Play Video
1
Fruit Anatomy 101
Fruit Anatomy 101
::2009/01/07::
Play Video
2
Don
Don't Freak Out if That Fruit's Losing Flowers... Comparative Anatomy
::2012/07/10::
Play Video
3
Fruit anatomy gone wrong
Fruit anatomy gone wrong
::2011/10/21::
Play Video
4
Anatomy of a Love Seen (Feature Film Trailer)
Anatomy of a Love Seen (Feature Film Trailer)
::2014/05/05::
Play Video
5
San Diego Zoo Kids - Fruit Bats
San Diego Zoo Kids - Fruit Bats
::2014/10/23::
Play Video
6
Grey
Grey's Anatomy - Face transplant
::2007/07/30::
Play Video
7
Grey
Grey's Anatomy 10x07 Promo "Thriller" (HD)
::2013/10/24::
Play Video
8
Anatomy of Preservation
Anatomy of Preservation
::2012/11/05::
Play Video
9
True Facts About The Fruit Bat
True Facts About The Fruit Bat
::2013/03/04::
Play Video
10
Fruit Sliced Nail Art Canes Embedded into Acrylic Tutorial Video by Naio Nails
Fruit Sliced Nail Art Canes Embedded into Acrylic Tutorial Video by Naio Nails
::2012/02/19::
Play Video
11
Flower Structure and Function
Flower Structure and Function
::2013/05/24::
Play Video
12
Woodstock Fruit Festival 2014 - Questions to ask.
Woodstock Fruit Festival 2014 - Questions to ask.
::2014/08/01::
Play Video
13
Anatomy of the Back - Get Your Free Back Pain Guide!
Anatomy of the Back - Get Your Free Back Pain Guide!
::2008/02/07::
Play Video
14
Durian - The World
Durian - The World's Smelliest Fruit
::2013/12/05::
Play Video
15
Grey
Grey's Anatomy 7x12 "Start Me Up" Sneak Peek #3
::2011/01/08::
Play Video
16
Anatomy of a Relationship-God Wants a Baby-1-DBATTLE
Anatomy of a Relationship-God Wants a Baby-1-DBATTLE
::2010/07/16::
Play Video
17
Anatomy of root
Anatomy of root
::2014/09/14::
Play Video
18
18 WEEK BUMPDATE - Braxton Hicks, Pillows, & A Stressful Anatomy Scan - Pregnant After Stillbirth
18 WEEK BUMPDATE - Braxton Hicks, Pillows, & A Stressful Anatomy Scan - Pregnant After Stillbirth
::2013/03/15::
Play Video
19
Shopkins Fruit + Veg Stand! Anna Makes Smoothies for Kristoff #HobbyKidsTV
Shopkins Fruit + Veg Stand! Anna Makes Smoothies for Kristoff #HobbyKidsTV
::2014/08/01::
Play Video
20
Melanin 9 - Red Snow (Prod. by Anatomy) (Instrumental) [2013]
Melanin 9 - Red Snow (Prod. by Anatomy) (Instrumental) [2013]
::2013/07/19::
Play Video
21
Norwegian - Anatomy - The Body 1
Norwegian - Anatomy - The Body 1
::2010/03/11::
Play Video
22
How to Pollinate Dragon Fruit Flowers 101
How to Pollinate Dragon Fruit Flowers 101
::2013/08/21::
Play Video
23
Defilementory - The Mask of Anatomy
Defilementory - The Mask of Anatomy
::2014/04/06::
Play Video
24
Grey
Grey's Anatomy 10x08 Promo "Two Against One" (HD)
::2013/10/31::
Play Video
25
The Common Housefly - Anatomy, Habitat, Breeding, Maggots, Sanitation & More 1950s
The Common Housefly - Anatomy, Habitat, Breeding, Maggots, Sanitation & More 1950s
::2014/01/02::
Play Video
26
Grey
Grey's Anatomy After Show Season 10 Episode 9 "Sorry Seems to Be the Hardest Word" | AfterBuzz TV
::2013/11/15::
Play Video
27
Basic Insect Anatomy - Asian Giant Hornet Suzumebachi - Real Japan Monsters 基本的な昆虫の解剖学 日本のモンスター
Basic Insect Anatomy - Asian Giant Hornet Suzumebachi - Real Japan Monsters 基本的な昆虫の解剖学 日本のモンスター
