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2.3L High Output Quad 4 Training Series (part 1)
2.3L High Output Quad 4 Training Series (part 1)
Published: 2010/01/25
Channel: TheTruth4313
1993 W41 Quad 4 Engine running
1993 W41 Quad 4 Engine running
Published: 2015/06/12
Channel: Steven Seale
Grand Am Quad4 HO w/226 cams #2
Grand Am Quad4 HO w/226 cams #2
Published: 2009/11/15
Channel: originalsoundjunky
Quad4 timing chain - This is normal
Quad4 timing chain - This is normal
Published: 2012/11/18
Channel: Rex Alot
Quad 4 How to install timing chain and put motor in time
Quad 4 How to install timing chain and put motor in time
Published: 2017/06/20
Channel: LD9user
Quad 4 Acceleration
Quad 4 Acceleration
Published: 2009/08/09
Channel: moe346john
'91 Cutlass Calais International (2.3 Quad 4 High Output 5 Speed)
Published: 2015/09/27
Channel: Mix7Master7Jay
1992 Beretta GTZ Quad 4 W41 Dyno
1992 Beretta GTZ Quad 4 W41 Dyno
Published: 2014/07/28
Channel: Aaron Choate
226 cams in Quad4
226 cams in Quad4
Published: 2013/07/15
Channel: fastnf
Supercharged Quad4 Fiero Startup.wmv
Supercharged Quad4 Fiero Startup.wmv
Published: 2011/12/02
Channel: mgermca
2.3L High Output Quad 4 Training Series (part 10)
2.3L High Output Quad 4 Training Series (part 10)
Published: 2010/03/31
Channel: TheTruth4313
Quad-4 HO easy 0-60 go
Quad-4 HO easy 0-60 go
Published: 2011/05/03
Channel: Xanderbayne
2.3L High Output Quad 4 Training Series (part 2)
2.3L High Output Quad 4 Training Series (part 2)
Published: 2010/01/25
Channel: TheTruth4313
2.3L High Output Quad 4 Training Series (part 8)
2.3L High Output Quad 4 Training Series (part 8)
Published: 2010/02/18
Channel: TheTruth4313
2.3L High Output Quad 4 Training Series (part 3)
2.3L High Output Quad 4 Training Series (part 3)
Published: 2010/01/25
Channel: TheTruth4313
Quad 442
Quad 442
Published: 2010/08/21
Channel: SleeperCalais
Nukkinfuttz 91 Beretta GTZ Turbo 22PSI Quad 4
Nukkinfuttz 91 Beretta GTZ Turbo 22PSI Quad 4
Published: 2015/06/13
Channel: Shawn Goldner
2.3L High Output Quad 4 Training Series (part 5)
2.3L High Output Quad 4 Training Series (part 5)
Published: 2010/01/26
Channel: TheTruth4313
Quad 4 How to properly remove timing chain and gears
Quad 4 How to properly remove timing chain and gears
Published: 2017/06/04
Channel: LD9user
2.3L High Output Quad 4 Training Series (part 7)
2.3L High Output Quad 4 Training Series (part 7)
Published: 2010/02/18
Channel: TheTruth4313
Compilation quads with engines of motorcycles | Quad ATV swap Mix | quad GSXR- CBR-GPZ
Compilation quads with engines of motorcycles | Quad ATV swap Mix | quad GSXR- CBR-GPZ
Published: 2016/12/02
Channel: ATV swap
2.3L High Output Quad 4 Training Series (part 6)
2.3L High Output Quad 4 Training Series (part 6)
Published: 2010/01/26
Channel: TheTruth4313
GM Quad 4 engine with beltdrive conversion
GM Quad 4 engine with beltdrive conversion
Published: 2008/02/17
Channel: webabox
1994 Pontiac Grand Am GT 2.3l Quad 4 DOHC HO
1994 Pontiac Grand Am GT 2.3l Quad 4 DOHC HO
Published: 2011/03/30
Channel: Xanderbayne
Oldsmobile W41 Quad 4 Spec Beretta GTZ
Oldsmobile W41 Quad 4 Spec Beretta GTZ
Published: 2009/11/04
Channel: engraym
New 2500 HP Revolution 4 Cam Small Block Nelson.  Quad Cam V8.  From Nelson Racing Engines.
New 2500 HP Revolution 4 Cam Small Block Nelson. Quad Cam V8. From Nelson Racing Engines.
Published: 2010/06/25
Channel: nelsonracingengines
Turbo Quad4 Beretta GTZ
Turbo Quad4 Beretta GTZ
Published: 2013/07/15
Channel: fastnf
2.3L High Output Quad 4 Training Series (part 4)
2.3L High Output Quad 4 Training Series (part 4)
Published: 2010/01/26
Channel: TheTruth4313
Blowing up Patmans Cavalier with you guessed it, a GM Quad4
