Garage rock (sometimes called '60s punk or garage punk) is a raw and energetic style of rock and roll that flourished in the mid-1960s, most notably in the United States and Canada. The term derives from the perception that groups were often made up of young amateurs who rehearsed in the family garage, although many were professional.
The style, a precursor to acid rock, is characterized by aggressive and unsophisticated lyrics and delivery, sometimes using guitars distorted through a fuzzbox. In the US and Canada, surf rock—and later the Beatles and the beat groups of the British Invasion—motivated thousands of young people to form bands between 1963 and 1968. Hundreds of acts produced regional hits, and some had national hits. Though largely associated with North America, counterparts were present elsewhere as part of the worldwide "beat boom" of the era. With the advent of psychedelia, a number of garage bands incorporated exotic elements into the genre's primitive stylistic framework, but after 1968, as more elaborate forms of rock music overtook the marketplace, garage rock records largely disappeared from the national and regional charts.
During the 1960s the music was not recognized as a distinct genre and had no specific name, but critical retrospect in the early 1970s—and particularly the release of the 1972 compilation albumNuggets—did much to define and memorialize the style. As critics of the period began to prescribe a scope for genre, they sometimes used the term "punk rock", making it the first form of music to bear this description. Since then, the genre has sometimes been referred to as "garage punk", as well as subsequent labels such as "60s punk" or "proto-punk" which distinguish it from the more commonly known punk movement of the mid- to late-1970s that it influenced.
Garage rock has experienced various revivals in the ensuing years and continues to influence acts who prefer a "back to basics" and "do-it-yourself" musical approach. In the early- to mid-1980s, several garage revival scenes sprung up featuring acts that consciously attempted to replicate the look and sound of 1960s garage bands. Later in the decade, a louder, more contemporary garage/punk fusion style developed that combined garage rock with contemporary punk rock and other influences, lending an updated definition to the term "garage punk". In the 2000s, a wave of garage rock revival acts associated with the post-punk revival emerged, and a handful achieved airplay and commercial success.
The term "garage rock" is based on the perception that its performers were young and amateurish, and often rehearsed in the family garage. While numerous bands were made up of middle-class teenagers from the suburbs, others were from rural or urban areas or were composed of professional musicians in their twenties. The phrase "garage band" is often used to refer to musical acts in this genre.
Though it is impossible to determine how many garage bands were active in the 1960s, according to Mark Nobles, it is estimated that over 180,000 bands formed in the Unites States, amongst which several thousand made records.[nb 1] Garage bands performed in a variety of venues. Less-established groups typically played at parties, school dances, and teen clubs. For acts of legal age (and in some cases younger), bars, nightclubs, and college fraternity socials also provided regular engagements.[nb 2] Occasionally, local groups had the opportunity to open at shows for famous touring acts. Some garage rock bands went on tour, particularly better-known acts, but also lesser-known groups receiving bookings or airplay beyond their local vicinity. Groups often competed in "battles of the bands", which gave musicians an opportunity to gain exposure and a chance to win a prize, such as free recording time in a local studio. Battles of the bands were held, locally, regionally and nationally, and two of the most prestigious contests were held annually by the Tea Council of the U.S.A. and the Music Circus.
Performances often sounded amateurish, naïve or intentionally raw, with typical themes revolving around the traumas of high school life and songs about "lying girls" being particularly common. The lyrics and delivery were notably more aggressive than the more polished acts of the time, often with nasal, growled, or shouted vocals, sometimes punctuated by shrieks or screams at climactic moments of release. Instrumentation was characterized by the use of electric guitars often distorted through a fuzzbox, teaming with bass and drums. Guitarists sometimes played using aggressive-sounding bar chordriffs, sometimes referred to as power chords. Organs such as the Farfisa were commonly used as well as mouth harmonicas or hand-held percussion such as tambourines.[nb 3] Occasionally, the tempo would be sped up in certain passages sometimes referred to as "raveups".
Garage rock acts were diverse in both musical ability and in style, ranging from crude two- and three-chord music to near-studio musician quality. There were also regional variations in flourishing scenes, such as in California and Texas. The north-western states of Idaho, Washington and Oregon had a distinctly recognizable regional sound with bands such as the Sonics and Paul Revere & the Raiders.
