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Video Frame Rates: What You Need to Know
Video Frame Rates: What You Need to Know
Published: 2017/01/30
Channel: Brandon Li
Do You Know What The Best Frame Rate Is To Use When Shooting Video: 24 /30 /60
Do You Know What The Best Frame Rate Is To Use When Shooting Video: 24 /30 /60
Published: 2016/08/09
Channel: Jared Polin
Does Frame Rate Matter?
Does Frame Rate Matter?
Published: 2016/02/08
Channel: Austin Evans
Frame rate comparison in games (60,30,15 fps)
Frame rate comparison in games (60,30,15 fps)
Published: 2015/11/14
Channel: Racing_Digital
The History of Frame Rate for Film
The History of Frame Rate for Film
Published: 2015/02/02
Channel: Filmmaker IQ
Which Frame Rate Should You Use? (ft. Freddie Wong)
Which Frame Rate Should You Use? (ft. Freddie Wong)
Published: 2015/06/03
Channel: YouTube Creator Academy
Framerate Live! | "Consoles vs PCs" | Unboxholics
Framerate Live! | "Consoles vs PCs" | Unboxholics
Published: 2015/08/21
Channel: Unboxholics
PUBG: Xbox One X vs Xbox One Early Access Frame-Rate Test!
PUBG: Xbox One X vs Xbox One Early Access Frame-Rate Test!
Published: 2017/12/12
Channel: DigitalFoundry
Frame Rate - How Does Frame Rate Affect Gameplay? - Extra Credits
Frame Rate - How Does Frame Rate Affect Gameplay? - Extra Credits
Published: 2015/09/23
Channel: Extra Credits
PUBG Xbox: NEW DLC ITEMS, How to increase frame rate, Updates, New Servers & More!
PUBG Xbox: NEW DLC ITEMS, How to increase frame rate, Updates, New Servers & More!
Published: 2017/12/14
Channel: LunarGaming
Zelda: Breath of the Wild - Patch 1.11 Switch/Wii U Frame-Rate Tests!
Zelda: Breath of the Wild - Patch 1.11 Switch/Wii U Frame-Rate Tests!
Published: 2017/04/04
Channel: DigitalFoundry
Framerate Live | Gamescom 2016 Special | Unboxholics
Framerate Live | Gamescom 2016 Special | Unboxholics
Published: 2016/08/19
Channel: Unboxholics
[1080p60] PUBG – PC Ultra vs. Xbox One Frame Rate Test & Graphics Comparison
[1080p60] PUBG – PC Ultra vs. Xbox One Frame Rate Test & Graphics Comparison
Published: 2017/12/13
Channel: Candyland
Resident Evil 7 PS4/ Pro/ Xbox One/ PC Graphics Comparison + Frame-Rate Test
Resident Evil 7 PS4/ Pro/ Xbox One/ PC Graphics Comparison + Frame-Rate Test
Published: 2017/01/27
Channel: DigitalFoundry
¿Qué rayos es el frame rate?
¿Qué rayos es el frame rate?
Published: 2016/10/12
Channel: levelup.com
Why Are Frames Per Second Important In Video Games
Why Are Frames Per Second Important In Video Games
Published: 2017/04/16
Channel: gameranx
Zelda: Breath of the Wild Switch vs Wii U Frame-Rate Stress Tests!
Zelda: Breath of the Wild Switch vs Wii U Frame-Rate Stress Tests!
Published: 2017/03/08
Channel: DigitalFoundry
PUBG Has Severe Frame Rate Issues on Xbox One X - Another L For Microsoft
PUBG Has Severe Frame Rate Issues on Xbox One X - Another L For Microsoft
Published: 2017/12/13
Channel: MorganaDays
Best Frame Rate for Your Videos
Best Frame Rate for Your Videos
Published: 2015/11/25
Channel: Justin Brown - Primal Video
Video Basics: Frame Rate
Video Basics: Frame Rate
Published: 2011/12/15
Channel: Matthew Pearce
What Is Frame Rate? Frame Rate Explained
What Is Frame Rate? Frame Rate Explained
Published: 2014/02/10
Channel: TheMasterOfHell100
Framerate Live! | Τα πάντα για το PS4 Pro! | Unboxholics
Framerate Live! | Τα πάντα για το PS4 Pro! | Unboxholics
Published: 2016/09/09
Channel: Unboxholics
[4K] Assassin
[4K] Assassin's Creed Origins: PS4/ PS4 Pro Graphics Comparison + Frame-Rate Test
Published: 2017/10/27
Channel: DigitalFoundry
24 vs 48 frames per second skateboarding action footage
24 vs 48 frames per second skateboarding action footage
Published: 2014/12/22
Channel: Adam Shomsky
PlayerUnknown
PlayerUnknown's Battlegrounds Xbox One X Frame Rate Test (Early Access)
Published: 2017/12/12
Channel: VG Tech
Frame Rates Explained ► GoPro Basics 101
Frame Rates Explained ► GoPro Basics 101
Published: 2017/02/28
Channel: Tom's Odyssey
Star Citizen 3.0 am - New Patch "am" - Bugs, Crashes, Framerate drop - 4K Ultrawide
Star Citizen 3.0 am - New Patch "am" - Bugs, Crashes, Framerate drop - 4K Ultrawide
