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Video Frame Rates: What You Need to Know
Video Frame Rates: What You Need to Know
Published: 2017/01/30
Channel: Brandon Li
Does Frame Rate Matter?
Does Frame Rate Matter?
Published: 2016/02/08
Channel: Austin Evans
Frame Rate - How Does Frame Rate Affect Gameplay? - Extra Credits
Frame Rate - How Does Frame Rate Affect Gameplay? - Extra Credits
Published: 2015/09/23
Channel: Extra Credits
Frame rate comparison in games (60,30,15 fps)
Frame rate comparison in games (60,30,15 fps)
Published: 2015/11/14
Channel: Racing_Digital
Which Frame Rate Should You Use? (ft. Freddie Wong)
Which Frame Rate Should You Use? (ft. Freddie Wong)
Published: 2015/06/03
Channel: YouTube Creator Academy
The History of Frame Rate for Film
The History of Frame Rate for Film
Published: 2015/02/02
Channel: Filmmaker IQ
Do You Know What The Best Frame Rate Is To Use When Shooting Video: 24 /30 /60
Do You Know What The Best Frame Rate Is To Use When Shooting Video: 24 /30 /60
Published: 2016/08/09
Channel: Jared Polin
Just HOW important is Framerate?
Just HOW important is Framerate?
Published: 2017/08/17
Channel: Pretty Good Gaming
Framerate Live! | "Consoles vs PCs"
Framerate Live! | "Consoles vs PCs"
Published: 2015/08/21
Channel: Unboxholics
Why Are Frames Per Second Important In Video Games
Why Are Frames Per Second Important In Video Games
Published: 2017/04/16
Channel: gameranx
¿Qué rayos es el frame rate?
¿Qué rayos es el frame rate?
Published: 2016/10/12
Channel: levelup.com
FRAME RATE / FPS 🎞 Hollywood ✅
FRAME RATE / FPS 🎞 Hollywood ✅
Published: 2017/08/18
Channel: Làm phim nghiệp dư LNC
Framerate Live | Gamescom 2016 Special
Framerate Live | Gamescom 2016 Special
Published: 2016/08/19
Channel: Unboxholics
Monster Hunter XX: Switch vs 3DS Graphics Comparison + Frame-Rate Test
Monster Hunter XX: Switch vs 3DS Graphics Comparison + Frame-Rate Test
Published: 2017/08/18
Channel: DigitalFoundry
Video Basics: Frame Rate
Video Basics: Frame Rate
Published: 2011/12/15
Channel: Matthew Pearce
24 vs 48 frames per second skateboarding action footage
24 vs 48 frames per second skateboarding action footage
Published: 2014/12/22
Channel: Adam Shomsky
The Great Framerate Non-Debate
The Great Framerate Non-Debate
Published: 2014/06/02
Channel: TotalBiscuit, The Cynical Brit
Zelda: Breath of the Wild - Patch 1.11 Switch/Wii U Frame-Rate Tests!
Zelda: Breath of the Wild - Patch 1.11 Switch/Wii U Frame-Rate Tests!
Published: 2017/04/04
Channel: DigitalFoundry
ADG Filler #63 - Framerate Jitter? Might Be the Scheduler!
ADG Filler #63 - Framerate Jitter? Might Be the Scheduler!
Published: 2017/08/19
Channel: Pixelmusement
Does Frame Rate Matter? History & Analysis - 30FPS vs 60FPS Latency
Does Frame Rate Matter? History & Analysis - 30FPS vs 60FPS Latency
Published: 2014/07/23
Channel: LevelCapGaming
What Is Frame Rate? Frame Rate Explained
What Is Frame Rate? Frame Rate Explained
Published: 2014/02/10
Channel: TheMasterOfHell100
[4K] Hellblade: PS4 vs PS4 Pro Graphics Comparison + Frame-Rate Test
[4K] Hellblade: PS4 vs PS4 Pro Graphics Comparison + Frame-Rate Test
Published: 2017/08/12
Channel: DigitalFoundry
Resident Evil 7 PS4/ Pro/ Xbox One/ PC Graphics Comparison + Frame-Rate Test
Resident Evil 7 PS4/ Pro/ Xbox One/ PC Graphics Comparison + Frame-Rate Test
Published: 2017/01/27
Channel: DigitalFoundry
Zelda: Breath of the Wild Switch vs Wii U Frame-Rate Stress Tests!
Zelda: Breath of the Wild Switch vs Wii U Frame-Rate Stress Tests!
Published: 2017/03/08
Channel: DigitalFoundry
Siren: Blood Curse playthrough pt40 - Low-Framerate HELL!
Siren: Blood Curse playthrough pt40 - Low-Framerate HELL!
Published: 2017/08/18
Channel: DSPGaming
Horizon Zero Dawn: Initial PS4/PS4 Pro Gameplay Frame-Rate Test
Horizon Zero Dawn: Initial PS4/PS4 Pro Gameplay Frame-Rate Test
Published: 2017/02/20
Channel: DigitalFoundry
Zelda: Breath of the Wild - Switch Docked vs Undocked Comparison + Frame-Rate Test
Zelda: Breath of the Wild - Switch Docked vs Undocked Comparison + Frame-Rate Test
Published: 2017/03/03
Channel: DigitalFoundry
