Born in Breslau (modern Wrocław), he was the son of lawyer and music-lover Christian Benjamin (born Hermann) Uber; his brother Alexander was a noted cello virtuoso. He studied law in Halle (Saale), before receiving a musical education from Daniel Gottlob Türk. He then received placement as a chamber musician at the court of Prince Louis Ferdinand; beginning in 1807 he served as a first violinist in the orchestra in Braunschweig. In 1808, on the orders of Jérôme Bonaparte, he was appointed Kapellmeister of the opera in Kassel.
Starting from 1814 he was appointed by king Jérôme Bonaparte as Opernkapellmeister to Kassel. Since 1814 he was Kapellmeister of the Staatstheater Mainz, and in 1816 he became music director of a group of theaters in Dresden. From 1818 until his death he served as music director of the Kreuzkirche; at the same time he worked as its cantor.
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