::2009/10/25::
Play Video
28
Grey’s Anatomy Season 10
Grey’s Anatomy Season 10
::2014/09/16::
Play Video
29
Plant ID: Tree Trunk Anatomy
Plant ID: Tree Trunk Anatomy
::2014/01/17::
Play Video
30
‘Life of Crime’ | Anatomy of a Scene w/ Director Daniel Schechter | The New York Times
‘Life of Crime’ | Anatomy of a Scene w/ Director Daniel Schechter | The New York Times
::2014/08/31::
Play Video
31
M9 Feat. Teslas Ghost - Mont Blanc (Produced by ANATOMY)
M9 Feat. Teslas Ghost - Mont Blanc (Produced by ANATOMY)
::2014/11/11::
Play Video
32
Grey
Grey's Anatomy ; Teddy and Henry - 7x12
::2011/05/25::
Play Video
33
Melanin 9 - Landslide (Instrumental) (Prod. by Anatomy) [2013]
Melanin 9 - Landslide (Instrumental) (Prod. by Anatomy) [2013]
::2013/07/19::
Play Video
34
Aircraft Anatomy | Learn English | Vocabulary
Aircraft Anatomy | Learn English | Vocabulary
::2011/10/04::
Play Video
35
Box Sets with Joanna Lumley - Grey
Box Sets with Joanna Lumley - Grey's Anatomy (Extended)
::2013/10/07::
Play Video
36
Vitamix Aspire unboxing |raw food |ATTIC ANATOMY
Vitamix Aspire unboxing |raw food |ATTIC ANATOMY
::2014/11/18::
Play Video
37
Grey
Grey's Anatomy After Show Season 10 Episode 8 "Two Against One" | AfterBuzz TV
::2013/11/08::
Play Video
38
Let
Let's Play - Grey's Anatomy - [Ep.2] Act Three: Infestation
::2011/03/16::
Play Video
39
Norwegian - Anatomy - The Head
Norwegian - Anatomy - The Head
::2010/03/01::
Play Video
40
Class 11-Botany-Anatomy of Flowering Plants-Medical-NEET Videos
Class 11-Botany-Anatomy of Flowering Plants-Medical-NEET Videos
::2013/03/19::
Play Video
41
Norwegian -  Anatomy - The Body 2
Norwegian - Anatomy - The Body 2
::2010/03/24::
Play Video
42
Does Size Matter? Size Evolution & Anatomy- Why is Size a significant evolutionary development?
Does Size Matter? Size Evolution & Anatomy- Why is Size a significant evolutionary development?
::2014/11/09::
Play Video
43
M9 (Melanin 9) "Red Snow (prod. by Anatomy)"
M9 (Melanin 9) "Red Snow (prod. by Anatomy)"
::2012/12/08::
Play Video
44
Biology 1B - Lecture 35: Shoot morphology, anatomy and growt
Biology 1B - Lecture 35: Shoot morphology, anatomy and growt
::2010/11/17::
Play Video
45
KNOW YOUR FRUITS EPISODE 10: THE MIGHTY AVOCADO - RICH & CREAMY
KNOW YOUR FRUITS EPISODE 10: THE MIGHTY AVOCADO - RICH & CREAMY
::2014/12/17::
Play Video
46
Segmented Woodturning Projects - Wooden Fruit Bowl - Part 1
Segmented Woodturning Projects - Wooden Fruit Bowl - Part 1
::2010/09/05::
Play Video
47
Flower Anatomy
Flower Anatomy
::2007/04/21::
Play Video
48
Burger Anatomy: Plan Check Kitchen & Bar
Burger Anatomy: Plan Check Kitchen & Bar
::2014/08/26::
Play Video
49
Fruit Flies and the Smell Sense: How a Molecule
Fruit Flies and the Smell Sense: How a Molecule's Vibration Can Change Its Smell
::2012/09/17::
Play Video
50
DIY Anatomical Human Heart Polymer Clay Magnet Tutorial
DIY Anatomical Human Heart Polymer Clay Magnet Tutorial
::2013/06/30::
NEXT >>
RESULTS [51 .. 101]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Longitudinal section of a female flower of a squash plant (courgette), showing the ovary, ovules, pistil, and petals.

