The main river basin of the district is the Godavari, which flows west to east and forms the southern boundary of the district. The major tributaries of the Godavari are the Indravati and the Pranhita, which is in turn formed by the confluence of the Wainganga and the Wardha near Chaprala village of Chamorshi Taluka.
Dhanora, Etapalli, Aheri and Sironcha talukas in the eastern part of the district are covered by forest. Hills are found in Bhamragad, Tipagad, Palasgad and Surjagad area. The western part of Gadchiroli is mainly hilly area.
Scheduled caste and scheduled tribe population in the district is 1,08,824 and 3,71,696. The tribal community population that resides in the district is 38.3%. Seven languages are spoken in the district, namely, Gondi, Madiya, Marathi, Hindi, Telugu, Bengali, Chhattisgarhi.
The district is categoried as a tribal and undeveloped district and most of the land is covered with forest and hills. Forests cover more than 79.36% of the geographical area of the district. This district is famous for bamboo and Tendu leaves. Paddy is the main agricultural product of the district. The agriculture products of the district are sorghum, Linseed, pigeonpea(Tur), and wheat. The Main profession of the people is farming.
There is no large scale Industry in the district except the paper mill at Ashti in Chamorshi Taluka, and the paper pulp factory at Desaiganj. There are many rice mills in the district. The Tussar silk worm centre is in Armori Taluka. Only, 18.5 kilometers of railway lines pass through the district.
The district is well known for Naxalite activities; Naxalites from the People's Liberation Guerrilla Army have taken shelter in the dense forests and hills of this district.
The district is divided into three sub-divisions, Gadchiroli, Aheri and Desaiganj which are further divided into 12 talukas. Each sub-division has four talukas. Gadchiroli sub-division consists Gadchiroli, Dhanora, Chamorshi and Mulchera talukas, Aheri sub-division consists Aheri, Sironcha, Etapalli and Bhamragad talukas and Desaiganj (Wadsa) sub-division consists Wadsa, Armori, Kurkheda and Korchi talukas. There are 467 Gram Panchayats and 1688 Revenue Villages. The district has 12 Panchayat Samitis. Only two municipalities, Gadchiroli and Wadsa (Desaiganj) exist in the district.