Framerate Live! | Τα πάντα για το PS4 Pro!
Framerate Live! | Τα πάντα για το PS4 Pro!
Published: 2016/09/09
Channel: Unboxholics
DF Retro: Daytona USA and Why Frame-Rate Has Always Mattered
DF Retro: Daytona USA and Why Frame-Rate Has Always Mattered
Published: 2016/10/01
Channel: DigitalFoundry
[4K] Lawbreakers PS4/Pro vs PC Graphics Comparison + Frame-Rate Test
[4K] Lawbreakers PS4/Pro vs PC Graphics Comparison + Frame-Rate Test
Published: 2017/08/11
Channel: DigitalFoundry
Destiny 2 PS4 First Look + Frame-Rate Test!
Destiny 2 PS4 First Look + Frame-Rate Test!
Published: 2017/05/23
Channel: DigitalFoundry
Why Does Framerate Matter
Why Does Framerate Matter
Published: 2016/05/10
Channel: BulletBarry
Fortnite Early Access: PS4/ Pro vs Xbox One Graphics Comparison + Frame-Rate Test
Fortnite Early Access: PS4/ Pro vs Xbox One Graphics Comparison + Frame-Rate Test
Published: 2017/07/25
Channel: DigitalFoundry
Battlefield 1 Conquest PS4 Frame Rate Test
Battlefield 1 Conquest PS4 Frame Rate Test
Published: 2016/10/18
Channel: VG Tech
Lichdom Battlemage PS4/Xbox One: Worst Frame-Rate We
Lichdom Battlemage PS4/Xbox One: Worst Frame-Rate We've Ever Tested
Published: 2016/04/22
Channel: DigitalFoundry
Final Fantasy 15 PS4 vs PS4 Pro Gameplay Frame-Rate Test
Final Fantasy 15 PS4 vs PS4 Pro Gameplay Frame-Rate Test
Published: 2016/11/29
Channel: DigitalFoundry
Doom PS4 vs Xbox One Single-Player Gameplay Frame-Rate Test
Doom PS4 vs Xbox One Single-Player Gameplay Frame-Rate Test
Published: 2016/05/13
Channel: DigitalFoundry
Fallout 4 PS4 vs Xbox One Frame-Rate Test
Fallout 4 PS4 vs Xbox One Frame-Rate Test
Published: 2015/11/09
Channel: DigitalFoundry
Best Frame Rate for Your Videos
Best Frame Rate for Your Videos
Published: 2015/11/25
Channel: Justin Brown - Primal Video
Does Yooka-Laylee Really Have Frame-Rate Performance Problems?
Does Yooka-Laylee Really Have Frame-Rate Performance Problems?
Published: 2017/04/10
Channel: DigitalFoundry
Tekken 7: PS4/Pro/Xbox One/PC - Graphics Comparison, Analysis + Frame-Rate Test
Tekken 7: PS4/Pro/Xbox One/PC - Graphics Comparison, Analysis + Frame-Rate Test
Published: 2017/06/03
Channel: DigitalFoundry
Mass Effect Andromeda: PS4 vs Xbox One Comparison + Frame-Rate Test
Mass Effect Andromeda: PS4 vs Xbox One Comparison + Frame-Rate Test
Published: 2017/03/17
Channel: DigitalFoundry
Prey First Look: PS4/Xbox One Graphics Comparison + Frame-Rate Test
Prey First Look: PS4/Xbox One Graphics Comparison + Frame-Rate Test
Published: 2017/04/30
Channel: DigitalFoundry
FRAMERATE, cos
FRAMERATE, cos'è? La diatriba "Cinematografica" - L'Effigie del Mercato
Published: 2015/11/18
Channel: Sabaku no Maiku
Hellblade Senua
Hellblade Senua's Sacrifice: 1st look Frame-rates, Resolution PS4Pro/PS4
Published: 2017/08/08
Channel: NX Gamer
Zelda: Breath of the Wild - Switch vs Wii U Comparison + Frame Rate Test
Zelda: Breath of the Wild - Switch vs Wii U Comparison + Frame Rate Test
Published: 2017/03/04
Channel: DigitalFoundry
Battlefield 1: PS4 vs Xbox One/PC Graphics Comparison + Full Frame-Rate Analysis
Battlefield 1: PS4 vs Xbox One/PC Graphics Comparison + Full Frame-Rate Analysis
Published: 2016/10/26
Channel: DigitalFoundry
The Last of Us Remastered PS4 Pro vs PS4 Gameplay Frame-Rate Test
The Last of Us Remastered PS4 Pro vs PS4 Gameplay Frame-Rate Test
Published: 2016/11/11
Channel: DigitalFoundry
Gran Turismo Sport Beta: PS4 vs PS4 Pro 1080p Comparison + Frame-Rate Test
Gran Turismo Sport Beta: PS4 vs PS4 Pro 1080p Comparison + Frame-Rate Test
Published: 2017/05/20
Channel: DigitalFoundry
For Honor Xbox One/PS4 vs PC Comparison + Frame-Rate Test
For Honor Xbox One/PS4 vs PC Comparison + Frame-Rate Test
Published: 2017/02/17
Channel: DigitalFoundry
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Frame rate (expressed in frames per second or fps) is the frequency (rate) at which consecutive images called frames are displayed in an animated display. The term applies equally to film and video cameras, computer graphics, and motion capture systems. Frame rate may also be called the frame frequency, and be expressed in hertz.

