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An Introduction to Systemic Functional Linguistics
An Introduction to Systemic Functional Linguistics
Published: 2015/11/08
Channel: Patrick Mannion
Functional theories of grammar
Functional theories of grammar
Published: 2016/05/30
Channel: Wikivoicemedia
Syntax - The Functional Analysis of Sentences (VLC Series #1)
Syntax - The Functional Analysis of Sentences (VLC Series #1)
Published: 2013/11/29
Channel: The Virtual Linguistics Campus
Structural-Functional Approach
Structural-Functional Approach
Published: 2016/03/23
Channel: Bryan Paul Acuña
Systemic Functional Linguistics
Systemic Functional Linguistics
Published: 2016/08/19
Channel: Pilar Santa
A Notional Approach to Teaching Grammar
A Notional Approach to Teaching Grammar
Published: 2008/10/11
Channel: DELTAModule1
Michael Halliday
Michael Halliday
Published: 2014/10/04
Channel: Audiopedia
Transitivity  - Systemic Functional Grammar
Transitivity - Systemic Functional Grammar
Published: 2015/05/21
Channel: Chris English
What is GENERATIVE GRAMMAR? What does GENERATIVE GRAMMAR mean? GENERATIVE GRAMMAR meaning
What is GENERATIVE GRAMMAR? What does GENERATIVE GRAMMAR mean? GENERATIVE GRAMMAR meaning
Published: 2016/08/07
Channel: The Audiopedia
SYN124 - The Function of the Verb - Mood and Modality
SYN124 - The Function of the Verb - Mood and Modality
Published: 2014/01/07
Channel: The Virtual Linguistics Campus
AE Webinar 7.1 - Connecting Reading and Writing in Grammar Teaching: A Functional Approach
AE Webinar 7.1 - Connecting Reading and Writing in Grammar Teaching: A Functional Approach
Published: 2017/09/07
Channel: American English
How Do We Capture the Truth of Beliefs? Type Theory
How Do We Capture the Truth of Beliefs? Type Theory
Published: 2016/12/15
Channel: The Ling Space
Functionalism
Functionalism
Published: 2013/08/07
Channel: Sydney Brown
A Systemic Approach to Appraisal: Identifying Opinion and Sentiment in Text
A Systemic Approach to Appraisal: Identifying Opinion and Sentiment in Text
Published: 2016/09/06
Channel: Microsoft Research
Introducing Metafunction
Introducing Metafunction
Published: 2016/02/07
Channel: Jed Hopkins
2 MINUTE Language Theories: Constraint-based Grammar
2 MINUTE Language Theories: Constraint-based Grammar
Published: 2016/08/23
Channel: Teach them English
10.4 Halliday’s Grammar
10.4 Halliday’s Grammar
Published: 2016/04/19
Channel: educationatillinois
Grammar Part II
Grammar Part II
Published: 2015/04/01
Channel: HartmanHaps
Human Language Sentences - Basic Parse Trees, X-Bar Theory & Ambiguity -- Linguistics 101
Human Language Sentences - Basic Parse Trees, X-Bar Theory & Ambiguity -- Linguistics 101
Published: 2011/11/14
Channel: NativLang
Functional Approach - Adip Rohadi
Functional Approach - Adip Rohadi
Published: 2016/04/21
Channel: el Aduk
Theoretical grammar of the English language
Theoretical grammar of the English language
Published: 2015/11/14
Channel: blogerlady
Generative grammar
Generative grammar
Published: 2016/05/24
Channel: Wikivoicemedia
SYN110 - Variants of Generative Grammar I
SYN110 - Variants of Generative Grammar I
Published: 2013/06/10
Channel: The Virtual Linguistics Campus
THE FUNCTIONAL GRAMMAR RAP!
THE FUNCTIONAL GRAMMAR RAP!
Published: 2012/08/31
Channel: mc984
Halliday
Halliday's Introduction to Functional Grammar
Published: 2016/04/23
Channel: derra upson
Generative Grammar | Generative Grammar Explained
Generative Grammar | Generative Grammar Explained
Published: 2017/08/21
Channel: English Literature Hub
Teaching Functional Grammar
Teaching Functional Grammar
Published: 2015/11/01
Channel: Chlo Homes
Ferdinand de Saussure and Structural Linguistics
Ferdinand de Saussure and Structural Linguistics
Published: 2014/03/22
Channel: Bella Ross
A Primer to Functional Grammar
A Primer to Functional Grammar
Published: 2017/07/11
Channel: Paul Lyons
Functional classroom language
Functional classroom language
Published: 2013/10/18
Channel: Esperanza del Val Benítez
Transitivity
Transitivity
Published: 2016/02/13
Channel: Jed Hopkins
Michael Halliday - Language evolving: Some systemic functional reflections on the history of meaning
Michael Halliday - Language evolving: Some systemic functional reflections on the history of meaning
Published: 2010/08/25
Channel: UBC
ESP language description- functional/notional grammar
ESP language description- functional/notional grammar
Published: 2011/12/05
Channel: espdoscst2011
Teaching Grammar: Understanding Structures and Functions
Teaching Grammar: Understanding Structures and Functions
Published: 2014/03/27
Channel: OnTESOL
[HeadLex16] King: Theoretical linguistics & grammar engineering as mutually constraining disciplines
[HeadLex16] King: Theoretical linguistics & grammar engineering as mutually constraining disciplines
Published: 2016/08/08
Channel: IPI PAN
General Grammar Concept: Lexical & Grammatical Words
General Grammar Concept: Lexical & Grammatical Words
Published: 2011/06/27
Channel: Edward Meade
Functional Grammar Unswagati
Functional Grammar Unswagati
Published: 2015/05/27
Channel: Hendri Wanto
Register  - Systemic Functional Linguistics
Register - Systemic Functional Linguistics
Published: 2015/05/21
Channel: Chris English
The Usage Of Valency Theory and Dependency Grammar
The Usage Of Valency Theory and Dependency Grammar
Published: 2017/07/20
Channel: Gustavo Rubino Ernesto
What is UNIVERSAL GRAMMAR? What does UNIVERSAL GRAMMAR mean? UNIVERSAL GRAMMAR meaning
What is UNIVERSAL GRAMMAR? What does UNIVERSAL GRAMMAR mean? UNIVERSAL GRAMMAR meaning
Published: 2017/01/02
Channel: The Audiopedia
Functions of Language
Functions of Language
Published: 2014/10/02
Channel: Tai Wyban
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Interpersonal Function
Published: 2016/04/14
Channel: Denise Chng
Grammar Function and Form 3A Review by Randy Ragistha
Grammar Function and Form 3A Review by Randy Ragistha
Published: 2015/12/14
Channel: THUNDER_GAMING 1140
How To Learn English Grammar
How To Learn English Grammar
Published: 2015/05/04
Channel: Oxford Online English
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Linguistic competence
Published: 2015/12/15
Channel: Audiopedia
(Grammar Basics) The Theory of English Part 1
(Grammar Basics) The Theory of English Part 1
Published: 2015/07/06
Channel: Grammar By Dan
Using images to teach grammar and function
Using images to teach grammar and function
Published: 2015/04/15
Channel: phonologyELL
Formal Grammar Concepts Solution - Programming Languages
Formal Grammar Concepts Solution - Programming Languages
Published: 2015/02/23
Channel: Udacity
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What is CONSTRUCTION GRAMMAR? What does CONSTRUCTION GRAMMAR mean? CONSTRUCTION GRAMMAR meaning
Published: 2017/05/28
Channel: The Audiopedia
Functional Grammar
Functional Grammar
Published: 2011/11/10
Channel: LadySosa26
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Functional theories of grammar are those approaches to the study of language that see functionality of language and its elements to be the key to understanding linguistic processes and structures. Functional theories of language propose that since language is fundamentally a tool, it is reasonable to assume that its structures are best analyzed and understood with reference to the functions they carry out. Functional theories of grammar differ from structural linguistics or formalist language theories, in that the latter approaches seek to define the different elements of language and describe the way they relate to each other only as systems of formal rules or operations, whereas the former additionally takes into account the context where linguistic elements are used and studies the way they are instrumentally useful or functional in the given environment. This means that functional theories of grammar tend to pay attention to the way language is actually used in communicative context. The formal relations between linguistic elements are assumed to be functionally-motivated.[1]

