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Why Tomatoes Are Fruits, and Strawberries Aren
Why Tomatoes Are Fruits, and Strawberries Aren't Berries
Published: 2015/06/22
Channel: SciShow
Fruits
Fruits
Published: 2011/12/22
Channel: 7activestudio
Types of Fruits
Types of Fruits
Published: 2014/09/01
Channel: Natural & Applied Sciences
Flower Structure and Function
Flower Structure and Function
Published: 2013/05/24
Channel: Mr. Fox's Science Classroom
Fruit - NEET AIPMT AIIMS Botany Video Lecture [RAO IIT ACADEMY]
Fruit - NEET AIPMT AIIMS Botany Video Lecture [RAO IIT ACADEMY]
Published: 2014/11/05
Channel: Rao IIT Academy
Fruit Anatomy 101
Fruit Anatomy 101
Published: 2009/01/08
Channel: xo0hkarmarr
Fruit anatomy gone wrong
Fruit anatomy gone wrong
Published: 2011/10/22
Channel: go4thegoal10
Fruit fly and its life-cycle under the microscope
Fruit fly and its life-cycle under the microscope
Published: 2017/02/23
Channel: Sci- Inspi
Anatomy of An Apple
Anatomy of An Apple
Published: 2016/07/13
Channel: Elif Askin
Bat Biology 101
Bat Biology 101
Published: 2013/07/03
Channel: Smithsonian Channel
Fruits and Veggies for Kids/Vegetable and Fruit Song/Eat Your Rainbow
Fruits and Veggies for Kids/Vegetable and Fruit Song/Eat Your Rainbow
Published: 2016/09/17
Channel: Kids Learning Tube
Durian - The World
Durian - The World's Smelliest Fruit | The New York Times
Published: 2013/12/06
Channel: The New York Times
True Facts About The Fruit Bat
True Facts About The Fruit Bat
Published: 2013/03/05
Channel: zefrank1
Plant ID: Tree Trunk Anatomy
Plant ID: Tree Trunk Anatomy
Published: 2014/01/17
Channel: Lovely Trees and Gardens
10 Creepy Plants And Fungi That Look Like Human Body Parts
10 Creepy Plants And Fungi That Look Like Human Body Parts
Published: 2014/11/03
Channel: WikiTube
Anatomy of Preservation
Anatomy of Preservation
Published: 2012/11/05
Channel: University of Michigan College of Literature, Science, and the Arts
Anatomy of a Cheese Board: Claire Thomas of The Kitchy Kitchen
Anatomy of a Cheese Board: Claire Thomas of The Kitchy Kitchen
Published: 2015/11/09
Channel: The Design Network
Top 3 Fruits for Mass Gain | (Guru Mann
Top 3 Fruits for Mass Gain | (Guru Mann's top 3 choices)
Published: 2016/05/23
Channel: Guru Mann Fitness
Anatomy of an M1: Adam Wadina (Class of 2020)
Anatomy of an M1: Adam Wadina (Class of 2020)
Published: 2017/05/18
Channel: Loyola University Chicago Health Sciences Division
Grow & Harvest Bananas - flowers, fruits & stems of the banana plant
Grow & Harvest Bananas - flowers, fruits & stems of the banana plant
Published: 2014/08/23
Channel: California Gardening
AVOCADO FLOWER ANATOMY  |  Type "A" & Type "B" Avocados |  SELF- POLLINATION & CROSS-POLLINATION
AVOCADO FLOWER ANATOMY | Type "A" & Type "B" Avocados | SELF- POLLINATION & CROSS-POLLINATION
Published: 2017/04/02
Channel: IV Organic
How to grow & harvest strawberry plants
How to grow & harvest strawberry plants
Published: 2012/04/28
Channel: bandq
Coconut Anatomy
Coconut Anatomy
Published: 2016/02/05
Channel: Gonzo Martins
The Anatomy of an Apple
The Anatomy of an Apple
Published: 2016/12/21
Channel: Anatomy Of Fruits
Carotene Adventures: Anatomy of a Recipe
Carotene Adventures: Anatomy of a Recipe
Published: 2015/02/01
Channel: Cassiopeia Stories
The Anatomy of a Vegetable | The Onion
The Anatomy of a Vegetable | The Onion
Published: 2017/03/28
Channel: Growing Chefs! Ontario
Parts Of A Plant | The Dr. Binocs Show | Learn Videos For Kids