In the 1960s, garage rock had no name and was not thought of as a genre, but as typical rudimentary rock of the period. "Garage rock" was not the first name applied to the style.[nb 4] In the early 1970s certain rock critics began to speak nostalgically of mid-1960s garage bands (and artists perceived to be in their tradition) as a loosely defined genre and used the phrase "punk rock" to describe it,[nb 5] making it the first form of music to bear the description,[nb 6] several years before the term came to be associated with the later punk rock movement.[nb 7] Though the coinage of the phrase "punk rock" is unknown,Dave Marsh was the first music critic to employ it, when in the May 1971 issue of Creem he described ? and the Mysterians as a "landmark exposition of punk rock".[nb 8] Much of the revival of interest in 1960s garage rock can be traced to the release of the 1972 album Nuggets compiled by rock journalist and future Patti Smith guitarist Lenny Kaye. In the liner notes, Kaye used the term "punk rock" to describe 1960s garage bands, and used the phrase "classic garage-punk" to describe a song recorded in 1966 by the Shadows of Knight.[nb 9] In 1973, Billy Altman launched the short-lived Punk Magazine, which pre-dated the better-known 1975 publication of the same name, but, unlike the later magazine, was largely devoted to discussion of 1960s garage and psychedelic acts.
Though the phrase "punk rock" was the favored generic term in the early 1970s, "garage band" was also mentioned for individual acts.[nb 10] The term "punk rock" was later appropriated for the genre of punk rock that emerged in the mid- to late- 1970s, and is now most commonly applied to groups emerging after 1974. The term "garage rock" came into favor in the early 1980s.[nb 11] According to Mike Markesich: "Initially launched into the underground vernacular at the start of the '80s, the garage tag had slowly sifted its way amid like-minded fans to finally be recognized as a worthy descriptive replacement". The music of garage bands from the 1960s may be described as "garage rock", "garage punk", "'60s punk", or "proto-punk".
In the late 1950s, the initial impact of rock and roll on mainstream American culture waned as major record companies took a controlling influence and sought to market more conventionally acceptable recordings. Electric musical instruments (particularly guitars) and amplification were becoming more affordable, allowing young musicians to form small groups to perform in front of local audiences of their peers; and in some areas there was a breakdown, especially among radio audiences, of traditional black and white markets, with more white teenagers able to hear and purchase R&B records. By the end of the 1950s regional scenes were abundant around the country and influenced much of the music of the 1960s.
According to Lester Bangs, "the origins of garage rock as a genre can be traced to California and the Pacific Northwest in the early Sixties". The Pacific Northwest, which encompasses Washington, Oregon, and Idaho, played a critical role in the inception of garage rock, hosting the first scene to produce a sizable number of acts, and pre-dated the arrival of the British Invasion by several years. The signature garage sound of the Pacific Northwest is sometimes referred to as "the Northwest Sound" and had its origins in the late 1950s, when a handful of R&B and rock & roll acts sprung up in various cities and towns in an area stretching from Puget Sound to Seattle and Tacoma, and beyond.
There and elsewhere, groups of teenagers were inspired directly by touring R&B performers such as Johnny Otis and Richard Berry, and began to play cover versions of R&B songs.[nb 12] During the late 1950s and early 1960s there were a host of other instrumental groups playing in the region, such as the Ventures, formed in 1958 in Tacoma, Washington, who came to specialize in a surf rock sound and The Frantics from Seattle.[nb 13]The Wailers (often referred to as the Fabulous Wailers) had national chart hit in 1959, the instrumental "Tall Cool One". It was Portland group the Kingsmen's 1963 off-the-cuff version of "Louie Louie", largely based on the Wailers' arrangement, that took off, first as a regional hit in Seattle, then rising to No. 1 on the national charts and becoming a hit overseas, making it the de facto "big bang" for three-chord rock.[nb 14]
Elsewhere, regional scenes of teenage bands playing R&B-oriented rock were particularly well established several years before the British Invasion, in Texas and the Midwest.[nb 15] By 1963 singles by several such bands were creeping into the national charts, including the Trashmen, from Minneapolis, and the Rivieras, from South Bend, Indiana. At the same time, in southern California, bands such as the Nomads (not the Milwaukee band) formed, playing raucous guitar- and saxophone-driven instrumentals. Many bands were heavily influenced by surf rock and hot rod music, and there was a cross-pollination between these influences resulting in an energetic and upbeat sound. This is sometimes referred to as frat rock, which can be viewed as an early subgenre of garage rock, and it is often associated with many Pacific Northwest acts, such as the Kingsmen, but also thrived elsewhere. Writer Neil Campbell commented: "There were literally thousands of rough and ready groups performing in local bars and dance halls throughout the US prior to the arrival of the Beatles ... [T]he indigenous popular music which functioned in this way ... was the protopunk more commonly identified as garage rock".