Blowing up Patmans Cavalier with you guessed it, a GM Quad4
Published: 2008/06/13
Channel: spoolinaround
TheChazz.com - How to build a 2.4 Quad-4 LD9
TheChazz.com - How to build a 2.4 Quad-4 LD9
Published: 2009/01/15
Channel: TheChazz.com
1988 Oldsmobile Cutlass Calais 2-door coupe Aerotech Quad 4 TV Commercial
1988 Oldsmobile Cutlass Calais 2-door coupe Aerotech Quad 4 TV Commercial
Published: 2015/03/21
Channel: Doug Blake
Quad 4 injector driver stuck on with a surprise
Quad 4 injector driver stuck on with a surprise
Published: 2016/08/17
Channel: brian culotta
oldsmobile quad 4
oldsmobile quad 4
Published: 2011/12/12
Channel: weeniehd
GM Quad 4 engine subwoofers and test run 89 Grand Am 5 speed DOHC
GM Quad 4 engine subwoofers and test run 89 Grand Am 5 speed DOHC
Published: 2011/11/14
Channel: Midwest Durty Studios
2.4 Quad Four Engine
2.4 Quad Four Engine
Published: 2010/07/08
Channel: 1Duphf
1994 Pontiac Grand Am GT 2.3L Quad 4 DOHC HO
1994 Pontiac Grand Am GT 2.3L Quad 4 DOHC HO
Published: 2010/09/08
Channel: Xanderbayne
Cool leaking spark on a quad 4 coil pack 2.3L 2.4L engine 1988 - 2001  GM  Chevrolet
Cool leaking spark on a quad 4 coil pack 2.3L 2.4L engine 1988 - 2001 GM Chevrolet
Published: 2014/06/25
Channel: Fixing cars and stuff
2.3 Quad 4 Engine Repair
2.3 Quad 4 Engine Repair
Published: 2012/02/28
Channel: suthrnrepair
How To Replace Crank Position Sensor 2.4 Twin Cam Quad 4 GM
How To Replace Crank Position Sensor 2.4 Twin Cam Quad 4 GM
Published: 2015/02/02
Channel: Classic G-Body Garage
W41 quad 4 2.5" Flowmaster 40
W41 quad 4 2.5" Flowmaster 40's
Published: 2007/09/12
Channel: sphon721
1962 Impala SS 409 Dual Quad 4 Speed Engine Running
1962 Impala SS 409 Dual Quad 4 Speed Engine Running
Published: 2011/06/12
Channel: spudsgarage
First drive with Quad 4 engine
First drive with Quad 4 engine
Published: 2012/04/15
Channel: CavetteRacing
1994 Quad 4 dohc ho rebuild
1994 Quad 4 dohc ho rebuild
Published: 2011/09/13
Channel: Xanderbayne
1991 Grand Am Quad4 W41 no exhaust
1991 Grand Am Quad4 W41 no exhaust
Published: 2014/10/27
Channel: originalsoundjunky
(walk around description)  CBR600 F4i streetbike engine in Bombardier quad 4 wheeler frame
(walk around description) CBR600 F4i streetbike engine in Bombardier quad 4 wheeler frame
Published: 2013/04/07
Channel: TeamLoCoMotors
1991 Chevy Beretta Turbo 2.3 Quad 4
1991 Chevy Beretta Turbo 2.3 Quad 4
Published: 2013/12/13
Channel: charles larcom
Fixing a Engine Rattle in my 1999 Grand Am   Quad 4 2 4L
Fixing a Engine Rattle in my 1999 Grand Am Quad 4 2 4L
Published: 2014/06/08
Channel: FrugalPrepper
Quad-4 H.O.
Quad-4 H.O.
Published: 2009/11/19
Channel: brntworace
91 grand am quad 4 h.o cold start idle
91 grand am quad 4 h.o cold start idle
Published: 2009/04/30
Channel: prozack678
2001 Oldsmobile Alero Quad 4 (AleroMod.com)
2001 Oldsmobile Alero Quad 4 (AleroMod.com)
Published: 2010/06/18
Channel: KRoFaMoUzo
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from GM Quad 4 engine)
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Quad 4
Overview
Manufacturer Oldsmobile
Also called
  • Twin Cam
  • Quad OHC
Production 1987-2002
Combustion chamber
Configuration Straight-4
Displacement
  • 2,260.5 cc (137.94 cu in)
  • 2,392.3 cc (145.99 cu in)
Cylinder bore
  • 92 mm (3.6 in)
  • 90 mm (3.5 in)
Piston stroke
  • 85 mm (3.3 in)
  • 94 mm (3.7 in)
Cylinder block alloy Cast iron
Cylinder head alloy Aluminum
Valvetrain
Compression ratio
  • 9.5:1
  • 9.7:1
  • 10.0:1
Combustion
Fuel system Sequential multi-point fuel injection
Fuel type Gasoline
Oil system Wet sump
Cooling system Water-cooled
Chronology
Successor Ecotec engine

