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Jubilee 2012 (3) Carriage procession.
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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"RVO" redirects here. For other uses, see RVO (disambiguation).
Royal Victorian Order
Stervan de Koninklijke Orde van Victoria.jpg
Breast Star of the Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order
Awarded by the
UK Arms 1837.svg
monarch of the United Kingdom
(foundation - 1931)
the
UK Arms 1837.svg
monarch of the United Kingdom and the Dominions
(1931-1952)
the
Royal Cypher of Elizabeth II as Head of the Commonwealth.svg
monarch of the Commonwealth realms
(since 1952)
Type Dynastic order
Motto VICTORIA
Day 20 June
Eligibility All living citizens of the Commonwealth realms
Awarded for Personal service to the sovereign.
Status Currently constituted
First Sovereign Queen Victoria
Sovereign Queen Elizabeth II
Grand Master Anne, Princess Royal
Chancellor The Earl Peel
Grades (w/ post-nominals) Knight/Dame Grand Cross (GCVO)
Knight/Dame Commander (KCVO/DCVO)
Commander (CVO)
Lieutenant (LVO)
Member (MVO)
Established 21 April 1896
Precedence
Next (higher) Dependent on state
Next (lower) Dependent on state
Royal Victorian Order UK ribbon.png
Ribbon of an ordinary member of the order
Royal Victorian Order Honorary Ribbon.png
Ribbon of an honorary member of the order

The Royal Victorian Order (French: Ordre royal de Victoria)[n 1] is a dynastic order of knighthood recognising distinguished personal service to the order's Sovereign, currently the reigning monarch of the Commonwealth realms,[1] any members of their family, or any viceroy.[2][3] Established in 1896, the order's chapel is the Savoy Chapel, its official day is 20 June,[n 2] and its motto is Victoria, alluding to the society's founder, Queen Victoria. There are no limits on the number honoured,[1] and admission remains the personal gift of the monarch,[1] with each of the organisation's five grades and one medal with three levels representing different levels of service. While all honoured receive the ability to use the prescribed styles of the order—the top two levels grant titles of knighthood, and all accord distinct post-nominal letters—the Royal Victorian Order's precedence amongst other honours differs from realm to realm, and admission to some grades may be barred by government policy. Though similarly named, the Royal Victorian Order is not related to the Royal Victorian Chain.

Creation[edit]

Queen Victoria pictured at age 81, four years after she founded the Royal Victorian Order

Prior to the close of the 19th century, most general honours within the British Empire were bestowed by the sovereign on the advice of his or her British ministers, who sometimes forwarded advice from ministers of the Crown in the Dominions and colonies (appointments to the then most senior orders of chivalry—the Most Noble Order of the Garter and the Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle—had been made on ministerial advice since the 18th century and were not restored to the personal gift of the sovereign until 1946 and 1947, respectively[4]). Queen Victoria thus established on 21 April 1896 the Royal Victorian Order as a junior and personal order of knighthood that allowed her to bestow directly to an empire-wide community honours for personal services.[1][2][5][6] The organization was founded a year preceding Victoria's Diamond Jubilee, so as to give the Queen time to complete a list of first inductees. The order's official day was made 20 June of each year, marking the anniversary of Queen Victoria's accession to the throne.[6]

After 1931, when the Statute of Westminster came into being and the Dominions of the British Empire became independent states, equal in status to Britain,[7][8] the Royal Victorian Order remained an honour open to all the King's realms; thus, as with the monarch who conferred it, the order ceased to be purely British.[1] The order was open to foreigners since its inception, the Prefect of Alpes-Maritimes and the Mayor of Nice being the first to receive the honour in 1896.[1]

Officers and grades[edit]

The Countess of Wessex wearing the riband of a Dame Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order

The reigning monarch is at the apex of the Royal Victorian Order as its Sovereign, followed by the Grand Master; the latter position was created in 1937 and was occupied by Queen Elizabeth (later the Queen Mother) from that date until her death in 2002. Queen Elizabeth II then appointed her daughter, Anne, Princess Royal,[9] to the position in 2007. Below the Grand Master are five officials of the organisation: the Chancellor, held by the Lord Chamberlain; the Secretary, held by the Keeper of the Privy Purse and Treasurer to the Queen; the Registrar, held by the Secretary to the Central Chancery of the Orders of Knighthood; the Chaplain, held by the Chaplain of the Queen's Chapel of the Savoy; and the Genealogist.[10]