Impact of the Beatles and the British Invasion
As the mid-1960s approached, garage rock entered a new period reflecting a different set of influences and circumstances. On February 9, 1964, during their first visit to the United States, the Beatles made a historic appearance on the Ed Sullivan Show watched by a record-breaking viewing audience of a nation mourning the recent death of President John F. Kennedy. For many, particularly the young, the Beatles' visit re-ignited the sense of excitement and possibility that had momentarily faded in the wake of the assassination. Much of this new excitement was expressed in music, sometimes much to the chagrin of parents and elders.
In 1964 and 1965 the impact of the Beatles and the British Invasion shifted the tectonic plates of the musical landscape, presenting, not only a challenge, but also a new impetus for teenagers in the Pacific Northwest to form bands, as many of the more experienced acts adapted to the new climate, often reaching greater levels of commercial and/or artistic success than previously. The Kingsmen went through a significant roster shake-up in 1964, while unwittingly becoming the target of an FBI investigation in response to complaints about the alleged use of profanity in the nearly unintelligible lyrics of their ramshackle hit version of "Louie Louie". With the new lineup featuring former drummer Lyn Eastman on vocals, they continued to be active until the end of the decade, recording a string of singles.
After relocating to Portland, Paul Revere & the Raiders became the first rock & roll act to be signed to Columbia Records in 1963, but did not achieve their commercial breakthrough until 1965 with the song "Steppin Out", which was followed by string of chart-topping hits such as "Just Like Me", originally recorded by the Wilde Knights, and "Kicks". The Sonics, from Tacoma had a raunchy, hard-driving sound that influenced later acts such as Nirvana and the White Stripes. According to Peter Blecha, they "...were the unholy practitioners of punk rock long before anyone knew what to call it". Founded in 1960, they eventually enlisted the services of vocalist Gerry Rosalie and saxophonist Rob Lind and proceeded to cut their first single, the highly overdriven "The Witch" in 1964. The song was re-issued again in 1965, this time with the even more intense "Psycho" on the flip side. They released several albums and are also known for other "high-octane" rockers such as "Cinderella" and the power-chorded "He's Waitin'". Prompted by the Sonics, the Wailers entered the mid-1960s with a harder-edged sound in the fuzz-driven "Hang Up" and "Out of Our Tree".
The Barbarians, from Cape Cod, wearing sandals and long hair, and cultivating an image of "noble savages", recorded an album and several singles, such as the partly self-referential, "Are You a Boy or Are You a Girl". In 1964 the group appeared on the T.A.M.I. Show, on same bill as famous acts such as the Rolling Stones and James Brown, playing the joyfully primitive "Hey Little Bird". At the height of their popularity, the band was touted as an American counterpart of The Rolling Stones. In 1966, while the other members of the band were away, Moulton recorded "Moulty", a spoken monologue set to music, in which he recounted the travails of his disfigurement, released under the Barbarians' name, but backed by future members of the Band.The Remains (sometimes called Barry and the Remains), from Boston, led by Barry Tashian, were one of the region's most notable bands, and in addition to touring with the Beatles in 1966, recorded songs such as "Don't Look Back", as well as a self-titled album. Also from Boston, the Rockin' Ramrods released the distortion-driven "She Lied" in 1964, which Rob Fitzpatrick of the Guardian called "...a truly spectacular piece of proto-punk, the sort of perfect blend of melody and aggression that the Ramones would go on to transform the planet with a dozen or more years later".The Squires, from Bristol, Connecticut, issued a song now regarded as a garage rock classic, "All the Way".