Frameworks[edit]

There are several distinct grammatical frameworks that employ a functional approach.

  • The structuralist functionalism of the Prague school was the earliest functionalist framework developed in the 1920s.[2][3]
  • André Martinet's Functional Syntax, with two major books, A functional view of language (1962) and Studies in Functional Syntax (1975). Martinet is one of the most famous French linguists and can be regarded as the father of French functionalism.
  • Simon Dik's Functional Grammar, originally developed in the 1970s and 80s, has been influential and inspired many other functional theories.[4][5] It has been developed into Functional Discourse Grammar by the linguist Kees Hengeveld.[6][7]
  • Michael Halliday's systemic functional grammar argues that the explanation of how language works "needed to be grounded in a functional analysis, since language had evolved in the process of carrying out certain critical functions as human beings interacted with their ... 'eco-social' environment".[8][9] Halliday draws on the work of Bühler and Malinowski. The link between Firthian linguistics and Alfred North Whitehead also deserves a mention.[10]
  • Role and reference grammar, developed by Robert Van Valin employs functional analytical framework with a somewhat formal mode of description. In RRG, the description of a sentence in a particular language is formulated in terms of its semantic structure and communicative functions, as well as the grammatical procedures used to express these meanings.[11][12]
  • Danish functional grammar combines Saussurean/Hjelmslevian structuralism with a focus on pragmatics and discourse.[13]