Frame rate and human vision[edit]

The temporal sensitivity and resolution of human vision varies depending on the type and characteristics of visual stimulus, and it differs between individuals. The human visual system can process 1 to 5 images per second and perceive them individually, while higher rates are perceived as motion.[1] Modulated light (such as a computer display) is perceived as stable by the majority of participants in studies when the rate is higher than 50 Hz through 90 Hz. This perception of modulated light as steady is known as the flicker fusion threshold. However, when the modulated light is non-uniform and contains an image, the flicker fusion threshold can be much higher, in the hundreds of hertz.[2] With regard to image recognition, people have been found to recognize a specific image in an unbroken series of different images, each of which lasts as little as 13 milliseconds.[3] Persistence of vision sometimes accounts for very short single-millisecond visual stimulus having a perceived duration of between 100 ms and 400 ms. Multiple stimuli that are very short are sometimes perceived as a single stimulus, such as a 10 ms green flash of light immediately followed by a 10 ms red flash of light perceived as a single yellow flash of light.[4]

Video[edit]

Silent films[edit]

Early silent films had stated frame rates anywhere from 16 to 24 frames per second (fps),[5] but since the cameras were hand-cranked, the rate often changed during the scene to fit the mood. Projectionists could also change the frame rate in the theater by adjusting a rheostat controlling the voltage powering the film-carrying mechanism in the projector.[6] Silent films were often intended to be shown at higher frame rates than those used during filming.[7] These frame rates were enough for the sense of motion, but it was perceived as jerky motion. To minimize the perceived flicker, projectors employed dual- and triple-blade shutters, so each frame was displayed two or three times, increasing the flicker rate to 48 or 72 Hertz and reducing eye strain. Thomas Edison said that 46 frames per second was the minimum needed for the eye to perceive motion: "Anything less will strain the eye."[8][9] In the mid to late 1920s, the frame rate for silent films increased to between 20 and 26 fps.[8]

Sound films[edit]

When sound film was introduced in 1926, variations in film speed were no longer tolerated as the human ear is more sensitive to changes in audio frequency. Many theaters had shown silent films at 22 to 26 fps which is why 24 fps was chosen for sound as a compromise.[10] From 1927 to 1930, as various studios updated equipment, the rate of 24 fps became standard for 35 mm sound film.[1] At 24 fps the film travels through the projector at a rate of 456 millimetres (18.0 in) per second. This allowed for simple two-blade shutters to give a projected series of images at 48 per second, satisfying Edison's recommendation. Many modern 35 mm film projectors use three-blade shutters to give 72 images per second—each frame is flashed on screen three times.[8]

MaxiVision 48 films at 48 frames per second, which, according to film critic Roger Ebert, offers even a strobeless tracking shot past picket fences. The lack of strobe (as opposed to flicker) is due to the higher sampling rate of the camera relative to the speed of movement of the image across the film plane. This ultra-smooth imaging is called high motion.