Michigan had one of the largest scenes the country. In early 1966, Detroit's MC5 released a version of "I Can Only Give You Everything" before they went on to greater success at the end of the decade.The Unrelated Segments, whose ranks included lead vocalist, Ron Stults and guitarist Rory Mack, recorded a string of songs beginning with local hit "You Can't Buy Love", followed by others such as "Where You Gonna Go".Terry Knight and the Pack were from Flint and formed the basis of what later became Grand Funk Railroad.The Rationals, from Ann Arbor were fronted by Scott Morgan and achieved regional success but failed to break nationally.Fenton Records was a "pay-and-record" label owned by Dave Kalmbach that issued singles by a handful of West Michigan bands, such as the JuJus.The Litter, from Minneapolis, had a harder sound and released the distortion-laden "Action Woman" as a single in 1966—a song which Michael Hann of The Guardian described as "one of garage's gnarliest, snarliest, most tight-trousered pieces of hormonal aggression". In addition to The Outsiders, Ohio was also the home to groups such as the Choir, also from Cleveland, who had a regional hit with "It's Cold Outside".
Florida was rife with activity, particularly in the areas on the Peninsula.We the People, a popular fixture in the Orlando area, came about as the result of the merger of two previous bands and featured songwriters Tommy Talton and Wane Proctor.[nb 18] "I'm Movin' On and "From a Curbstone" were by Evil from Miami, who had a reputation for musical mayhem.The Painted Faces, from Fort Myers, released the single, "Faces", which Mojo Magazine included in their top 100 psychedelic songs of all time.The Gants, from Greenwood, Mississippi, were one of the relatively few garage bands from the Deep South to make a national impression in the mid 1960s. Memphis, which had already established a reputation for blues and rockabilly, became a major center of soul music in the 1960s, with Stax Records, but also had an prolific garage scene.The Guilloteens went to Los Angeles, where they recorded the Phil Spector-produced "Hey You" at the Gold Star Studios, then returned to Tennessee to record in Nashville.The Hombres were another popular Memphis group and had a hit with their song "Let It Out (Let It All Hang Out)", which reached No. 12 on the national charts. North Carolina experienced its own garage rock boom. In Charlotte, the Paragons (not to be confused with the Jamaican skagroup of the same name) were one of the most popular bands in the city, and went to Arthur Smith's studio to record their single "Abba", which became an enormous hit in the local area, reaching No. 1 on the local charts, which Jacob Berger referred to as "an instant garage band classic".
The Five Americans were from Durant, Oklahoma and released a string of singles, such as "I See the Light" and "Western Union", the latter being a top 10 hit in 1967. From Phoenix, Arizona came the Spiders who featured Vincent Furnier, later known as Alice Cooper, and recorded two singles, most notably "Don't Blow Your Mind", which became a local hit in Phoenix. They ventured to Los Angeles in 1967, in hopes of achieving greater success, though it subsequently materialized not there, but in Detroit, re-christened as Alice Cooper, in the early 1970s.
The Grodes (sometimes credited as the Tongues of Truth) were from Tucson, Arizona and recorded the original version of "Let's Talk About Girls", later covered by the Chocolate Watchband, and "Cry a Little Longer".The Dearly Beloved, were also one of the top bands in Tucson. In 1967 the Chob, from Albuquerque, cut the frantic "We're Pretty Quick", now considered a garage classic.Norman Petty, who earlier recorded many of Buddy Holly's famous hits at his studio in Clovis, remained active there in the 1960s, cutting records for various garage bands in the region.
Like the United States, Canada experienced had large and vigorous garage rock movement. Vancouver's the Northwest Company, who recorded "Hard to Cry", had a power chord-driven approach. The Painted Ship were known for primal songs such as the angst-ridden "Frustration".The Guess Who, from Winnipeg, Manitoba, began in 1958 and entered the mid-1960s with a hit, Johnny Kidd & the Pirates' "Shakin' All Over", which was later covered by the Who.
The garage phenomenon, though most often associated with North America, was not exclusive to it. Its attributes were present in much of the beat music played in various countries throughout the world, as bands proliferated in the wake of the British Invasion. The particular countries involved had grass-roots rock movements which closely mirrored what was happening in the North America, several of which are sometimes retroactively referred to as freakbeat, Nederbeat, Uruguayan Invasion, or Group Sounds, or in other cases as "beat" or "garage rock".
