à Loncin le 3 août 2014
Visite du Roi Philippe à Loncin le 3 août 2014
::2014/08/03::
Play Video
15
Travel the world on a Loncin Chittorgarh Fort India 2009
Travel the world on a Loncin Chittorgarh Fort India 2009
::2014/11/26::
Play Video
16
Les nuits de la mémoire  - commune d
Les nuits de la mémoire - commune d'ans
::2014/11/18::
Play Video
17
WW Memorial Tourism Brussels Wallonia
WW Memorial Tourism Brussels Wallonia
::2014/03/24::
Play Video
18
CEREMONIES PATRIOTIQUES NOV 2010
CEREMONIES PATRIOTIQUES NOV 2010
::2010/11/11::
Play Video
19
Sep 13, 2014
Sep 13, 2014
::2014/09/14::
Play Video
20
tänning problem med en Loncin 125cc som har Outer Rotor Kit
tänning problem med en Loncin 125cc som har Outer Rotor Kit
::2012/06/25::
Play Video
21
The flooding of Belgium by the Belgian army in 1914 at the start of World War One. Film 13178
The flooding of Belgium by the Belgian army in 1914 at the start of World War One. Film 13178
::2013/05/23::
Play Video
22
Loncin 110cc - Motocross
Loncin 110cc - Motocross
::2010/02/15::
Play Video
23
Pitbike Loncin 125cc
Pitbike Loncin 125cc
::2010/05/09::
Play Video
24
boxe francaise loncin
boxe francaise loncin
::2007/04/27::
Play Video
25
Trop Bon Trop Con.Kamelancien
Trop Bon Trop Con.Kamelancien
::2011/06/16::
Play Video
26
Dirt Bike 125 RSR (GoPro) Full HD
Dirt Bike 125 RSR (GoPro) Full HD
::2012/09/29::
Play Video
27
Loncin Build Submission
Loncin Build Submission
::2013/05/19::
Play Video
28
Dirt bike 125 cross demarrage a froid
Dirt bike 125 cross demarrage a froid
::2013/03/17::
Play Video
29
Fort de Lantin 2013
Fort de Lantin 2013
::2013/08/04::
Play Video
30
The Fall Of Fort Eben Emael (Part 3/5)
The Fall Of Fort Eben Emael (Part 3/5)
::2007/12/14::
Play Video
31
Princ
Princ'S & Moi Loncin Aprem
::2007/10/25::
Play Video
32
la chute du fort d
la chute du fort d' Eben-Emael
::2010/05/18::
Play Video
33
Lost Places Belgium - The Fort
Lost Places Belgium - The Fort
::2012/04/03::
Play Video
34
Fort d
Fort d'Emines - Partie1
::2013/12/30::
Play Video
35
Snow blower
Snow blower
::2012/12/16::
Play Video
36
FORT BATTICE (BELGIUM)
FORT BATTICE (BELGIUM)
::2012/05/31::
Play Video
37
Fort de Barchon
Fort de Barchon
::2012/08/23::
Play Video
38
E25 Liege part II (2007)
E25 Liege part II (2007)
::2007/06/25::
Play Video
39
Fort Boncelles visit augustus 2011
Fort Boncelles visit augustus 2011
::2011/08/07::
Play Video
40
Fort de Flemalle, prisonnier du temps 2013
Fort de Flemalle, prisonnier du temps 2013
::2013/10/13::
Play Video
41
Fort Aubin Neufchâteau - Livraison des chars partie 2
Fort Aubin Neufchâteau - Livraison des chars partie 2
::2012/08/12::
Play Video
42
ABBL 1940 - 6de Linieregiment - Het fort van Tancrémont
ABBL 1940 - 6de Linieregiment - Het fort van Tancrémont
::2009/08/04::
Play Video
43
Fort Barchon 11-2012
Fort Barchon 11-2012
::2012/11/19::
Play Video
44
Kamelancien Un jours ou l
Kamelancien Un jours ou l'autre tu verras
::2012/10/12::
Play Video
45
Fort de Battice
Fort de Battice
::2006/10/29::
Play Video
46
Belgium Fort 1914 - Fort Mac 2014
Belgium Fort 1914 - Fort Mac 2014
::2014/07/14::
Play Video
47
Verdun Fort de Vaux
Verdun Fort de Vaux
::2014/02/09::
Play Video
48
Fort Battice 1/5 - www.worldwartours.be
Fort Battice 1/5 - www.worldwartours.be
::2010/06/11::
Play Video
49
Fort de Tancrémont
Fort de Tancrémont
::2012/04/27::
Play Video
50
Fort de Boncelles 3D by F.O.S.
Fort de Boncelles 3D by F.O.S.
::2012/02/09::
NEXT >>
RESULTS [51 .. 101]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Coordinates: 50°40′28.6″N 5°29′32.2″E / 50.674611°N 5.492278°E / 50.674611; 5.492278