Thereafter follow those honoured with different grades of the order, divided into five levels —the highest two conferring accolades of knighthood and all having post-nominal letters —and, lastly, the holders of the Royal Victorian Medal in either gold, silver, or bronze.[2] Foreigners may be admitted as honorary members, there are no limits to the number of any grade, and promotion is possible. The styles of knighthood are not used by princes, princesses, or peers in the uppermost ranks of the society, save for when their names are written in their fullest forms for the most official occasions. Retiring Deans of the Royal Peculiars of St. George's Chapel at Windsor Castle and Westminster Abbey are customarily inducted as Knights Commander; clergymen appointed to the higher levels of the Royal Victorian Order do not use the associated styles, however, and honorary members are not permitted to hold them at all.

Prior to 1984, the grades of Lieutenant and Member were classified as Members (fourth class) and Members (fifth class), respectively, but both with the post-nominals MVO. On 31 December of that year, Queen Elizabeth II declared that those in the grade of Member (fourth class) would henceforth be Lieutenants with the post-nominals LVO.[10]

Grades of the Royal Victorian Order:
Grade Knight/Dame Grand Cross Knight/Dame Commander Commander Lieutenant Member Medal
(associated)
Prefix Sir/Dame Sir/Dame
Post-nominal letters GCVO KCVO/DCVO CVO LVO MVO RVM
Insignia Stervan de Koninklijke Orde van Victoria.jpg SteR KCVO.jpg RVO-Star (CVO-LVO).jpg RVO-Star (CVO-LVO).jpg RVO-Star (MVO).jpg RVM-trimmed.jpg

Insignia and vestments[edit]

Mantle of the order bearing the star of a Knight Grand Cross

Upon admission into the Royal Victorian Order, members are given various insignia of the organization, each grade being represented by different emblems and robes. Common for all members is the badge, which is a Maltese cross with a central medallion depicting on a red background the Royal Cypher of Queen Victoria surrounded by a blue ring bearing the motto of the order—VICTORIA—and surmounted by a Tudor crown.[10] However, there are variations on the badge for each grade of the order: Knights and Dames Grand Cross wear the badge on a sash passing from the right shoulder to the left hip; Knight Commanders wear the badge on a ribbon at the neck; male Commanders, Lieutenants, and Members wear the badge from a ribbon on the left chest;[6] and women in all grades below Dame Grand Cross wear the badge on a bow pinned at the left shoulder. For Knights and Dames Grand Cross, Commanders, and Lieutenants, the Maltese cross is rendered in white enamel with gold edging, while that for Knights and Dames Commander and Members is in silver.[6] Further, the size of the badge varies by rank, that for the higher classes being larger, and Knights and Dames Grand Cross and Knights and Dames Commander have their crosses surrounded by a star: for the former, an eight-pointed silver star, and for the latter, an eight-pointed silver Maltese cross with silver rays between each arm.

Royal Victorian Order in Heraldry

The medal bears the effigy and name of the reigning sovereign at the time of its awarding, as well as the phrase DEI • GRATIA • REGINA (or REX) • F.D. (by the grace of God, Queen (or King), Defender of the Faith), and on the reverse is the Royal Cypher upon an ornamental shield within a laurel wreath. Bars may be awarded to each class of medal for further services, and should recipients be awarded a higher level of medal or be appointed to a grade of the order itself, they may continue to wear their original medal along with the new insignia.

The order's ribbon is blue with red-white-red stripe edging, the only difference being that for foreigners appointed into the society, their ribbon bearing an additional central white stripe. For Knights Grand Cross, the ribbon is 82.5 millimetres (3.25 in) wide, for Dames Grand Cross 57.1 millimetres (2.25 in), for Knights and Dames Commander 44.4 millimetres (1.75 in), and for all other members 31.7 millimetres (1.25 in).[10]