The engine family known as the Quad 4s was debuted to the public in the spring of 1987. The Quad 4 is a 2,260.5 cc (2.2605 L; 137.94 cu in) DOHC inline four-cylinder produced by General Motors' Oldsmobile division. Early television ads touting the new engine's abilities showed video of a limited edition Oldsmobile Calais (called the "GMO Quad 4") racing around city streets.

The Quad 4 name is derived from the engine's four-valve, four-cylinder layout. The engine was a modern design for its time, using a cast-iron block and an aluminum head. Even though belts were more popular for this purpose on OHC engines at the time, chains were used to time the camshafts to the crankshaft. The water pump is also driven by the timing chain. The Quad 4 was the first wholly domestic regular production DOHC four-cylinder engine designed and built by GM; the only prior DOHC four-cylinder engine offered by GM was the Cosworth Vega, which featured a DOHC head designed by Cosworth in England.

First released to the public as a regular production option for the 1988 Oldsmobile Cutlass Calais and Pontiac Grand Am, the engine's availability expanded to Buick in late 1988 and Chevrolet in 1990, after which it became a mainstay in GM's lineup until its cancellation after the 2002 model year.

Simultaneous to the engine's release in 1988, Oldsmobile attempted to further the Quad 4 name through highly publicized events featuring such cars as the Oldsmobile Aerotech. Another such event was the 1988 Indianapolis 500, when Oldsmobile was chosen to pace the race with a convertible version of their Cutlass Supreme, and a pre-production turbocharged Quad 4 was the engine of choice for their pace car. Although it was publicized in 1988 that the Quad 4 was forthcoming in a 180 bhp (130 kW) "HO", as well as a 250 bhp (190 kW) turbocharged version (the same engine that was in the pace car that year), GM never released this version as an option. Also, the engine in Oldsmobile Aerotech was a purpose-built, turbocharged example; it was solely meant to showcase the capability of the engine's design.

After the first few years of rave reviews of the Quad 4, the automotive press began to criticize it for its noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH). At the time, the Quad 4 was generally compared to turbocharged four cylinders, V6s, and occasionally V8s. The first changes of the Quad 4 to address its NVH were two rounds of exhaust port size reductions, followed by the addition of balance shafts in 1995. Further changes were made for the 1996 model year when the engine's bore and stroke were changed, and the engine was subsequently redubbed "Twin Cam".