Although Britain did not develop a distinctly defined garage rock genre in the same way as the United States, some British bands shared characteristics with the American bands who often attempted to emulate them, and are sometimes seen as counterparts to US garage bands, particularly in the subgenre known retrospectively as "freakbeat".
Beat music had emerged in Britain in the early 1960s, as musicians who had originally come together to play rock and roll or skiffle assimilated American rhythm and blues influences and adopted new forms of amplification. The genre provided the model for the format of many later rock groups, based around a lead singer with guitars and drums. Many groups formed to play this music in local establishments – the Liverpool area alone had a particularly high concentration of acts and venues. The Beatles emerged from this beat music boom, and their energetic approach served as a template for the formation of countless groups. Some bands developed a distinctively British blues style. Nationally popular beat and R&B groups included the Rolling Stones and the Yardbirds from London, the Animals from Newcastle, and Them (featuring Van Morrison), from Belfast in Northern Ireland. From about 1965, bands such as the Who and the Small Faces tailored their appeal directly to the burgeoning mod subculture in London.
Particularly after the "British Invasion" of the US, musical cross-fertilization developed between the two continents. In their 1964 transatlantic hits "You Really Got Me" and "All Day and All of the Night", the Kinks took the influence of the Kingsmen's version of "Louie Louie" and applied greater volume and distortion, which in turn, influenced the approach of many American garage bands. Their influence continued with several more hard-driving, yet increasingly despondent songs, such as "Where Have All the Good Times Gone", as well as "I'm Not Like Everybody Else", later covered by the Chocolate Watchband.The Pretty Things were known for their raw approach to blues-influenced rock, exhibited in songs such as "Midnight to Six Man", as well as "Don't Bring Me Down".The Downliners Sect were if anything even more brazen in their approach. Northern Ireland's Them, recorded two songs that were widely covered by American garage bands: "Gloria", which became a big hit for Chicago's the Shadows of Knight, and "I Can Only Give You Everything" which was covered by numerous American acts.The Wheels, who were also from Belfast, recorded the original version of "Bad Little Woman", which like Them's "Gloria" before it, was covered in 1966 by the Shadows of Knight.
The beat boom swept through continental Europe, resulting in the emergence of numerous bands who played in styles sometimes cited as European variants of garage rock. The Netherlands had one of the largest scenes, sometimes retroactively described as Nederbeat.The Outsiders, from Amsterdam, featured Wally Tax on lead vocals, and recorded three albums and a string of singles which included songs such as "Thinkin' About Today" and "Lying all the Time".Q65 from the Hague recorded extensively and lasted well into the 1970s, waxing the invective "I Despise You" in 1966. Also from the Hague came the Golden Earrings, later to gain greater fame in the 1970s and 1980s as Golden Earring.
Having nurtured the Beatles' early development in Hamburg, Germany was well-positioned to play a key role as the beat craze overtook the Continent. Bands from Britain and around Europe traveled there to gain exposure, playing in clubs and appearing on popular German television shows such as Beat Club and Beat! Beat! Beat!.The Lords, founded in Düsseldorf in 1959, pre-dated the British Invasion by several years, but adapted their sound and look to reflect the influence of the British groups, even singing in English, but providing a comic twist to the proceedings.The Rattles, from Hamburg, also had a lengthy history, but were more serious in their approach. Even during the Franco regime there were numerous bands active in Spain, such as Los Bravos, who had a worldwide hit with "Black Is Black", and others such as los Cheyenes. The Trans World Punk Rave-Up series is devoted to covering 1960s garage rock and primitive beat music in continental Europe.
Latin America had a significant amount of musical activity in the worldwide beat craze. And, Mexico was no exception, creating its own homegrown equivalent of American garage. The nation's proximity to the United States was detectable in the raw sounds being produced by a number of groups. Mexico had often absorbed American musical influences and trends, and embraced the British Invasion. One of Mexico's hottest acts were Los Dug Dug's, who recorded several albums and stayed active well into the 1970s.
