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Gait Cycle & Gait Analysis
Gait Cycle & Gait Analysis
Published: 2015/09/20
Channel: Physiotutors
Six Gait Abnormalities
Six Gait Abnormalities
Published: 2014/03/11
Channel: Servum24
video surveillance with human gait recognition.avi
video surveillance with human gait recognition.avi
Published: 2011/01/26
Channel: computervision2004
GAIT
GAIT
Published: 2012/04/12
Channel: 1isho
The Gait Cycle: A Breakdown of each Component
The Gait Cycle: A Breakdown of each Component
Published: 2009/11/11
Channel: Dominic Roda
Normal Human Gait vs Human gait with prosthesis OpenSim
Normal Human Gait vs Human gait with prosthesis OpenSim
Published: 2013/06/06
Channel: christian silva
AnyBody Example: Medical/Rehab: Gait Analysis.
AnyBody Example: Medical/Rehab: Gait Analysis.
Published: 2008/01/09
Channel: AnyBody Technology
CARTA: The Upright Ape: Bipedalism and Human Origins -Footprints Body Form and Locomotion
CARTA: The Upright Ape: Bipedalism and Human Origins -Footprints Body Form and Locomotion
Published: 2012/03/01
Channel: University of California Television (UCTV)
Gait Cycle Breakdown
Gait Cycle Breakdown
Published: 2015/11/25
Channel: Syamil Amri
Human gait choreography
Human gait choreography
Published: 2014/05/08
Channel: NICOLE1100
Leg Muscles During Walking
Leg Muscles During Walking
Published: 2014/11/10
Channel: The CADARN Learning Portal
OpenSim simulation of adult walking for 10 gait cycles
OpenSim simulation of adult walking for 10 gait cycles
Published: 2009/04/10
Channel: SimbiosVideos
Gait Biomechanics- Simplified
Gait Biomechanics- Simplified
Published: 2015/05/14
Channel: Intention2Action
Human Foundations - The Fundamentals of Efficient Gait
Human Foundations - The Fundamentals of Efficient Gait
Published: 2012/06/12
Channel: functionalpatterns
Human Walking (Gait) Automata 1.0
Human Walking (Gait) Automata 1.0
Published: 2012/10/31
Channel: Ismet Handžić
Human Gait Estimation Using a Wearable Camera
Human Gait Estimation Using a Wearable Camera
Published: 2012/03/29
Channel: Ishikawa Watanabe Laboratory
Seven Stage  Human Gait Cycle using a Markerless Motion Capture System and Bipedal Simulation
Seven Stage Human Gait Cycle using a Markerless Motion Capture System and Bipedal Simulation
Published: 2016/09/27
Channel: Jaydip Desai
Human-like gait
Human-like gait
Published: 2017/01/19
Channel: Looka Chiang
Human gait
Human gait
Published: 2017/01/19
Channel: Looka Chiang
Walking Gait Assessment   The most functional movement assessment?  with Dr Emily Splichal
Walking Gait Assessment The most functional movement assessment? with Dr Emily Splichal
Published: 2013/07/11
Channel: EBFAFitness
Human Gait Tracking with IMU
Human Gait Tracking with IMU
Published: 2014/09/18
Channel: rodik wahyu
Human Identification by Gait analysis
Human Identification by Gait analysis
Published: 2009/08/22
Channel: Mohammad Elhoseiny
Human Gait Analysis Software
Human Gait Analysis Software
Published: 2011/02/26
Channel: Jessica Zhang
Strideway: Human Gait Analysis Made Modular
Strideway: Human Gait Analysis Made Modular
Published: 2017/05/24
Channel: Tekscan Medical
Recording of human gait
Recording of human gait
Published: 2013/08/06
Channel: Niels Andersen
Final Year Projects 2015 | Human Identity and Gender Recognition From Gait
Final Year Projects 2015 | Human Identity and Gender Recognition From Gait
Published: 2014/11/13
Channel: ClickMyProject
Humanoid robot human-like gait
Humanoid robot human-like gait
Published: 2016/10/29
Channel: Looka Chiang
Human-Like Multi-Contact Walking with AMBER 2
Human-Like Multi-Contact Walking with AMBER 2