Parts Of A Plant | The Dr. Binocs Show | Learn Videos For Kids
Published: 2015/03/25
Channel: Peekaboo Kidz
Fruit fly developmental stages
Fruit fly developmental stages
Published: 2011/12/14
Channel: Arne Christensen
The Plants & The Bees: Plant Reproduction - CrashCourse Biology #38
The Plants & The Bees: Plant Reproduction - CrashCourse Biology #38
Published: 2012/10/16
Channel: CrashCourse
Parts of a flower and Pollination | The Dr. Binocs Show | Learn Videos For Kids
Parts of a flower and Pollination | The Dr. Binocs Show | Learn Videos For Kids
Published: 2015/07/29
Channel: Peekaboo Kidz
Larry Randolph: Anatomy of Obedience audio
Larry Randolph: Anatomy of Obedience audio
Published: 2016/02/14
Channel: Spiritlivingnow
Mandela Effect Personal Experience - Stomach in a Different Location + Summary of Anatomy Changes
Mandela Effect Personal Experience - Stomach in a Different Location + Summary of Anatomy Changes
Published: 2016/06/01
Channel: gtwon
Anatomy part2
Anatomy part2
Published: 2011/03/02
Channel: Mskarla0709
Plant Structure
Plant Structure
Published: 2012/04/21
Channel: Bozeman Science
Anatomy of Root Stem and Leaf - NEET AIPMT AIIMS Botany Video Lecture [RAO IIT ACADEMY]
Anatomy of Root Stem and Leaf - NEET AIPMT AIIMS Botany Video Lecture [RAO IIT ACADEMY]
Published: 2014/11/05
Channel: Rao IIT Academy
Anatomy of the Pistachio V2
Anatomy of the Pistachio V2
Published: 2016/09/14
Channel: Paul Peguero
Anatomy Muscle Video
Anatomy Muscle Video
Published: 2016/11/07
Channel: Drew Robert
Anatomy of the flower
Anatomy of the flower
Published: 2014/05/02
Channel: samthecrooner
Anatomy of a Banana
Anatomy of a Banana
Published: 2013/07/30
Channel: Alvan Morcombe
Tomato anatomy
Tomato anatomy
Published: 2010/08/15
Channel: gogleonline
The Temporal Bone Dr. Anne Valle Anatomy 32 (bone practical)
The Temporal Bone Dr. Anne Valle Anatomy 32 (bone practical)
Published: 2013/10/09
Channel: Foushbag
Larval Brain Dissection in Drosophila melanogaster
Larval Brain Dissection in Drosophila melanogaster
Published: 2012/08/30
Channel: WilliamsCollege
All About Bats for Kids: Animal Videos for Children - FreeSchool
All About Bats for Kids: Animal Videos for Children - FreeSchool
Published: 2015/10/29
Channel: Free School
How to Draw a Male Torso - Anatomy Drawing
How to Draw a Male Torso - Anatomy Drawing
Published: 2016/02/02
Channel: Fine Art-Tips
SALAD LOVERS! Anatomy of a Gorgeous, Fresh, Garden Picked Salad - Growing Salad Greens
SALAD LOVERS! Anatomy of a Gorgeous, Fresh, Garden Picked Salad - Growing Salad Greens
Published: 2016/12/17
Channel: JuicingGardener (Sheryl Mann)
Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology
Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology
Published: 2017/01/15
Channel: Avery Koenig
James Corbett Interview : Anatomy of the New World Order
James Corbett Interview : Anatomy of the New World Order
Published: 2013/02/22
Channel: The Mind Renewed
Anatomy of a Fan Palm Tree, trunk ,petiole, crown,leaflet, trunk, stem, leaf scars
Anatomy of a Fan Palm Tree, trunk ,petiole, crown,leaflet, trunk, stem, leaf scars
Published: 2015/06/01
Channel: Geografia
Positive and Negative Feedback Loops
Positive and Negative Feedback Loops
Published: 2011/07/11
Channel: Bozeman Science
banana anatomy
banana anatomy
Published: 2010/07/01
Channel: yeejunz
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Longitudinal section of a female flower of a squash plant (courgette), showing the ovary, ovules, pistil, and petals.

