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fulla
fulla
Published: 2010/08/18
Channel: amchum
Fulla - Play Wit Me feat The Trap Boyz {official video}
Fulla - Play Wit Me feat The Trap Boyz {official video}
Published: 2017/05/12
Channel: Official Fulla
FULLA - Feelin No Feelings
FULLA - Feelin No Feelings
Published: 2017/01/16
Channel: Matthew Martin
Fulla - Feelin No Feelins  {official video}
Fulla - Feelin No Feelins {official video}
Published: 2017/02/17
Channel: Official Fulla
سوبر ماركت باربي تسوق الأنسة فلة ألعاب بنات - Fulla and Barbie Super Market toy
سوبر ماركت باربي تسوق الأنسة فلة ألعاب بنات - Fulla and Barbie Super Market toy
Published: 2017/04/22
Channel: Jessy Toys 911
Fulla Arabic Song أغنيه فله
Fulla Arabic Song أغنيه فله
Published: 2010/10/25
Channel: farid1630
Barbie fulla
Barbie fulla
Published: 2006/09/08
Channel: RAPTAZORUS
Fulla New Fashion Dolls
Fulla New Fashion Dolls
Published: 2016/08/21
Channel: Fulla Page
FULLA la Diva - Wala hatta thania فلة ، و لا حتى ثانية
FULLA la Diva - Wala hatta thania فلة ، و لا حتى ثانية
Published: 2012/06/18
Channel: tarikotariko
فستان صلصال فلة للمفاجآت - ألعاب بنات أميرات ديزني Fulla Barbie Playdoh Dress
فستان صلصال فلة للمفاجآت - ألعاب بنات أميرات ديزني Fulla Barbie Playdoh Dress
Published: 2017/05/04
Channel: Jessy Toys 911
Z Review - Schiit Fulla (Micro Dac+Amp) (MADE IN THE USA) (!!!)
Z Review - Schiit Fulla (Micro Dac+Amp) (MADE IN THE USA) (!!!)
Published: 2014/12/17
Channel: Z Reviews
Fulla Song Ramadan  أغنية فلة رمضان
Fulla Song Ramadan أغنية فلة رمضان
Published: 2011/03/15
Channel: NewBoy
Fulla - Doctor Set | فلة - المجموعة الطبيبة
Fulla - Doctor Set | فلة - المجموعة الطبيبة
Published: 2014/03/04
Channel: Fulla Page
Fulla - Ismuha Fulla | فلة - اسمها فلة
Fulla - Ismuha Fulla | فلة - اسمها فلة
Published: 2014/03/09
Channel: Fulla Page
Prayer time with Fulla
Prayer time with Fulla
Published: 2016/07/19
Channel: Fulla Page
لعبة البيت ألعاب بنات غرفة أخوات فلة و حمام حقيقي! Fulla Kids room Playset toy
لعبة البيت ألعاب بنات غرفة أخوات فلة و حمام حقيقي! Fulla Kids room Playset toy
Published: 2016/09/07
Channel: Jessy Toys 911
Fulla Song Al Salat  أغنية فلة الصلاة
Fulla Song Al Salat أغنية فلة الصلاة
Published: 2011/03/15
Channel: NewBoy
fulla Song - الوطن العربي
fulla Song - الوطن العربي
Published: 2011/06/10
Channel: mahmud4everTV
Eldkvarn "Fulla för kärlekens skull" - Allsång på Skansen 2012
Eldkvarn "Fulla för kärlekens skull" - Allsång på Skansen 2012
Published: 2012/09/03
Channel: Ghost At Gods Place
6 surprise eggs SpiderMan , Ninja , Fulla ..
6 surprise eggs SpiderMan , Ninja , Fulla ..
Published: 2016/02/22
Channel: Surprise My Baby
FULLA - Feelin No Feelins {audio} formally Fool Fareal
FULLA - Feelin No Feelins {audio} formally Fool Fareal
Published: 2017/01/01
Channel: Official Fulla
Fulla - Pink  | فلة - اللون الوردي
Fulla - Pink | فلة - اللون الوردي
Published: 2014/03/06
Channel: Fulla Page
فلة - طاولة تزيين | Fulla - Vanity Table
فلة - طاولة تزيين | Fulla - Vanity Table
Published: 2014/03/04
Channel: Fulla Page
فيلم بياض الثلج | كامل | مدبلج
فيلم بياض الثلج | كامل | مدبلج