Published: 2013/10/23
Channel: AMBER-Lab
CARTA: The Upright Ape: Bipedalism and Human Origins - Running Walking and Evolution
CARTA: The Upright Ape: Bipedalism and Human Origins - Running Walking and Evolution
Published: 2012/03/15
Channel: University of California Television (UCTV)
Humans exploit the biomechanics of bipedal gait during visually guided walking over rough terrain
Humans exploit the biomechanics of bipedal gait during visually guided walking over rough terrain
Published: 2012/07/27
Channel: dynamicwalking2012
Jon Shares About Gait for Wild Human Potential
Jon Shares About Gait for Wild Human Potential
Published: 2010/08/21
Channel: IntegrativeLearning
Final Year Projects | Human Gait Recognition Using Patch Distribution Feature and Locality-Constr
Final Year Projects | Human Gait Recognition Using Patch Distribution Feature and Locality-Constr
Published: 2013/05/13
Channel: ClickMyProject
Arnold Talks About Gait for Wild Human Potential
Arnold Talks About Gait for Wild Human Potential
Published: 2010/08/21
Channel: IntegrativeLearning
1  Normal gait   Normal and Abnormal Gait Series
1 Normal gait Normal and Abnormal Gait Series
Published: 2014/10/08
Channel: Botplay
Swing Phases of Human GAIT
Swing Phases of Human GAIT
Published: 2014/03/21
Channel: Nayeem Khan
Gait Analysis - Comparison Duck vs. Human Gait - with Simi Motion
Gait Analysis - Comparison Duck vs. Human Gait - with Simi Motion
Published: 2009/10/15
Channel: SimiSystems
Human gait simulation for staircase climbing and batting using vpython
Human gait simulation for staircase climbing and batting using vpython
Published: 2016/04/11
Channel: harishkant soni
A Visual-Inertial Approach to Human Gait Estimation
A Visual-Inertial Approach to Human Gait Estimation
Published: 2016/09/21
Channel: Ahmed Medhat
Archie human gait imitation
Archie human gait imitation
Published: 2010/03/01
Channel: Ahmad Byagowi
An IMU-to-Body Alignment Method Applied to Human Gait Analysis
An IMU-to-Body Alignment Method Applied to Human Gait Analysis
Published: 2016/12/05
Channel: Laura Susana Vargas Valencia
Accurate Robotic Legs Mimic Human Gait
Accurate Robotic Legs Mimic Human Gait
Published: 2012/07/06
Channel: Laboratory Equipment
Human gait Ankle trajectory (Ahmad Byagowi)
Human gait Ankle trajectory (Ahmad Byagowi)
Published: 2010/02/27
Channel: Ahmad Byagowi
Feldenkrais Conference Gait for Wild Human Potential
Feldenkrais Conference Gait for Wild Human Potential
Published: 2016/04/18
Channel: Future Life Now
Stance Phases of Human GAIT
Stance Phases of Human GAIT
Published: 2014/03/21
Channel: Nayeem Khan
Bipedal Gait and Its Effects on the Development of Modern Humans
Bipedal Gait and Its Effects on the Development of Modern Humans
Published: 2015/03/16
Channel: mcerk1017
Gait Biometric Recognition Matlab Source Code
Gait Biometric Recognition Matlab Source Code
Published: 2015/01/05
Channel: Hamdi Boukamcha
Thunderbolt Robot Unique Walking Gait
Thunderbolt Robot Unique Walking Gait
Published: 2015/04/29
Channel: Robots Dreams
SURE 2011 Determination of Preferred Step Frequency of Human Gait
SURE 2011 Determination of Preferred Step Frequency of Human Gait
Published: 2011/08/01
Channel: Grad Ed
Human gait
Human gait
Published: 2013/09/10
Channel: looka330
2012 IEEE Human Identification Using Temporal Information Preserving Gait Template
2012 IEEE Human Identification Using Temporal Information Preserving Gait Template
Published: 2013/01/08
Channel: IEEE2012PROJECTS
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Humans using a running gait. Note the "suspended phase" in which neither foot touches the ground.