At formal events, or collar days, of which there are 34 throughout the year, such as New Year's Day and royal anniversaries,[9] Knights and Dames Grand Cross wear the Royal Victorian Order's livery collar, consisting of an alternating string of octagonal gold pieces depicting a gold rose on a blue field and gold oblong frames within which are one of four inscriptions: Victoria, Britt. Reg. (Queen of the Britains), Def. Fid. (fidei defensor, or Defender of the Faith), and Ind. Imp. (Empress of India). The chain supports a larger octagonal medallion with a blue enamel surface edged in red and charged with a saltire, over which is an effigy of Queen Victoria; members of the order suspend from this medallion their insignia as a badge apendant.[9][10] Though after the death of a Knight or Dame Grand Cross their insignia may be retained by their family, the collar must be returned. Knights and Dames Grand Cross also wear a mantle of dark blue satin edged with red satin and lined with white satin, bearing a representation of the order's star on the left side.[10]

Chapel[edit]

The Queen's Chapel of the Savoy, which acts as the chapel of the Royal Victorian Order

Since 1938, the chapel of the Royal Victorian Order has been the Queen's Chapel of the Savoy,[1] in central London, England. However, the population of the order has grown to the point that the Savoy chapel can no longer accommodate the gathering of members held every four years, and St. George's Chapel at Windsor Castle is now employed for the event.[1][9]

The Sovereign and Knights and Dames Grand Cross of the order are allotted stalls in the Savoy chapel's choir, and on the back of each stall is affixed a brass plate displaying the occupant's name, coat of arms, and date of admission into the organization. Upon the occupant's death, the plate is retained, leaving the stalls festooned with a record of the order's Knights and Dames Grand Cross since 1938. There is insufficient space in the chapel for the display of knights' and dames' banners and other heraldic devices.

Eligibility and appointment[edit]

Coat of arms of Lord Baden-Powell showing the insignia of the Royal Victorian Order suspended at bottom

Membership in the Royal Victorian Order is conferred by the reigning monarch without ministerial advice on those who have performed personal service for the sovereign,[9] any member of his or her family, or any of his or her viceroys. All living citizens of any of the Commonwealth realms, including women since 1936, are eligible for any of the five levels of the order, save for Canadians: As admission to the top two levels of the organization provide for an honorary prefix, Canadians are not normally appointed to these levels as long as the monarch's Canadian ministry adheres to the Nickle Resolution of 1919. The appointment of Canadians to the order resumed in 1972 and eligibility has been extended to those who render services to the monarch's representatives in the country.[2] Those appointed to the order become members of the Royal Victorian Order Association of Canada.[11] It was reported in 2008 that some in the Chancellery of Honours at Rideau Hall wished to eliminate the Royal Victorian Order from the Canadian honours system and sometimes contested when a Canadian was appointed; however, no formal changes were ever planned.[2] In Canada, the order has come to be colloquially dubbed as the "Royal Visit Order", as the majority of appointments are made by the sovereign during her tours of the country.[2] Similarly, foreign members will generally be admitted as honorary members of the Royal Victorian Order when the Queen is making a state visit to the individual's country or a head of state is paying a state visit to one of the Queen's realms.[9]

Persons have been removed from the order at the monarch's command. Anthony Blunt, a former surveyor of the Queen's Pictures, was in 1979 stripped of his knighthood, after it was revealed that he had been a spy. Also, William Pottinger, a senior civil servant, in 1975 lost his membership in both the Order of the Bath and the Royal Victorian Order when he was jailed for corruptly receiving gifts from the architect John Poulson.

Precedence[edit]

As the Royal Victorian Order is open to the citizens of sixteen different countries, each with their own system of orders, decorations, and medals, the RVO's place of precedence varies from country to country. Some are as follows:

Country Preceding RVO grade Following
Australia Australia
Order of precedence[* 1]
Knight/Dame of the Order of Australia (AK/AD) Knight/Dame Grand Cross Companion of the Order of Australia (AC)
Companion of the Order of Australia (AC) Knight/Dame Commander Officer of the Order of Australia (AO)
Officer of the Order of Australia (AO) Commander Star of Gallantry (SG)
Member of the Order of Australia (AM) Lieutenant Member of the Royal Victorian Order (MVO)
Lieutenant of the Royal Victorian Order (LVO) Member Conspicuous Service Cross (CSC)
Australian Antarctic Medal (AAM) Medal Commendation for Gallantry
Canada Canada
Order of precedence[* 2]
Commander of the Order of Merit of the Police Forces (COM) Commander Officer of the Order of Military Merit (OMM)
Officer of the Order of Military Merit (OMM) Lieutenant Member of the Order of Military Merit (MMM)
Member of the Order of Merit of the Police Forces (MOM) Member Venerable Order of Saint John (GC/K/D/C/O/M/SB/SSStJ)
Meritorious Service Medal (MSM) Medal Sacrifice Medal
New Zealand New Zealand
Order of precedence
Knight/Dame Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George (GCMG) Knight/Dame Grand Cross Knight/Dame Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire (GBE)
Knight/Dame Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George (KCMG/DCMG) Knight/Dame Commander Knight/Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire (KBE/DBE)
Companion of the Order of St Michael and St George (CMG) Commander Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE)
Companion of the Distinguished Service Order (DSO) Lieutenant Companion of the Queen's Service Order (QSO)
Companion of the Imperial Service Order (ISO) Member Member of the New Zealand Order of Merit (MNZM)
New Zealand Bravery Medal (NZBM) Medal Queen's Service Medal (QSM)
United Kingdom United Kingdom England England and
Wales Wales

Order of precedence
Knight/Dame Grand Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire (GCIE) Knight/Dame Grand Cross Knight/Dame Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire (GBE)
Knight/Dame Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire (KCIE/DCIE) Knight/Dame Commander Knight/Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire (KBE/DBE)
Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire (CIE) Commander Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE)
Companion of the Distinguished Service Order (DSO) Lieutenant Officer of the Order of the British Empire (OBE)
Eldest son of Knight Bachelor Member Member of the Order of the British Empire (MBE)
Scotland Scotland
Order of precedence
Knight/Dame Grand Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire (GCIE) Knight/Dame Grand Cross Knight/Dame Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire (GBE)
Knight/Dame Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire (KCIE/DCIE) Knight/Dame Commander Knight/Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire (KBE/DBE)
Sheriffs Commander Companion of the Order of the Bath (CB)
Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) Lieutenant Companion of the Distinguished Service Order (DSO)
Eldest son of Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire Member Member of the Order of the British Empire (MBE)
Northern Ireland
Order of precedence
Knight/Dame Grand Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire (GCIE) Knight/Dame Grand Cross Knight/Dame Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire (GBE)
Knight/Dame Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire (KCIE/DCIE) Knight/Dame Commander Knight/Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire (KBE/DBE)
Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire (CIE) Commander Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE)
Companion of the Distinguished Service Order (DSO) Lieutenant Officer of the Order of the British Empire (OBE)
Eldest son of Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire Member Member of the Order of the British Empire (MBE)
  1. ^ The order is different for honours received prior to 6 October 1992.
  2. ^ The order is different for honours received prior to 1 June 1972.

In the United Kingdom, the wives of male members of all classes also feature on the order of precedence, as do sons, daughters and daughters-in-law of Knights Grand Cross and Knights Commanders; relatives of Dames, however, are not assigned any special precedence. As a general rule, individuals can derive precedence from their fathers or husbands, but not from their mothers or wives.

Current Knights and Dames Grand Cross[edit]