Published: 2013/07/11
Channel: atheer alward
Fulla magazine jump rope game
Fulla magazine jump rope game
Published: 2013/05/29
Channel: Fulla Page
Fulla Chocolate Bars
Fulla Chocolate Bars
Published: 2015/05/27
Channel: NewBoy
Fulla - Blanket | فلة - غطاء سرير
Fulla - Blanket | فلة - غطاء سرير
Published: 2014/03/09
Channel: Fulla Page
Fulla Dandana Complete فلة الجزائرية, دندنة كاملة, إحسان منذر
Fulla Dandana Complete فلة الجزائرية, دندنة كاملة, إحسان منذر
Published: 2017/04/11
Channel: tarikotariko
اطبخي مع فلة                                  Fulla Kitchen and Role Play
اطبخي مع فلة Fulla Kitchen and Role Play
Published: 2014/03/04
Channel: Fulla Page
Fulla loves to read
Fulla loves to read
Published: 2016/07/18
Channel: Fulla Page
Fulla - Pens | فلة - أقلام
Fulla - Pens | فلة - أقلام
Published: 2014/03/06
Channel: Fulla Page
FULLA YOUTUBERS
FULLA YOUTUBERS
Published: 2016/10/24
Channel: Vlad Reiser
Filip och Fredrik - Fulla i Breaking News
Filip och Fredrik - Fulla i Breaking News
Published: 2014/04/06
Channel: Efraim*Barkbit
Fulla - Hand Gel | فلة - جل اليدين
Fulla - Hand Gel | فلة - جل اليدين
Published: 2014/08/11
Channel: Fulla Page
Fulla at home
Fulla at home
Published: 2016/07/19
Channel: Fulla Page
Fulla - Ya Tayba | فلة - يا طيبة
Fulla - Ya Tayba | فلة - يا طيبة
Published: 2012/03/27
Channel: Fulla Page
Berg & Meltzer är fulla på yoga
Berg & Meltzer är fulla på yoga
Published: 2015/10/26
Channel: Berg & Meltzer
R-MONEY - BINDER$ FULLA WOMEN
R-MONEY - BINDER$ FULLA WOMEN
Published: 2012/10/21
Channel: Boyinaband
Fulla perenne - VerdCel - Clip
Fulla perenne - VerdCel - Clip
Published: 2016/03/31
Channel: VerdCel oficial
09. YOUNG DIZZY | BZHA | JOVANNI | FLY ĆIKI | GIO L | RAKA - FULLA GANG
09. YOUNG DIZZY | BZHA | JOVANNI | FLY ĆIKI | GIO L | RAKA - FULLA GANG
Published: 2016/12/09
Channel: Full House Ent.
Fun to Learn - Fulla Animated House | فن تو ليرن - جولة في منزل فلة
Fun to Learn - Fulla Animated House | فن تو ليرن - جولة في منزل فلة
Published: 2012/03/12
Channel: FunToLearnPage
Fulla Gum
Fulla Gum
Published: 2015/01/04
Channel: NewBoy
Fulla Website
Fulla Website
Published: 2011/03/14
Channel: NewBoy
Den fulla tomten...
Den fulla tomten...
Published: 2015/01/17
Channel: Eva Johansson
Fulla Traditional
Fulla Traditional
Published: 2012/11/19
Channel: NewBoy
Fulla - Autograph & Letters Book | فلة - دفتر مذكرات
Fulla - Autograph & Letters Book | فلة - دفتر مذكرات
Published: 2014/03/06
Channel: Fulla Page
Fulla Brownie CupCake Swissroll and Bear
Fulla Brownie CupCake Swissroll and Bear
Published: 2014/04/21
Channel: NewBoy
Fulla Playtime Hair Saloon
Fulla Playtime Hair Saloon
Published: 2016/07/31
Channel: Fulla Page
Fulla - Hair Salon | فلة - صالون للعناية بالشعر
Fulla - Hair Salon | فلة - صالون للعناية بالشعر
Published: 2014/03/09
Channel: Fulla Page
فلة - مفكرة |  Fulla - Diary&Day Book
فلة - مفكرة | Fulla - Diary&Day Book
Published: 2014/03/06
Channel: Fulla Page
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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A depiction of Fulla kneeling beside her mistress, Frigg, (1865) by Ludwig Pietsch.