Dik characterises the functional approach as follows:

In the functional paradigm a language is in the first place conceptualized as an instrument of social interaction among human beings, used with the intention of establishing communicative relationships. Within this paradigm one attempts to reveal the instrumentality of language with respect to what people do and achieve with it in social interaction. A natural language, in other words, is seen as an integrated part of the communicative competence of the natural language user. (2, p. 3)

Because of its emphasis on usage, communicative function, and the social context of language, functional grammar differs significantly from other linguistic theories which stress purely formal approaches to grammar, notably Chomskyan generative grammar. Functional grammar makes much use of corpus linguistics and linguistic typology to provide material.

Grammatical functions[edit]

Functions exist on all levels of grammar, and even in phonology, where the function of the phoneme is to distinguish between lexical material.

  1. Semantic function: (Agent, Patient, Recipient, etc.), describing the role of participants in states of affairs or actions expressed.
  2. Syntactic functions: (e.g. Subject and Object), defining different perspectives in the presentation of a linguistic expression.
  3. Pragmatic functions: (Theme and Rheme, Topic and Focus, Predicate), defining the informational status of constituents, determined by the pragmatic context of the verbal interaction.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nichols, Johanna (1984). "Functional Theories of Grammar". Annual Review of Anthropology. 13: 97–117. doi:10.1146/annurev.anthro.13.1.97. [Functional grammar] analyzes grammatical structure, as do formal and structural grammar; but it also analyzes the entire communicative situation: the purpose of the speech event, its participants, its discourse context. Functionalists maintain that the communicative situation motivates, constrains, explains, or otherwise determines grammatical structure, and that structural or formal approaches are not merely limited to an artificially restricted data base, but are inadequate even as structural accounts. Functional grammar, then, differs from formal and structural grammar in that it purports not to model but to explain; and the explanation is grounded in the communicative situation. 
  2. ^ Newmeyer, Frederick. (2001). The Prague School and North American functionalist approaches to syntax. Journal of Linguistics vol. 37. 101 - 126
  3. ^ Novak, P., Sgall, P. 1968. On the Prague functional approach. Trav. Ling. Prague 3:291-97. Tuscaloosa: Univ. Alabama Press
  4. ^ Dik, S. C. 1980. Studies in Functional Grammar. London: Academic
  5. ^ Dik, S. C. 1981. Functional Grammar. Dordrecht/Cinnaminson NJ: Foris.
  6. ^ Hengeveld, Kees & Mackenzie, J. Lachlan (2010), Functional Discourse Grammar. In: Bernd Heine and Heiko Narrog eds, The Oxford Handbook of Linguistic Analysis. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 367-400.
  7. ^ Hengeveld, Kees & Mackenzie, J. Lachlan (2008), Functional Discourse Grammar: A typologically-based theory of language structure. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  8. ^ Halliday, M.A.K. forthcoming. Meaning as Choice. In Fontaine, L, Bartlett, T, and O'Grady, G. Systemic Functional Linguistics: Exploring Choice. Cambridge University Press. p1.
  9. ^ Halliday, M. A. K. 1984. A Short Introduction to Functional Grammar. London: Arnold
  10. ^ See David G. Butt, Whiteheadian and Functional Linguistics in Michel Weber and Will Desmond (eds.). Handbook of Whiteheadian Process Thought (Frankfurt / Lancaster, Ontos Verlag, 2008, vol. II) ; cf. Ronny Desmet & Michel Weber (edited by), Whitehead. The Algebra of Metaphysics. Applied Process Metaphysics Summer Institute Memorandum, Louvain-la-Neuve, Les Éditions Chromatika, 2010.
  11. ^ Foley, W. A., Van Valin, R. D. Jr. 1984. Functional Syntax and Universal Grammar. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press
  12. ^ Van Valin, Robert D., Jr. (Ed.). (1993). Advances in Role and Reference Grammar. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
  13. ^ Engberg-Pedersen, Elisabeth; Michael Fortescue; Peter Harder; Lars Heltoft; Lisbeth Falster Jakobsen (eds.). (1996) Content, expression and structure: studies in Danish functional grammar. John Benjamins Publishing Company.

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