Published: 2017/12/16
Channel: Xenthor Xi
Frame Rate Breakdown
Frame Rate Breakdown
Published: 2016/11/12
Channel: YCImaging
DOOM – PS4 vs. Switch Frame Rate & Graphics Comparison
DOOM – PS4 vs. Switch Frame Rate & Graphics Comparison
Published: 2017/11/10
Channel: Candyland
DF Retro: Daytona USA and Why Frame-Rate Has Always Mattered
DF Retro: Daytona USA and Why Frame-Rate Has Always Mattered
Published: 2016/10/01
Channel: DigitalFoundry
PlayerUnknown
PlayerUnknown's Battlegrounds Xbox One Frame Rate Test (Early Access)
Published: 2017/12/13
Channel: VG Tech
Zelda: Breath of the Wild - Switch Docked vs Undocked Comparison + Frame-Rate Test
Zelda: Breath of the Wild - Switch Docked vs Undocked Comparison + Frame-Rate Test
Published: 2017/03/03
Channel: DigitalFoundry
Q&A: frame-rate-independence
Q&A: frame-rate-independence
Published: 2016/07/25
Channel: Jonathan Blow
Battlefield 1 Conquest Multiplayer Xbox One X Frame Rate Test
Battlefield 1 Conquest Multiplayer Xbox One X Frame Rate Test
Published: 2017/11/11
Channel: VG Tech
Fortnite Battle Royal Xbox One X and Xbox One Frame Rate Test (Beta)
Fortnite Battle Royal Xbox One X and Xbox One Frame Rate Test (Beta)
Published: 2017/12/01
Channel: VG Tech
Why Does Framerate Matter
Why Does Framerate Matter
Published: 2016/05/10
Channel: BulletBarry
PlayerUnknown
PlayerUnknown's Battlegrounds MP Madness Dec. 16, 2017 pt13 - That Elite Framerate!
Published: 2017/12/17
Channel: DSPGaming
The Evil Within 2 PS4/PS4 Pro Analysis: Frame-Rate Test + Graphics Comparison
The Evil Within 2 PS4/PS4 Pro Analysis: Frame-Rate Test + Graphics Comparison
Published: 2017/10/12
Channel: DigitalFoundry
Frames Per Second (fps) explained and shown
Frames Per Second (fps) explained and shown
Published: 2012/09/02
Channel: Babbling Boolean
Call of Duty WW2 PS4 vs PS4 Pro Frame Rate Test
Call of Duty WW2 PS4 vs PS4 Pro Frame Rate Test
Published: 2017/11/03
Channel: VG Tech
[4K] PUBG – PC Ultra vs. Xbox One X vs. Xbox One Frame Rate Test & Graphics Comparison
[4K] PUBG – PC Ultra vs. Xbox One X vs. Xbox One Frame Rate Test & Graphics Comparison
Published: 2017/12/15
Channel: Candyland
PlayerUnknown Frame Rates Welfare Grounds - Xbox One PUBG - Not Very Playable
PlayerUnknown Frame Rates Welfare Grounds - Xbox One PUBG - Not Very Playable
Published: 2017/12/13
Channel: BLACKB0ND
Zelda: Breath of the Wild - Switch vs Wii U Comparison + Frame Rate Test
Zelda: Breath of the Wild - Switch vs Wii U Comparison + Frame Rate Test
Published: 2017/03/04
Channel: DigitalFoundry
The Great Framerate Non-Debate
The Great Framerate Non-Debate
Published: 2014/06/02
Channel: TotalBiscuit, The Cynical Brit
Nioh: PS4 vs PS4 Pro Tech Analysis/ Comparison/ Frame-Rate Test
Nioh: PS4 vs PS4 Pro Tech Analysis/ Comparison/ Frame-Rate Test
Published: 2017/02/02
Channel: DigitalFoundry
Fallout 4 PS4 vs Xbox One Frame-Rate Test
Fallout 4 PS4 vs Xbox One Frame-Rate Test
Published: 2015/11/09
Channel: DigitalFoundry
[4K] Project Cars 2: PS4/ PS4 Pro/ Xbox One Frame-Rate Test + Resolution Analysis!
[4K] Project Cars 2: PS4/ PS4 Pro/ Xbox One Frame-Rate Test + Resolution Analysis!
Published: 2017/09/19
Channel: DigitalFoundry
Nier Automata PS4/PS4 Pro Final Code Comparison + Frame-Rate Test
Nier Automata PS4/PS4 Pro Final Code Comparison + Frame-Rate Test
Published: 2017/02/27
Channel: DigitalFoundry
Horizon Zero Dawn: Initial PS4/PS4 Pro Gameplay Frame-Rate Test
Horizon Zero Dawn: Initial PS4/PS4 Pro Gameplay Frame-Rate Test
Published: 2017/02/20
Channel: DigitalFoundry
Doom PS4 vs Xbox One Single-Player Gameplay Frame-Rate Test
Doom PS4 vs Xbox One Single-Player Gameplay Frame-Rate Test
Published: 2016/05/13
Channel: DigitalFoundry
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Frame rate (expressed in frames per second or fps) is the frequency (rate) at which consecutive images called frames are displayed in an animated display. The term applies equally to film and video cameras, computer graphics, and motion capture systems. Frame rate may also be called the frame frequency, and be expressed in hertz.