A detailed view of a stumpwork and goldwork embroidered star of a Knight or Dame Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order
Star and riband of a Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order
Knights and Dames Grand Cross
  1. The Duke of Kent KG GCMG GCVO ADC(P) FBCS, appointed 1960
  2. Princess Alexandra KG GCVO CD, appointed 1960
  3. United Kingdom The Earl of Snowdon GCVO RDI, appointed 1969
  4. The Duke of Gloucester KG GCVO SSI, appointed 1974
  5. The Duchess of Kent GCVO, appointed 1977
  6. United Kingdom The Duchess of Grafton GCVO, appointed 1980
  7. Australia Sir Ninian Stephen KG AK GCMG GCVO KBE QC, appointed 1982
  8. United Kingdom The Earl of Airlie KT GCVO PC JP, appointed 1984
  9. The Duchess of Gloucester GCVO, appointed 1989
  10. Australia Sir William Heseltine GCB GCVO AC QSO PC, appointed 1990
  11. United Kingdom Sir Antony Acland KG GCMG GCVO, appointed 1991
  12. United Kingdom Sir Ewen Fergusson GCMG GCVO, appointed 1992
  13. United Kingdom Sir Christopher Mallaby GCMG GCVO, appointed 1992
  14. United Kingdom The Lord Waddington GCVO PC QC DL, appointed 1994
  15. United Kingdom Sir Robert Corbett GCVO CB, appointed 1994
  16. United Kingdom Sir Brian Fall GCVO KCMG, appointed 1994
  17. United Kingdom Sir Matthew Farrer GCVO, appointed 1994
  18. United Kingdom Sir Ian Knowles GCVO GBE, appointed 1994
  19. New Zealand Dame Catherine Tizard ONZ GCMG GCVO DBE QSO, appointed 1995
  20. United Kingdom The Lord Fellowes GCB GCVO QSO PC, appointed 1996
  21. United Kingdom Sir Shane Blewitt GCVO, appointed 1996
  22. United Kingdom The Lord Camoys GCVO GCSG PC DL, appointed 1998
  23. United Kingdom Sir Simon Cooper GCVO, appointed 2000[12]
  24. United Kingdom The Lord Luce KG GCVO PC DL, appointed 2000
  25. United Kingdom Sir Brian McGrath GCVO, appointed 2000
  26. United Kingdom Sir Hew Hamilton-Dalrymple Bt GCVO, appointed 2001
  27. United Kingdom The Lord Sterling of Plaistow GCVO CBE, appointed 2002
  28. United Kingdom The Earl of Crawford and Balcarres KT GCVO PC, appointed 2002
  29. Prince Michael of Kent GCVO CD, appointed 2003
  30. United Kingdom Sir John Holmes GCVO KBE CMG, appointed 2004
  31. United Kingdom Sir Peter Torry GCVO KCMG, appointed 2004
  32. United Kingdom Sir Malcolm Ross GCVO OBE, appointed 2005
  33. United Kingdom The Earl Peel GCVO PC DL, appointed 2006
  34. United Kingdom The Lord Janvrin GCB GCVO QSO PC, appointed 2007[13]
  35. New Zealand Sir Donald McKinnon ONZ GCVO PC, appointed 2009[14]
  36. The Countess of Wessex GCVO, appointed 2010[15]
  37. United Kingdom Sir Hugh Roberts GCVO, appointed 2010[16]
  38. South Africa Brigadier Sir Miles Hunt-Davis GCVO CBE, appointed 2010
  39. The Duke of York KG GCVO CD ADC(P),[17] appointed 2011
  40. The Earl of Wessex KG GCVO SOM ADC(P), appointed 2011
  41. United Kingdom Sir Michael Peat GCVO, appointed 2011[18]
  42. The Duchess of Cornwall GCVO,[19] appointed 2012
  43. United Kingdom Sir Alan Reid GCVO, appointed 2012
  44. United Kingdom The Lady Hussey of North Bradley GCVO, appointed 2013
  45. United Kingdom Dame Mary Anne Morrison GCVO, appointed 2013
  46. United Kingdom Sir Peter Ricketts GCMG GCVO, appointed 2014
Honorary Knights and Dames Grand Cross
  1. Romania King Michael I, appointed 1937 [20] (appointed on the Coronation of King George VI)
  2. Denmark HRH The Prince Consort of Denmark [21] appointed 1974
  3. Luxembourg HRH The Grand Duke of Luxembourg appointed 1976
  4. Oman Qaboos bin Said Al Said of Oman, appointed 1979 [22]
  5. Morocco Mohammed VI of Morocco, appointed 1980
  6. Netherlands Princess Beatrix of the Netherlands
  7. Spain Felipe VI of Spain, appointed 1988[23]
  8. Norway Harald V of Norway [24]
  9. Kuwait Khaled Al-Duwaisan, appointed 1995 [25] (Ambassador from Kuwait and Dean of the diplomatic corps in London)
  10. Thailand Crown Prince Maha Vajiralongkorn, appointed 1996
  11. Thailand Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn, appointed 1996
  12. Thailand Princess Chulabhorn, appointed 1996
  13. Italy Archbishop Luigi Barbarito (former Apostolic Nuncio to the Holy See in the United Kingdom), appointed 1996[26]
  14. Brunei Prince Al-Muhtadee Billah, appointed 1998
  15. Belgium Albert II of Belgium[27]
  16. Japan HIM The Emperor of Japan
  17. Jordan El Hassan bin Talal of Jordan