The beat boom flourished in Uruguay during the mid-1960s in a period often referred to as the Uruguayan Invasion. Two of the best known acts were Los Shakers and Los Mockers. In Peru, los Saicos were one of the first bands to gain national prominence. Their 1965 song "¡Demolición!" with its humorously anarchistic lyrics was a huge hit in Peru and is today considered a protopunk classic. AllMusic, writing about Los Saicos, noted that "The guitars sound like nothing so much as fountains of sparks, the drums have a tribal post-surf throb, and the vocals are positively unhinged" and "These guys were a punk rock band, even if nobody outside Lima knew it at the time".Los Yorks became one of Peru's leading groups.Colombia had bands such Los Speakers from Bogata.Los Gatos Salvajes, who came from Rosario, Argentina, were one of the country's first beat groups, and two of their members went on to form Los Gatos, who became a popular act in Argentina during the late 1960s. The Los Nuggetz compilation series covers Latin American beat and garage rock of the 1960s.
Despite famine, economic hardship, and political instability, India experienced its own proliferation of garage bands in the 1960s, even persisting into the beginning of the next decade, with the 1960s musical style intact, after it had fallen out of favor practically elsewhere else. The Beatles mid-1960s success made a major impact on India's youth and resulted in the formation of numerous groups.  Bombay (now known as Mumbai), with its hotels, clubs, and nightlife, had a large beat group scene. The Jets, who were active from 1964 to 1966, were perhaps the first beat group to become popular there. Also popular in Bombay were the Trojans, featuring Biddu (full name Biddu Appaiah), originally from Bangalore, who later moved to London and become a solo act. Every year the annual Simla Beat Contest was held in Bombay by the Imperial Tobacco Company. Groups from all around India competed for first prize. The Simla Beat 70/71 compilation includes recordings of some of the bands who competed in 1970 and 1971.
Australia and New Zealand experienced a huge garage and beat explosion in the mid-1960s. The garage boom in those countries has been the subject of compilations such as Down Under Nuggets: Original Australian Artyfacts 1965–1967. Before the British Invasion hit, the land down under had enjoyed a sizable surf rock scene, with popular bands such as the Atlantics, who had several instrumental hits, as well as the Aztecs, and the Sunsets. In late 1963 and early 1964 British Invasion influence started permeating the music scenes there. June 1964 the Beatles made an historic visit to Australia and were greeted by a crowd of an estimated 300,000 in Adelaide.[nb 20]
In Australia, Sydney was the host to numerous acts during this time. Though the Atlantics had begun as an instrumental surf group, after the advent of the British Invasion, they brought in veteran singer Johnny Rebb, formerly with Johnny Rebb and His Rebels, to supply vocals on songs such as "Come On". Also from Sydney, the Easybeats became the most popular group in Australia during the mid-sixties. Most their pre-1967 songs were written by vocalist Stevie Wright and guitarist George Young, the older brother of Angus Young and Malcolm Young, later of AC/DC. In late 1966, they re-located to London and had a worldwide hit with "Friday on My Mind".
Throughout 1966, but particularly in the later months of the year, partly due to the growing influence of marijuana and other mind-expanding drugs such as LSD, many bands began to expand their sound, sometimes employing eastern scales and various sonic effects to achieve exotic and hypnotic soundscapes in their music.[nb 21] As the decade progressed, psychedelic influences became increasingly pervasive in much garage rock.
By the mid-1960s numerous garage rock bands began to employ tone-altering devices such as fuzzboxes on guitars often for the purpose of enhancing the music's sonic palate and adding an aggressive edge, using loudly amplified instruments to create a barrage of "clanging" sounds, often expressing anger and defiance. A certain sense of despondency and restlessness entered the psyche of the youth in the United States (and elsewhere), with a growing rise of alienation creeping into the collective mindset—even in the largely conservative suburban communities which produced so many garage bands. The garage bands, though generally apolitical, were nonetheless reflective of the tenor of the times. Nightly news reports entering living rooms across the country had an cumulative effect on the mass consciousness. Detectable in much of the music from this era is a combination of disparate emotions, particularly in light of President Kennedy's assassination and the ongoing of escalation of troops into Vietnam, yet often displayed an accompanying innocence.