Frame rate and human vision[edit]

The temporal sensitivity and resolution of human vision varies depending on the type and characteristics of visual stimulus, and it differs between individuals. The human visual system can process 1 to 5 images per second and perceive them individually, while higher rates are perceived as motion.[1] Modulated light (such as a computer display) is perceived as stable by the majority of participants in studies when the rate is higher than 50 Hz through 90 Hz. This perception of modulated light as steady is known as the flicker fusion threshold. However, when the modulated light is non-uniform and contains an image, the flicker fusion threshold can be much higher, in the hundreds of hertz.[2] With regard to image recognition, people have been found to recognize a specific image in an unbroken series of different images, each of which lasts as little as 13 milliseconds.[3] Persistence of vision sometimes accounts for very short single-millisecond visual stimulus having a perceived duration of between 100 ms and 400 ms. Multiple stimuli that are very short are sometimes perceived as a single stimulus, such as a 10 ms green flash of light immediately followed by a 10 ms red flash of light perceived as a single yellow flash of light.[4]

Video[edit]

Silent films[edit]

Early silent films had stated frame rates anywhere from 16 to 24 frames per second (fps),[5] but since the cameras were hand-cranked, the rate often changed during the scene to fit the mood. Projectionists could also change the frame rate in the theater by adjusting a rheostat controlling the voltage powering the film-carrying mechanism in the projector.[6] Silent films were often intended to be shown at higher frame rates than those used during filming.[7] These frame rates were enough for the sense of motion, but it was perceived as jerky motion. To minimize the perceived flicker, projectors employed dual- and triple-blade shutters, so each frame was displayed two or three times, increasing the flicker rate to 48 or 72 Hertz and reducing eye strain. Thomas Edison said that 46 frames per second was the minimum needed for the eye to perceive motion: "Anything less will strain the eye."[8][9] In the mid to late 1920s, the frame rate for silent films increased to between 20 and 26 fps.[8]

Sound films[edit]

When sound film was introduced in 1926, variations in film speed were no longer tolerated as the human ear is more sensitive to changes in audio frequency. Many theaters had shown silent films at 22 to 26 fps which is why 24 fps was chosen for sound as a compromise.[10] From 1927 to 1930, as various studios updated equipment, the rate of 24 fps became standard for 35 mm sound film.[1] At 24 fps the film travels through the projector at a rate of 456 millimetres (18.0 in) per second. This allowed for simple two-blade shutters to give a projected series of images at 48 per second, satisfying Edison's recommendation. Many modern 35 mm film projectors use three-blade shutters to give 72 images per second—each frame is flashed on screen three times.[8]

MaxiVision 48 films at 48 frames per second, which, according to film critic Roger Ebert, offers even a strobeless tracking shot past picket fences. The lack of strobe (as opposed to flicker) is due to the higher sampling rate of the camera relative to the speed of movement of the image across the film plane. This ultra-smooth imaging is called high motion.