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ For use in Canada, in accordance with the country's policy of official bilingualism.
  2. ^ 20 June 1837 was Victoria's Accession Day.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Royal Household. "The Queen and the UK > Queen and Honours > Royal Victorian Order". Queen's Printer. Retrieved 6 August 2009. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f Dundas, Charles (2008). "The Royal Victorian Order Conundrum". Canadian Monarchist News (Toronto: Monarchist League of Canada). Spring 2008 (28): 6. Retrieved 6 August 2009. [dead link]
  3. ^ "Irene White Appointed to Royal Victorian Order" (Press release). Queen's Printer for Saskatchewan. 27 June 1995. Retrieved 6 August 2009. 
  4. ^ "Select Committee on Public Administration Fifth Report". Queen's Printer. 13 July 2007. Retrieved 8 November 2006. 
  5. ^ The London Gazette: no. 26733. p. 2455. 24 April 1896.
  6. ^ a b c d Office of the Governor General of Canada. "Honours > National Orders > Royal Victorian Order". Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved 6 August 2009. 
  7. ^ Arthur, Balfour (November 1926). "Imperial Conference 1926: Inter-Imperial Relations Committee Report". London, UK: King's Printer. p. 1. E (I.R./26) Series. Retrieved 29 July 2009. 
  8. ^ George V (11 December 1931). The Statute of Westminster, 1931. 2.2. Westminster: King's Printer. Retrieved 29 July 2009. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f "People > Honours > Orders of Chivalry > Royal Victorian Order". Debrett's Limited. Retrieved 9 August 2009. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f "The Royal Victorian Order". Cambridge University Heraldic and Genealogical Society. Retrieved 8 August 2009. 
  11. ^ Office of the Governor General of Canada (10 September 2012). "Working Visit to Canada by The Earl and Countess of Wessex". Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved 10 September 2012. 
  12. ^ The London Gazette: no. 55939. p. 8923. 11 August 2000.
  13. ^ The London Gazette: no. 58465. p. 14061. 28 September 2007.
  14. ^ The London Gazette: no. 59001. p. 4181. 9 March 2009.
  15. ^ The London Gazette: no. 59312. p. 831. 20 January 2010.
  16. ^ The London Gazette: no. 59407. p. 7849. 30 April 2010.
  17. ^ The London Gazette: no. 59705. p. 3089. 21 February 2011.
  18. ^ The London Gazette: no. 59945. p. 20159. 21 October 2011.
  19. ^ The London Gazette: no. 60112. p. 6929. 10 April 2012.
  20. ^ http://royalromania.wordpress.com/tag/royal-victorian-order.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  21. ^ http://www.thetimes.co.uk/tto/news/world/europe/article3286375.ece.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  22. ^ http://www.english.globalarabnetwork.com/201011218097/Oman-Politics/uk-queen-elizabeth-ii-visits-oman-marking-the-40th-anniversary.html.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  23. ^ Martínez-Fornés, Almudena (28 April 2011). "La Reina llevará toccado y la Princesa pamela" (in Spanish). abc.es. Retrieved 10 June 2012. 
  24. ^ http://www.hellomagazine.com/profiles/king-harald-v-of-norway/.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  25. ^ http://www.diplomatmagazine.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=299&Itemid=.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  26. ^ http://www.montevergine.librari.beniculturali.it/index.php?it/87/dono-omaggio-monsignor-luigi-barbarito.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  27. ^ Harvey, Anthony (9 April 2002). "Queen Mother's State Funeral". Getty Images. Retrieved 27 November 2010. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Galloway, P.; Stanley, D. and Martin, S. (1996). Royal Service I. London: Victorian Publishing. ISBN 0-9528527-0-5. 
  • McCreery, Christopher (2008). On Her Majesty's Service; Royal Honours and Recognition in Canada. Toronto: Dundurn Press. ISBN 978-1-55002-742-6. 
  • "Knighthood and Chivalry". Encyclopædia Britannica 11. London: Cambridge University Press. 1911. 

External links[edit]

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