Fort de Loncin
Part of Fortifications of Liège
Loncin, Belgium
Loncin01.JPG
Entrance , before restoration work of 2007
Fort de Loncin is located in Belgium
Fort de Loncin
Fort de Loncin
Coordinates 50°40'28.6"N 5°29'32.2"E
Type Fort
Site information
Owner State of Belgium
Controlled by Belgium
Open to
the public
Yes
Condition Destroyed, ruins preserved
Site history
Built 1881
Materials Unreinforced concrete
Battles/wars Battle of Liège

The Fort de Loncin is one of twelve forts built as part of the Fortifications of Liège in the late 19th century in Belgium. It was constructed between 1881 and 1884 according to the plans of General Henri Alexis Brialmont. Contrasting with the French forts built in the same era by Raymond Adolphe Séré de Rivières, the fort was built exclusively of unreinforced concrete, a new material, rather than masonry. The experimental nature of the new material, and the design features of the fort, led to unintended consequences in combat action. Weak concrete made the fort vulnerable to enemy artillery, while poor living conditions reduced the fort's ability to operate under fire. The fort was destroyed during World War I in the Battle of Liège, when the fort's magazine was hit by a large-calibre German shell, killing most of the fort's occupants. The event marked the debut of the Big Bertha howitzer in combat. Relatively few of the dead were recovered; the site is now a military cemetery. The fort was never re-used.

Description[edit]

The Fort de Loncin is located about 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) west of the centre of Liège, in the direction of Brussels and Tongeren. The garrison comprised about 500 men.[1]

The fort forms an isosceles triangle whose base is 300 metres (980 ft) long and whose sides measure 235 metres (771 ft). A 6-metre (20 ft) deep by 8-metre (26 ft) ditch encircles the fort, which is semi-submerged in the landscape.[1] The principal armament was concentrated in the central massif. The ditches were defended in enfilade by 57mm guns in casemates resembling counterscarp batteries, firing at shot traps at the other end of the ditch.[2] The casemate at the point of the triangle was disposed on two levels, allowing action in case the lower level became obstructed. The fort made provisions for infantry sorties onto the surrounding cleared area.[1]

With the exception of the Fort de Loncin, the Belgian forts made little provision for the daily needs of their wartime garrisons, locating latrines, showers, kitchens and the morgue in the fort's counterscarp, a location that would be untenable in combat. This would have profound effects on the forts' ability to endure a long assault. Even at Loncin, the service areas were placed directly opposite the barracks, which opened into the ditch in the rear of the fort (i.e., in the face towards Liège), with lesser protection than the two "salient" sides.[2] The Brialmont forts placed a weaker side to the rear to allow for recapture by Belgian forces from the rear, and located the barracks and support facilities on this side, using the rear ditch for light and ventilation of living spaces. In combat heavy shellfire made the rear ditch untenable, and German forces were able to get between the forts and attack them from the rear.[3] Loncin was the only Liège fort to be provided with mechanical ventilation, allowing gun and sewage gases to be evacuated, and improving its combat endurance until debris blocked the exhaust. Loncin also provided better sanitary arrangements than its neighbors.[4]