Fruit anatomy is the internal structure of fruits.

Fruits are the mature ovary or ovaries of one or more flowers. In fleshy fruits, the outer layer (which is often edible) is the pericarp, which is the tissue that develops from the ovary wall of the flower and surrounds the seeds.

But in some seemingly pericarp fruits, the edible portion is not derived from the ovary. For example, in the fruit of the ackee tree the edible portion is an aril, and in the pineapple several tissues from the flower and stem are involved.

The outer covering of a seed is tough because the parent plant needs to protect the plant growing.

Categories of fruits[edit]

Some plants commonly called vegetables, such as cucumbers, tomatoes, and squash, are actually fruits.

Fruits are found in three main anatomical categories:

Anatomy of simple fruits[edit]

Diagram of a typical drupe (peach), showing both fruit and seed
A schematic picture of an orange hesperidium
A segment of an orange that has been opened to show the pulp (juice vesicles) of the endocarp

In berries and drupes, the pericarp forms the edible tissue around the seeds. In other fruits such as Citrus stone fruits (Prunus) only some layers of the pericarp are eaten. In accessory fruits, other tissues develop into the edible portion of the fruit instead, for example the receptacle of the flower in strawberries.

Pericarp layers[edit]

The pericarp is typically made up of three distinct layers: the epicarp, which is the outermost layer; the mesocarp, which is the middle layer; and the endocarp, which is the inner layer surrounding the ovary or the seeds. In a citrus fruit, the epicarp and mesocarp make up the peel.R

Epicarp[edit]

Epicarp (from Greek: epi-, "on" or "upon" + -carp, "fruit") is a botanical term for the outermost layer of the pericarp (or fruit). The epicarp forms the tough outer skin of the fruit, if there is one. The epicarp is sometimes called the exocarp, or, especially in Citrus, the flavedo.

Flavedo[edit]

Flavedo is mostly composed of cellulosic material but also contains other components, such as essential oils, paraffin waxes, steroids and triterpenoids, fatty acids, pigments (carotenoids, chlorophylls, flavonoids), bitter principles (limonin), and enzymes.

In citrus fruits, the flavedo constitutes the peripheral surface of the pericarp. It is composed of several cell layers that become progressively thicker in the internal part; the epidermic layer is covered with wax and contains few stomata, which in many cases are closed when the fruit is ripe.

When ripe, the flavedo cells contain carotenoids (mostly xanthophyll) inside chromoplasts, which, in a previous developmental stage, contained chlorophyll. This hormonally controlled progression in development is responsible for the fruit's change of color from green to yellow upon ripening.

The internal region of the flavedo is rich in multicellular bodies with spherical or pyriform shapes, which are full of essential oils.

Mesocarp[edit]

The mesocarp (from Greek: meso-, "middle" + -carp, "fruit") is the fleshy middle layer of the pericarp of a fruit; it is found between the epicarp and the endocarp. It is usually the part of the fruit that is eaten. For example, the mesocarp makes up most of the edible part of a peach, and a considerable part of a tomato. "Mesocarp" may also refer to any fruit that is fleshy throughout.

In a hesperidium, as is found in citrus fruit, the mesocarp is also referred to as albedo or pith. It is the inner part of the peel and is commonly removed before eating. In citron fruit, where the mesocarp is the most prominent part, it is used to produce succade.

Endocarp[edit]

Olive drupe endocarp (left and center) and the seed (right).

Endocarp (from Greek: endo-, "inside" + -carp, "fruit") is a botanical term for the inside layer of the pericarp (or fruit), which directly surrounds the seeds. It may be membranous as in citrus where it is the only part consumed, or thick and hard as in the stone fruits of the family Rosaceae such as peaches, cherries, plums, and apricots.

In nuts, it is the stony layer that surrounds the kernel of pecans, walnuts, etc., and that is removed prior to consumption.

In citrus fruits, the endocarp is separated into sections, which are called segments. These segments are filled with juice vesicles, which contain the juice of the fruit.

Anatomy of grass fruits[edit]

The grains of grasses are single-seed simple fruits wherein the pericarp (ovary wall) and seed coat are fused into one layer. This type of fruit is called a caryopsis. Examples include cereal grains, such as wheat, barley, and rice.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]

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