In Germanic mythology, Fulla (Old Norse, possibly "bountiful"[1]) or Volla (Old High German) is a goddess. In Norse mythology, Fulla is described as wearing a golden band and as tending to the ashen box and the footwear owned by the goddess Frigg, and, in addition, Frigg confides in Fulla her secrets. Fulla is attested in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources; the Prose Edda, written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson; and in skaldic poetry. Volla is attested in the "Horse Cure" Merseburg Incantation, recorded anonymously in the 10th century in Old High German, in which she assists in healing the wounded foal of Phol and is referred to as Frigg's sister. Scholars have proposed theories about the implications of the goddess.

Attestations[edit]

The goddess Frigg surrounded by three other goddesses. Fulla holds Frigg's eski on the bottom left. Illustration (1882) by Emil Doepler.

Poetic Edda[edit]

In the prose introduction to the Poetic Edda poem Grímnismál, Frigg makes a wager with her husband—the god Odin—over the hospitality of their human patrons. Frigg sends her servant maid Fulla to warn the king Geirröd—Frigg's patron—that a magician (actually Odin in disguise) will visit him. Fulla meets with Geirröd, gives the warning, and advises to him a means of detecting the magician:

Henry Adams Bellows translation:
Frigg sent her handmaiden, Fulla, to Geirröth. She bade the king beware lest a magician who was come thither to his land should bewitch him, and told this sign concerning him, that no dog was so fierce as to leap at him.[2]
Benjamin Thorpe translation:
Frigg sent her waiting-maid Fulla to bid Geirröd be on his guard, lest the trollmann who was coming should do him harm, and also say that a token whereby he might be known was, that no dog, however fierce, would attack him.[3]

Prose Edda[edit]

In chapter 35 of the Prose Edda book Gylfaginning, High provides brief descriptions of 16 ásynjur. High lists Fulla fifth, stating that, like the goddess Gefjun, Fulla is a virgin, wears her hair flowing freely with a gold band around her head. High describes that Fulla carries Frigg's eski, looks after Frigg's footwear, and that in Fulla Frigg confides secrets.[4]

In chapter 49 of Gylfaginning, High details that, after the death of the deity couple Baldr and Nanna, the god Hermóðr wagers for their return in the underworld location of Hel. Hel, ruler of the location of the same name, tells Hermóðr a way to resurrect Baldr, but will not allow Baldr and Nanna to leave until the deed is accomplished. Hel does, however, allow Baldr and Nanna to send gifts to the living; Baldr sends Odin the ring Draupnir, and Nanna sends Frigg a robe of linen, and "other gifts." Of these "other gifts" sent, the only specific item that High mentions is a finger-ring for Fulla.[5]