Human gait refers to locomotion achieved through the movement of human limbs. Human gait is defined as bipedal, biphasic forward propulsion of center of gravity of the human body, in which there are alternate sinuous movements of different segments of the body with least expenditure of energy. Different gait patterns are characterized by differences in limb movement patterns, overall velocity, forces, kinetic and potential energy cycles, and changes in the contact with the surface (ground, floor, etc.). Human gaits are the various ways in which a human can move, either naturally or as a result of specialized training.

Classification[edit]

Human gaits are classified in various ways. Every gait can be generally categorized as either natural (one that humans use instinctively) or trained (a non-instinctive gait learned via training). Examples of the latter include hand walking and specialized gaits used in martial arts. Gaits can also be categorized according to whether the person remains in continuous contact with the ground.

Natural gaits[edit]

The so-called natural gaits, in increasing order of speed, are the walk, jog, skip, run, and sprint. While other intermediate speed gaits may occur naturally to some people, these five basic gaits occur naturally across almost all cultures. All natural gaits are designed to propel a person forward, but can also be adapted for lateral movement. As natural gaits all have the same purpose, they are mostly distinguished by when the leg muscles are used during the gait cycle.

Walk[edit]

The walk is a gait which keeps at least one foot in contact with the ground at all times.

The walk is performed with the following steps:

  1. Lift one leg off of the ground;
  2. Using the leg in contact with the ground, push your body forward;
  3. Swing your lifted leg forward until it is in front of your body;
  4. Fall forward to allow your lifted leg to contact the ground;
  5. Repeat steps 1–4 for the other leg;
  6. Repeat steps 1–5 to continue walking.

Skip[edit]

Skipping is a gait children display when they are about four- to five-years-old.[1] While a jog is similar to a horse's trot, the skip is closer to the bipedal equivalent of a horse's canter.

In order to investigate the gait strategies likely to be favored at low gravity a series of predictive, computational simulations of gait are performed using a physiological model of the musculoskeletal system, without assuming any particular type of gait; a computationally efficient optimization strategy is utilized allowing for multiple simulations. The results reveal skipping as more efficient and less fatiguing than walking or running and suggest the existence of a walk-skip rather than a walk-run transition at low gravity.[2]

Abnormal gaits[edit]

Control of gait by the nervous system[edit]

Too much is unknown about how the human nervous system controls locomotion; many regions contribute, such as the frontal lobe, cerebellum, basal ganglia, brainstem, and spinal cord. For example, the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) is a nucleus of the brainstem that helps to control the planning and execution of gait.[3] The PPN is connected extensively with other parts of the brain, including the spinal cord, cortex, and basal ganglia; these regions work together to plan, initiate, and maintain gait.

Control approaches[edit]

  • Feedback (balance) – This is when the body senses the perturbation and reacts via using the appropriate synergy (that is, trying to stay balanced after being pushed)
  • Feedforward (anticipation) – This is when the body anticipates future perturbations; there are three ways to maintain balance: magnitude (of the lean), timing, and direction

Foot strike[edit]

One variable in gait is foot strike – how the foot contacts the ground, specifically which part of the foot first contacts the ground.

  • forefoot strike – toe-heel: ball of foot lands first
  • midfoot strike – heel and ball land simultaneously
  • heel strike – heel-toe: heel of foot lands, then plantar flexes to ball

In sprinting, gait typically features a forefoot strike, but the heel does not contact the ground.

Some researchers classify foot strike by the initial center of pressure; this is mostly applicable to shod running (running while wearing shoes).[4] In this classification:

  • a rearfoot strike (heel strike) has the initial center of pressure in the rear third of the shoe (rear 1/3 of shoe length);
  • a midfoot strike is in the middle third (middle 1/3 of shoe length);
  • a forefoot strike is in the front third (front 1/3 of shoe length).

Foot strike varies to some degree between strides, and between individuals. It varies significantly and notably between walking and running, and between wearing shoes (shod) and not wearing shoes (barefoot).

Typically, barefoot walking features heel or midfoot strike, while barefoot running features midfoot or forefoot strike. Barefoot running rarely features heel strike because the impact can be painful, the human heel pad not absorbing much of the force of impact.[5][6] By contrast, 75% of runners wearing modern running shoes heel strike;[7][8] running shoes being characterized by a padded sole, stiff soles and arch support, and sloping down from a more padded heel to a less padded forefoot.