The Brialmont forts were designed to be protected from shellfire equaling their heaviest guns: 21 cm.[5] The top of the central massif used 4 metres (13 ft) of unreinforced concrete, while the caserne walls, judged to be less exposed, used 1.5 metres (4.9 ft).[6] Under fire, the forts were damaged by 21 cm fire and could not withstand heavier artillery.[7]

One of the destroyed howitzers

Armament[edit]

The large weapons were all German products, made by Krupp in Essen, but the armor was by Cockerill (Belgium), Ateliers de Creusot (France) or Grüson (Germany).[13] The fort was provided with signal lights to permit communication with the neighboring Fort de Lantin and Fort de Hollogne. The guns were fired using black powder rather than smokeless powder, producing choking gas in the confined firing spaces that spread throughout the fort.[15]

First World War[edit]

The Liège forts, with the Fort de Loncin highlighted

In 1914 the Fort de Loncin was one of the last Liège forts to suffer German bombardment. Liège first came under attack on 6 August 1914. Loncin was massively bombarded for three days from 12 to 15 August, before one of its two magazines, with twelve tons of explosive, blew up.[16] The explosion destroyed the heart of the fort, killing 350 of the 550-man garrison, their bodies remaining under the wreckage.[1] Loncin was the only fort at Liège that did not surrender. Many of the dead remain in the fort and the site is considered a war grave as well as a museum.[1]

The commander of the Liège sector, General Gérard Leman, had chosen the fort as his command post after Germans entered the center of Liège. Following the explosion he was rescued, unconscious or delirious, from the fort's ditch and made prisoner.[16] The fort's commandant, Victor Naessens, wrote:

"Under the effect of this titanic volcano, what remained of the concrete massif was dislocated and the greater part of the garrison was crushed by blocks of concrete, burned alive or asphyxiated."[17]

The 42 cm Big Bertha howitzer, the secret weapon of the German army in 1914, quickly became widely celebrated. The destruction of the Fort de Loncin was immediately used for propaganda by the Germans, precipitating the surrender of the last two Liège forts, Fort de Flémalle and Fort de Hollogne.[18] The propaganda did much to cement the reputation of the Big Bertha.

Lessons of the destruction for the Belgians[edit]

The destroyed fort

The principal reason for the destruction of the Fort de Loncin was that the ammunition magazines had been placed too close to the surface, and had never been upgraded since their construction to deal with improved artillery.[5] Problems with concrete construction also became apparent, as techniques for concrete mixing, placement and construction were still being learned. In particular, a lack of nighttime illumination required that construction be stopped at the end of each day, and a poor understanding of the bonding properties of concrete caused weak points between daily pours of concrete, causing layers of concrete to separate under stress of bombardment or explosion.[19] These faults were cured with the reconstruction of other forts, the use of reinforced concrete, and with the construction of four new forts facing the German frontier to the east of Liége. The largest of these was Fort Eben-Emael, which would play a significant role at the beginning of the Second World War.[20]

Commemorative monument[edit]

Monument to the Fort de Loncin's defenders

After the war Belgian sentiment of admiration for the fort's defenders resulted in a public subscription to erect a monument that King Albert I dedicated on 15 August 1923. The monument was sculpted by Liège sculptor Georges Petit, and comprises an 18-metre (59 ft) tower, with two 3-metre (9.8 ft) figures at the top representing Roman and Greek warriors rendering honor to the defenders of Loncin. Figures at the base include a woman with her arms spread over a dead soldier at her feet.[21]

A separate monument features a tablet with the French inscription Passant... va dire à la Belgique et à la France qu'ici 550 belges se sont sacrifiés pour la défense de la liberté et le salut du monde ("Passer by... go say to Belgium and France that here 550 Belgians sacrificed themselves for the defense of freedom and the salvation of the world"), attributed to the French general Malleterre,[22] based on the epitaph by Simonides for the Spartan dead at the Battle of Thermopylae. A number of other commemorative monuments were placed at the site, including the flamme du souvenir, a figure of a man thrusting a torch from under the earth.[23]