The first chapter of the Prose Edda book Skáldskaparmál, Fulla is listed among eight ásynjur who attend an evening drinking banquet held for Ægir.[6] In chapter 19 of Skáldskaparmál, poetic ways to refer to Frigg are given, one of which is by referring to her as "queen [...] of Fulla."[7] In chapter 32, poetic expressions for gold are given, one of which includes "Fulla's snood."[8] In chapter 36, a work by the skald Eyvindr skáldaspillir is cited that references Fulla's golden headgear ("the falling sun [gold] of the plain [forehead] of Fulla's eyelashes shone on [...]").[9] Fulla receives a final mention in the Prose Edda in chapter 75, where Fulla appears within a list of 27 ásynjur names.[10]

"Horse Cure" Merseburg Incantation[edit]

Wodan Heals Balder's Horse (1905) by Emil Doepler

One of the two Merseburg Incantations (the "horse cure"), recorded in Old High German, mentions Volla. The incantation describes how Phol and Wodan rode to a wood, and there Balder's foal sprained its foot. Sinthgunt sang charms, her sister Sunna sang charms, Friia sang charms, her sister Volla sang charms, and finally Wodan sang charms, followed by a verse describing the healing of the foal's bone. The charm reads:

Phol and Wodan went to the forest.
Then Balder's horse sprained its foot.
Then Sinthgunt sang charms, and Sunna her sister;
Then Friia sang charms, and Volla her sister;
Then Wodan sang charms, as he well could:
be it bone-sprain, be it blood-sprain, be it limb-sprain:
bone to bone, blood to blood,
limb to limb, so be they glued together.[11]

Theories[edit]

Fulla holds Frigg's eski in Frigg and Her Maidens (1902).

Andy Orchard comments that the seeming appearance of Baldr with Volla in the Merseburg Incantation is "intriguing" since Fulla is one of the three goddesses (the other two being Baldr's mother Frigg and his wife Nanna) the deceased Baldr expressly sends gifts to from Hel.[1] John Lindow says that since the name Fulla seems to have something to do with fullness, it may also point to an association with fertility.[12]

Rudolf Simek comments that while Snorri notes that Baldr sends Fulla a golden ring from Hel in Gylfaginning, "this does not prove that she plays any role in the Baldr myth, but merely shows that Snorri associated her with gold" because of kennings used associating Fulla with gold. Simek says that since Fulla appears in the poetry of Skalds as early as the 10th century that she was likely "not a late personification of plenty" but that she is very likely identical with Volla from the Merseburg Incantation. Simek adds that it is unclear as to who Fulla actually is; Simek says that she may be an independent deity or simply identical with the goddess Freyja or with Frigg.[13]

John Knight Bostock says that theories have been proposed that the Fulla may at one time have been an aspect of Frigg. As a result, this notion has resulted in theory that a similar situation may have existed between the figures of the goddesses Sinthgunt and Sunna, in that the two may have been understood as aspects of one another rather than entirely separate figures.[14]

Hilda Ellis Davidson states that the goddesses Gefjun, Gerðr, Fulla, and Skaði "may represent important goddesses of early times in the North, but little was remembered about them by the time Snorri was collecting his material." On the other hand, Davidson notes that it is also possible that these goddesses are viewable as aspects of a single Great Goddess.[15] Davidson calls Fulla and Volla "vague, uncertain figures, emerging from odd references to goddesses which Snorri has noted in the poets, but they suggest the possibility that at one time three generations were represented among the goddesses of fertility and harvest in Scandinavia."[16]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Orchard (1997:49).
  2. ^ Bellows (1923:86).
  3. ^ Thorpe (1866:20).
  4. ^ Faulkes (1995:29).
  5. ^ Faulkes (1995:50).
  6. ^ Faulkes (1995:59).
  7. ^ Faulkes (1995:86).
  8. ^ Faulkes (1995:94).
  9. ^ Faulkes (1995:97–98).
  10. ^ Faulkes (1995:157).
  11. ^ Lindow (2001:227).
  12. ^ Lindow (2001:132).
  13. ^ Simek (2007:96).
  14. ^ Bostock (1976:29).
  15. ^ Davidson (1998:10).
  16. ^ Davidson (1998:86).

References[edit]

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