In addition to the 2,260.5 cc (2.2605 L; 137.94 cu in) DOHC versions, there was also both a short-lived SOHC variant, the "Quad OHC", available from 1992 to 1994, and the 2,392.3 cc (2.3923 L; 145.99 cu in) Twin Cam from 1996 to 2002. The Twin Cam was replaced by the Ecotec for the 2003 model year.

All engines in the Quad 4 family were produced at the Lansing Engine Plant (plant five) in Delta Township near Lansing, Michigan. The Twin Cam was the last engine that was engineered and produced solely by Oldsmobile; the Aurora V8 and Intrigue V6 shared architecture with the Cadillac Northstar.

In recent years, the design has gained a minor following in hot rodding circles as a period style engine because it looks similar to a 1930s Offenhauser DOHC design.[1][2]

LD2[edit]

A 2.3 L Quad 4 in 1989 Cutlass Calais

The LD2 was the standard version of the Quad 4, and the first incarnation was introduced in 1987 for the 1988 model year. In base form, the Quad 4 put out 150 bhp (110 kW) from 1988 to 1989 and 160 bhp (120 kW) from 1990 to 1992. GM was able to produce the 160 bhp (120 kW) with neither a turbo, nor an EGR system to pass emission standards; it required a 9.5:1 compression ratio. The base Quad 4 saw several slight changes during its production run including different crankshafts, cams, and manifolds, all meant to increase torque and lessen the NVH. There was also a transitional version of the LD2 in 1995, which displaced the same 2.3 liters as the early Quad 4 but featured the dual balance shafts of the later 2.4 L LD9 Twin Cam.

Applications:

1995[edit]

A 2.3 L Quad 4 in 1995 Chevrolet Cavalier Z24

For 1995 only, a balance shaft-equipped version of the 2.3 L version was produced. This arrangement ensures a constant load on the shafts: the crank drives one shaft, which drives the second, which then drives the oil pump. The shafts spin at twice the engine rpm, forcing the redline to be reduced from 6800 to 6500 rpm. Output is 150 bhp (110 kW) and 150 lb·ft (200 N·m). This was the only Quad 4 produced in 1995.

This was known as a transitional year for the engine family.

Applications:

LG0[edit]

The "high output" 2.3 L LG0 was rated at 180 hp (130 kW) from 1989 to 1992, 175 hp (130 kW) in 1993 and 170 hp (130 kW) in 1994; both the 1993 and 1994 power reductions were a direct result of the first two rounds of the Quad 4's NVH reductions; both being exhaust port size reductions. Changes that differentiate the LG0 from the LD2 engine are more aggressive camshafts and an extra half point of compression; 9.5:1 to 10.0:1. These engines were recommended to run exclusively on premium fuel with a 91 octane rating or higher due to the compression ratio.

The high output engine was introduced with both a special production run of 200 Cutlass Calais International Series coupes, as well as 200 Grand Am SE coupes — all featuring bright red paint, and gray interiors. The LG0 engine was only available with the heavy-duty Getrag designed HM-282/NVG-T550 five-speed transmission.

From 1989 to 2009, the Quad 4 held the title of being General Motors' most powerful naturally aspirated regular production four-cylinder engine (with the exception of the 2.92L I4 Atlas engines used in 2007-2012 Chevrolet Colorados and Gmc Canyons). Only recently was the LG0's 180 bhp (130 kW) rating eclipsed when the 2010 model year 2.4 L Ecotec LAF was launched in the Buick Lacrosse and Chevrolet Equinox. The LAF has a rated output of 182 hp (136 kW) but does so with an 11.4:1 compression ratio, gasoline direct injection and variable valve timing.

There was a limited production version of the LG0 engine offered in select Oldsmobiles which used the designation "W41" (listed below).