Cartoon animation[edit]

This animated cartoon of a galloping horse is displayed at 12 drawings per second, and the fast motion is on the edge of being objectionably jerky.

In drawn animation, moving characters are often shot "on twos", that is to say, one drawing is shown for every two frames of film (which usually runs at 24 frames per second), meaning there are only 12 drawings per second. Even though the image update rate is low, the fluidity is satisfactory for most subjects. However, when a character is required to perform a quick movement, it is usually necessary to revert to animating "on ones", as "twos" are too slow to convey the motion adequately. A blend of the two techniques keeps the eye fooled without unnecessary production cost.

Animation for most "Saturday morning cartoons" is produced as cheaply as possible, and is most often shot on "threes", or even "fours", i.e. three or four frames per drawing. This translates to only 8 or 6 drawings per second, respectively.[citation needed]

Modern video standards[edit]

Modern video formats utilize a variety of frame rates. Due to the mains frequency of electric grids, analog television broadcast was developed with frame rates of 50 Hz or 60 Hz, sometimes with video being interlaced so more motion information could be sent on the same available broadcast bandwidth, and sometimes with video being broadcast at 25 or 30 fps with each frame doubled. Film, which was almost universally shot at 24 frames per second, could not be displayed at its native frame rate, which required pulldown conversion, often leading to "judder": to convert 24 frames per second into 60 frames per second, every odd frame is doubled and every even frame is tripled, which creates uneven motion. Other conversions have similar uneven frame doubling. Newer video standards support 120, 240, or 300 frames per second, allowing frames to be evenly multiplied for common frame rates such as 24 fps film and 30 fps video, as well as 25 and 50 fps video in the case of 300 fps displays. These standards also support video that's natively in higher frame rates, and video with interpolated frames between its native frames.[11] Some modern films are experimenting with frame rates higher than 24 fps, such as 48 and 60 fps.[12]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Read, Paul; Meyer, Mark-Paul; Gamma Group (2000). Restoration of motion picture film. Conservation and Museology. Butterworth-Heinemann. pp. 24–26. ISBN 0-7506-2793-X. 
  2. ^ James Davis (1986), "Humans perceive flicker artefacts at 500 Hz", Sci Rep, Wiley, 5: 7861, PMC 4314649Freely accessible, PMID 25644611, doi:10.1038/srep07861 
  3. ^ "Detecting meaning in RSVP at 13 ms per picture". SpringerLink. December 28, 2013. 
  4. ^ Robert Efron. "Conservation of temporal information by perceptual systems". Perception & Psychophysics. 14 (3): 518–530. doi:10.3758/bf03211193. 
  5. ^ Brown, Julie (2014). "Audio-visual Palimpsests: Resynchronizing Silent Films with 'Special' Music". In David Neumeyer. The Oxford Handbook of Film Music Studies. Oxford University Press. p. 588. ISBN 0195328493. 
  6. ^ Kerr, Walter (1975). Silent Clowns. Knopf. p. 36. ISBN 0394469070. 
  7. ^ Card, James (1994). Seductive cinema: the art of silent film. Knopf. p. 53. ISBN 0394572181. 
  8. ^ a b c Brownlow, Kevin (Summer 1980). "Silent Films: What Was the Right Speed?". Sight & Sound. 49 (3): 164–167. Archived from the original on 8 July 2011. Retrieved 2 May 2012. 
  9. ^ Thomas Elsaesser, Thomas Elsaesser; Barker, Adam (1990). Early cinema: space, frame, narrative. BFI Publishing. p. 284. ISBN 0-85170-244-9. 
  10. ^ TWiT Netcast Network (2017-03-30), How 24 FPS Became Standard, retrieved 2017-03-31 
  11. ^ High Frame-Rate Television, BBC White Paper WHP 169, September 2008, M Armstrong, D Flynn, M Hammond, S Jolly, R Salmon
  12. ^ Jon Fingas (November 27, 2014), "James Cameron's 'Avatar' sequels will stick to 48 frames per second", Engadget, retrieved April 15, 2017 

External links[edit]

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