Present day[edit]

Since 15 August 1914 the Fort de Loncin has been treated as a war grave and place of remembrance. Of the more than 300 dead, the majority remain buried in the wreckage.[1] The remains that have been recovered from the fort have been re-interred in a crypt at the head of the fort. The continuing presence of unexploded munitions was judged by the Belgian army in 2003 to be a potential hazard. In October 2007, after a project of mine and explosives clearance, 2,500 shells, representing 142 tons of munitions, were extracted. During this work 25 bodies were discovered, of which four were identified. All were re-interred on 15 August 2008.[17][24]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f "Histoire". Fort de Loncin (in French). Front de Sauvegarde du Fort de Loncin. Retrieved 21 October 2010. 
  2. ^ a b Donnell, Clayton (2007). The Forts of the Meuse in World War I. Osprey. p. 32. ISBN 978-1-84603-114-4. 
  3. ^ Donnell, p. 36
  4. ^ Donnell, p.18
  5. ^ a b Donnell, p. 52
  6. ^ Donnell, p. 12
  7. ^ Donnell, pp. 45–48
  8. ^ "Coupole obusier 210". Fort de Loncin (in French). Front de Sauvegarde du Fort de Loncin. Retrieved 24 March 2011. 
  9. ^ "Coupole pivotante 150". Fort de Loncin (in French). Front de Sauvegarde du Fort de Loncin. Retrieved 24 March 2011. 
  10. ^ "Coupole pivotante de 120". Fort de Loncin (in French). Front de Sauvegarde du Fort de Loncin. Retrieved 24 March 2011. 
  11. ^ "Coupole 5,7 à éclipse Grusonwerke". Fort de Loncin (in French). Front de Sauvegarde du Fort de Loncin. Retrieved 24 March 2011. 
  12. ^ "Armement". Fort de Loncin (in French). Front de Sauvegarde du Fort de Loncin. Retrieved 21 October 2010. 
  13. ^ a b Donnell, p. 16
  14. ^ Hoet, Jean-Claude. "Le fort de Loncin". La Position Fortifiée Liègeois (P.F.L.) (in French). 
  15. ^ Donnell, p. 17
  16. ^ a b Donnell, p. 51
  17. ^ a b Vaute, Paul (18 March 2008). "Le fort de Loncin livre ses secrets". LaLibre.be – Gazette de Liege. Retrieved 24 March 2011. 
  18. ^ Boué, Gilles (2006). "Liège, Siege of". In Roberts, Priscilla Mary. World War One: A Student Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 1095–1096. ISBN 1-85109-880-1. 
  19. ^ Donnell, p. 13
  20. ^ Donnell, p. 56
  21. ^ "Commune de Loncin: Monument comémoratif au Fort de Loncin". Liege (in French). Bel-Memorial. Retrieved 25 October 2010. 
  22. ^ Donnell, p. 61
  23. ^ "Commune de Loncin, Plaque à la mémoire des soldats de la garnison du Fort de Loncin, Crypte, Flamme du Souvenir et stèle Malleterre". Liege (in French). Bel-Memorial. Retrieved 25 October 2010. 
  24. ^ "Invitation cordiale à tous au Fort de Loncin" (in French). Front de Sauvegarde du Fort de Loncin. Retrieved 23 October 2010. 

Sources[edit]

  • Donnell, Clayton. The Forts of the Meuse in World War I. Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 2007. ISBN 978-1-84603-114-4
  • Kauffmann, J.E., Jurga, R., Fortress Europe: European Fortifications of World War II, Da Capo Press, USA, 2002, ISBN 0-306-81174-X.

External links[edit]

Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL License
Powered by YouTube
MASHPEDIA
LEGAL
  • Mashpedia © 2014