LG0 applications:

W41[edit]

A 2.3 L Quad 4 W41 engine

The W41 was the highest-output Quad 4. The 1991–1992 W41s were rated at 190 hp (140 kW), while the 1993 W41 was rated at 185 hp (138 kW) as a result of the first round of exhaust port size reduction to improve emissions and other changes to the Quad 4 architecture to reduce NVH. The additional 10 hp (7.5 kW) came from longer duration cams and a different PROM. Part of the W41 drivetrain was a specific version of the HM-282/NVG-T550 with a gear set otherwise unavailable. All W41 five-speed transmissions had a final drive ratio (FDR) of 3.94:1 whereas the 1988–1992.5 LD2 and LG0 transmissions all used a 3.61:1 FDR; the 3.94:1 FDR was used on all 1992.5-1994 LG0 transmissions, but retained the standard HM-282/NVG-T550 gear set.

W41 applications:

L40[edit]

Quad OHC engine

A SOHC variant of the Quad 4 was intended to replace the Pontiac 2.5 L Tech IV OHV "Iron Duke" engine. Debuting in 1992, this Quad OHC was an eight-valve engine and produced 120 hp (89 kW), 40 hp (30 kW) less than the Quad 4 of the same era. Torque was 140 lb·ft (190 N·m). Power dropped to 115 hp (86 kW) in 1993 with an attempt by GM to reduce the NVH of the engine.

Although power and fuel economy were better than the Tech IV, the Quad OHC was retired after 1994 when the DOHC version became standard.

Applications:

LD9[edit]

A 2.4 L Twin Cam in 1997 Pontiac Sunfire

The LD9 Twin Cam was a 2.4 L (146 cu in) Quad 4 variant with balance shafts, and a redesigned cylinder head which debuted in 1996. In the mid-nineties, these engines, like their earlier 2.3L counterparts, were known for timing chain failures, as well as water pump failures, in which the water pumps were often difficult and costly to access and replace. They also had very small oil passages, making for less than adequate lubrication, and costly engine repairs if not maintained properly. Bore was decreased from 92 mm (3.6 in) to 90 mm (3.5 in) and stroke increased from 85 mm (3.3 in) to 94 mm (3.7 in) for better torque. Power came in at 150 bhp (110 kW).[3] This engine received a minor update halfway through the 1999 model year that eliminated the exhaust gas recirculation, increased the compression ratio from 9.5:1 to 9.7:1, and switched from low impedance fuel injectors to high impedance. For increased reliability this engine also saw other minor updates in the 2000s towards the end of its use in General Motors vehicles. In 2001, changes included a smaller knock sensor, flat-top pistons instead of dished, new oiling passages, newer stronger timing chain, a newer-designed water pump, a redesigned starter motor and a higher capacity catalytic converter. An improved belt tensioner was introduced in 2002.

Specifications post-1999[edit]

Engine type Inline 4-cylinder DOHC 16v
Displacement 2.4 L (146 cu in)
Bore 90 mm (3.5 in)
Stroke 94 mm (3.7 in)
Compression ratio 9.7:1 
Fuel delivery Sequential fuel injection (SFI)
Peak power 150 hp (112 kW) at 5600 rpm
Peak torque 155 lb·ft (210 N·m) at 2400-4400 rpm
Estimated fuel mileage 23 city / 33 highway[citation needed]

Applications:

Racing[edit]

Very early experimental Quad 4 racing engine 
900 HP Quad 4 variant - rear. Single turbocharger. 
900 HP Quad 4 variant - side 
1000 HP Quad 4 variant. Twin turbochargers. 

Applications: Oldsmobile Aerotech

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Street Rodder Article August 2006". Streetrodderweb.com. Retrieved 2012-06-04. 
  2. ^ "Street Rodder Article March 2007". Streetrodderweb.com. Retrieved 2012-06-04. 
  3. ^ "1996 Cavalier Specifications - (continued)". Media.gm.com. Archived from the original on May 11, 2004. Retrieved 2009-04-26. 

http://members.shaw.ca/warped00/bcjbody/overview-LD9.html

External links[edit]

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