Fruit anatomy is the internal structure of fruits.

Fruits are the mature ovary or ovaries of one or more flowers. In fleshy fruits, the outer layer (which is often edible) is the pericarp, which is the tissue that develops from the ovary wall of the flower and surrounds the seeds.

But in some seemingly pericarp fruits, the edible portion is not derived from the ovary. For example, in the fruit of the ackee tree the edible portion is an aril, and in the pineapple several tissues from the flower and stem are involved.

Categories of fruits[edit]

Some plants commonly called vegetables, such as cucumbers, tomatoes, and squash, are actually fruits.

Fruits are found in three main anatomical categories:

  • Simple fruits are formed from a single ovary and may contain one or many seeds. They can be either fleshy or dry. Berries and drupes

are examples of simple fleshy fruits. Pomes are both accessory fruits and simple fruits. Nuts are dry fruits.

Anatomy of simple fruits[edit]

Diagram of a typical drupe (peach), showing both fruit and seed
A schematic picture of an orange hesperidium
A segment of an orange that has been opened to show the pulp (juice vesicles) of the endocarp

In berries and drupes, the pericarp forms the edible tissue around the seeds. In other fruits such as Citrus stone fruits (Prunus) only some layers of the pericarp are eaten. In accessory fruits, other tissues develop into the edible portion of the fruit instead, for example the receptacle of the flower in strawberries.

Pericarp layers[edit]

The pericarp is typically made up of three distinct layers: the epicarp, which is the outermost layer; the mesocarp, which is the middle layer; and the endocarp, which is the inner layer surrounding the ovary or the seeds. In a citrus fruit, the epicarp and mesocarp make up the peel.

Epicarp[edit]

Epicarp (from Greek: epi-, "on" or "upon" + -carp, "fruit") is a botanical term for the outermost layer of the pericarp (or fruit). The epicarp forms the tough outer skin of the fruit, if there is one. The epicarp is sometimes called the exocarp, or, especially in Citrus, the flavedo.

Flavedo[edit]

Flavedo is mostly composed of cellulosic material but also contains other components, such as essential oils, paraffin waxes, steroids and triterpenoids, fatty acids, pigments (carotenoids, chlorophylls, flavonoids), bitter principles (limonene), and enzymes.

In citrus fruits, the flavedo constitutes the peripheral surface of the pericarp. It is composed of several cell layers that become progressively thicker in the internal part; the epidermic layer is covered with wax and contains few stomata, which in many cases are closed when the fruit is ripe.

When ripe, the flavedo cells contain carotenoids (mostly xanthophyll) inside chromoplasts, which, in a previous developmental stage, contained chlorophyll. This hormonally controlled progression in development is responsible for the fruit's change of color from green to yellow upon ripening.

The internal region of the flavedo is rich in multicellular bodies with spherical or pyriform shapes, which are full of essential oils.

Mesocarp[edit]

The mesocarp (from Greek: meso-, "middle" + -carp, "fruit") is the fleshy middle layer of the pericarp of a fruit; it is found between the epicarp and the endocarp. It is usually the part of the fruit that is eaten. For example, the mesocarp makes up most of the edible part of a peach, and a considerable part of a tomato. "Mesocarp" may also refer to any fruit that is fleshy throughout.

In a hesperidium, as is found in citrus fruit, the mesocarp is also referred to as albedo or pith. It is the inner part of the peel and is commonly removed before eating. In citron fruit, where the mesocarp is the most prominent part, it is used to produce succade.

Endocarp[edit]

Endocarp (from Greek: endo-, "inside" + -carp, "fruit") is a botanical term for the inside layer of the pericarp (or fruit), which directly surrounds the seeds. It may be membranous as in citrus where it is the only part consumed, or thick and hard as in the stone fruits of the family Rosaceae such as peaches, cherries, plums, and apricots.

In nuts, it is the stony layer that surrounds the kernel of pecans, walnuts, etc., and that is removed prior to consumption.

In citrus fruits, the endocarp is separated into sections, which are called segments. These segments are filled with juice vesicles, which contain the juice of the fruit.

Olive drupe endocarp (left and center) and the seed (right).

Anatomy of grass fruits[edit]

The grains of grasses are single-seed simple fruits wherein the pericarp (ovary wall) and seed coat are fused into one layer. This type of fruit is called a caryopsis. Examples include cereal grains, such as wheat, barley, and rice.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL License
Powered by YouTube
MASHPEDIA
LEGAL
  • Mashpedia © 2014