Cartoon animation[edit]

This animated cartoon of a galloping horse is displayed at 12 drawings per second, and the fast motion is on the edge of being objectionably jerky.

In drawn animation, moving characters are often shot "on twos", that is to say, one drawing is shown for every two frames of film (which usually runs at 24 frames per second), meaning there are only 12 drawings per second. Even though the image update rate is low, the fluidity is satisfactory for most subjects. However, when a character is required to perform a quick movement, it is usually necessary to revert to animating "on ones", as "twos" are too slow to convey the motion adequately. A blend of the two techniques keeps the eye fooled without unnecessary production cost.

Animation for most "Saturday morning cartoons" is produced as cheaply as possible, and is most often shot on "threes", or even "fours", i.e. three or four frames per drawing. This translates to only 8 or 6 drawings per second, respectively.[citation needed]

Modern video standards[edit]

Modern video formats utilize a variety of frame rates. Due to the mains frequency of electric grids, analog television broadcast was developed with frame rates of 50 Hz or 60 Hz, sometimes with video being interlaced so more motion information could be sent on the same available broadcast bandwidth, and sometimes with video being broadcast at 25 or 30 fps with each frame doubled. Film, which was almost universally shot at 24 frames per second, could not be displayed at its native frame rate, which required pulldown conversion, often leading to "judder": to convert 24 frames per second into 60 frames per second, every odd frame is doubled and every even frame is tripled, which creates uneven motion. Other conversions have similar uneven frame doubling. Newer video standards support 120, 240, or 300 frames per second, allowing frames to be evenly multiplied for common frame rates such as 24 fps film and 30 fps video, as well as 25 and 50 fps video in the case of 300 fps displays. These standards also support video that's natively in higher frame rates, and video with interpolated frames between its native frames.[11] Some modern films are experimenting with frame rates higher than 24 fps, such as 48 and 60 fps.[12]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Read, Paul; Meyer, Mark-Paul; Gamma Group (2000). Restoration of motion picture film. Conservation and Museology. Butterworth-Heinemann. pp. 24–26. ISBN 0-7506-2793-X. 
  2. ^ James Davis (2015), "Humans perceive flicker artefacts at 500 Hz", Sci Rep, Wiley, 5: 7861, doi:10.1038/srep07861, PMC 4314649Freely accessible, PMID 25644611 
  3. ^ Potter, Mary C. (December 28, 2013). "Detecting meaning in RSVP at 13 ms per picture". Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics. SpringerLink. 76: 270–279. doi:10.3758/s13414-013-0605-z. 
  4. ^ Robert Efron. "Conservation of temporal information by perceptual systems". Perception & Psychophysics. 14 (3): 518–530. doi:10.3758/bf03211193. 
  5. ^ Brown, Julie (2014). "Audio-visual Palimpsests: Resynchronizing Silent Films with 'Special' Music". In David Neumeyer. The Oxford Handbook of Film Music Studies. Oxford University Press. p. 588. ISBN 0195328493. 
  6. ^ Kerr, Walter (1975). Silent Clowns. Knopf. p. 36. ISBN 0394469070. 
  7. ^ Card, James (1994). Seductive cinema: the art of silent film. Knopf. p. 53. ISBN 0394572181. 
  8. ^ a b c Brownlow, Kevin (Summer 1980). "Silent Films: What Was the Right Speed?". Sight & Sound. 49 (3): 164–167. Archived from the original on 8 July 2011. Retrieved 2 May 2012. 
  9. ^ Thomas Elsaesser, Thomas Elsaesser; Barker, Adam (1990). Early cinema: space, frame, narrative. BFI Publishing. p. 284. ISBN 0-85170-244-9. 
  10. ^ TWiT Netcast Network (2017-03-30), How 24 FPS Became Standard, retrieved 2017-03-31 
  11. ^ High Frame-Rate Television, BBC White Paper WHP 169, September 2008, M Armstrong, D Flynn, M Hammond, S Jolly, R Salmon
  12. ^ Jon Fingas (November 27, 2014), "James Cameron's 'Avatar' sequels will stick to 48 frames per second", Engadget, retrieved April 15, 2017 

External links[edit]

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