The cause of this change in gait in shoe running is unknown, but Liebermann noted that there is correlation between the foot-landing style and exposure to shoes.[8] In some individuals, the gait pattern is largely unchanged – the leg position and foot position are identical in barefoot and shoe running – but the wedge shape of the padding moving the point of impact back from the forefoot to the midfoot.[4] In other cases, it is conjectured that the padding of the heel softens the impact and resulting in runner modifying their gait to contact further back in the foot.[8]

A 2012 study involving Harvard University runners found that those who "habitually rearfoot strike had approximately twice the rate of repetitive stress injuries than individuals who habitually forefoot strike".[9] This was the first study that investigated the link between foot strike and injury rates. However, earlier studies have shown that smaller collision forces were generated when running forefoot strike compared to rear-foot strike. This may protect the ankle joints and lower limbs from some of the impact-related injuries experienced by rear-foot strikers.[10]

Gender differences[edit]

There are gender differences in human gait patterns: females tend to walk with smaller step width and more pelvic movement.[11] Gait analysis generally takes gender into consideration.[12] Gender differences in human gait can be explored using a demonstration created by the Biomotion Laboratory at Queen's University, Kingston, Canada.[13]

Efficiency and evolutionary implications[edit]

Even though plantigrade locomotion usually distributes more weight toward the end of the limb than digitigrade locomotion, which increases energy expenditure in most systems, studies have shown that the human heel-first gait conserves more energy over long distances than other gaits, which is consistent with the belief that humans are evolutionarily specialized for long-distance movement.[14]

For the same distance, walking with a natural heel-first gait burns roughly 70% less energy than running. Differences of this magnitude are unusual in mammals.[14] Kathyrn Knight of the Journal of Experimental Biology summarizes the findings of one study: "Landing heel first also allows us to transfer more energy from one step to the next to improve our efficiency, while placing the foot flat on the ground reduces the forces around the ankle (generated by the ground pushing against us), which our muscles have to counteract."[15] According to David Carrier of the University of Utah, who helped perform the study, "Given the great distances hunter-gatherers travel, it is not surprising that humans are economical walkers."[14]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Minetti, A.E. "The biomechanics of skipping gaits: a third locomotion paradigm?". NIH.gov. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche. PMC 1689187Freely accessible. 
  2. ^ Ackermann, Marko; van den Bogert, Antonie. "Predictive simulation of gait at low gravity reveals skipping as the preferred locomotion strategy". NIH.gov. Centro Universitário da FEI. PMC 3327825Freely accessible. 
  3. ^ Tattersall, T. L. et al. (2014) Imagined gait modulates neuronal network dynamics in the human pedunculopontine nucleus. Nature Neuroscience advance online publication, 2 February 2014. doi:10.1038/nn.3642
  4. ^ a b Running Before the Modern Running Shoe
  5. ^ Ker et al., 1995.
  6. ^ Chi; Schmitt (Jul 2005). "Mechanical energy and effective foot mass during impact loading of walking and running". J Biomech. 38 (7): 1387–95. PMID 15922749. doi:10.1016/j.jbiomech.2004.06.020. 
  7. ^ Foot Strike Patterns of Runners At the 15-Km Point : The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research (Hasegawa et al., 2007).
  8. ^ a b c Modern Running Shoes & Heel Striking, Daniel Lieberman, Harvard University.
  9. ^ Daoud, et al. "Foot strike and injury rates in endurance runners: a retrospective study" (subscription required). Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise.
  10. ^ Lieberman "et al". "Foot strike patterns and collision forces in habitually barefoot versus shod runners"
  11. ^ Gender differences in three dimensional gait analysis data from 98 healthy Korean adults, Clinical Biomechanics. doi:10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2003.10.003
  12. ^ BMLWalker V1.8, The Biomotion Lab. Gait animation.
  13. ^ BMLWalker
  14. ^ a b c Cunningham, C.B.; Schilling, N.; Anders, C.; Carrier, D.R. "The influence of foot posture on the cost of transport in humans". Journal of Experimental Biology. 213: 790–797. PMID 20154195. doi:10.1242/jeb.038984. Retrieved 4 November 2015. 
  15. ^ Knight, Kathryn (2010). "Human's heel first gait is efficient for walking". Journal of Experimental Biology. Retrieved 4 November 2015. 

Further reading[edit]

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