In 1965, the influence of artists such as Bob Dylan, who had already superseded political protest by experimenting with surreal and abstract imagery, plugged in and went electric, became even more pervasive across the musical landscape, affecting a number of genres including garage rock. The members of garage bands, like so many musicians of the 1960s, were part of a generation that was largely born into the paradigm and customs of an older time, but that with the advent of television, nuclear weapons, civil rights, the Cold War, and space exploration, began to conceive, both individually and collectively, of a higher order of human relations and to reach for a set of transcendent ideals, sometimes experimenting with drugs, in a process that, while set to a backdrop of events that ultimately proved disillusioning, held for a time great promise in the minds of many. While testing the previously uncharted frontiers of what the new world had to offer, 1960s youth ultimately had to accept the limitations of living in the new reality which was for some a painful "crash course" in history, yet often did so while experiencing the ecstasy of a difficult but apparently exalted moment when the realm of the infinite seemed somehow possible and within reach.
Tapping into the psychedelic zeitgeist of the times, musicians found ways to push boundaries and explore new horizons. Garage acts, while generally lacking the budgetary means to produce musical extravaganzas on the scale of Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band or the instrumental virtuosity of acts such as Jimi Hendrix or Cream, nonetheless managed to combine esoteric elements with basic primitive rock.The 13th Floor Elevators from Austin, Texas, led by Roky Erickson infused their garage sound with psychedelic impulses, and are usually thought of as the first band to use the term "psychedelic" in their promotional literature with the phrase "psychedelic rock" appearing on their business card as early as January 1966. The band used the term in the title of their debut album released in November, The Psychedelic Sounds of the 13th Floor Elevators. The album featured the track "You're Gonna Miss Me", a regional hit for the band. In August 1966, the Deep, a group of musicians assembled and led by Rusty Evans, traveled from New York to Philadelphia to record a set of hallucinogenic songs for the album, Psychedelic Moods: A Mind-Expanding Phenomena released in October 1966, one month before the 13th Floor Elevators' debut LP, and whose all-night sessions produced mind-expanding stream of consciousness ramblings.
Certain acts conveyed a world view perceptibly removed from the implicit innocence of much psychedelia and suburban-style garage, often infusing their work with subversive political and/or philosophical messages, dabbling in concepts then considered radical such as nihilism and new left ideology. Stylistically, such artists shared certain characteristics with the garage bands in their use of primitivistic instrumentation and arrangements, while displaying psychedelic rock's affinity for exploration—essentially creating a more urbanized, intellectual, and avant garde version of garage rock.
In the wake of psychedelia, as rock music became increasingly sophisticated, garage rock began to decline in popularity. Though scores of garage bands had been signed to regional and major labels during 1963–1968, most failed to achieve national success. For instance, "Going All the Way" by the Squires was issued on a national label under Atco and is now regarded as a genre classic, but was not a hit anywhere. It is generally agreed that garage rock peaked both commercially and artistically around 1966. In the wake of Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club and other late-1960s big-production spectaculars, rock albums became increasingly elaborate and were expected to display maturity, complexity, and sophistication, while the 45-inch single ceded to the long-play album as the preferred medium.
Progressive album-oriented FM stations eventually overtook AM radio in popularity, and as the large major-label record companies became more powerful and less willing to sign new acts, the once plentiful "mom and pop" independent labels of the mid-1960s began to fold. Teen clubs that had served as reliable and steady venues for young groups began to close their doors. The garage sound disappeared at both the national and local level as amateur musicians faced college, work or the Vietnam Wardraft. New styles had either evolved out of garage rock or replaced it, such as psychedelic rock, acid rock, progressive rock, heavy metal, country rock, and bubblegum. By the end of 1968 the style had largely disappeared from the national charts.
Iggy Pop was a member of the Stooges, who are considered one of the preeminent proto-punk acts.
The garage rock boom fizzled out at the end 1960s, but a handful of maverick acts, carried its torch into the next decade, seizing on its rougher edges, but brandishing them with increased audacity while employing a more aggressive approach to the form. Such acts, often retroactively described as "proto-punk" worked in a variety of rock genres and came from disparate locations, notably Michigan, where in the wake of the mid-1960s garage scene, emerged a handful of hard-rocking bands that specialized in a style that was heavy, yet energetic and primitive, in contrast to the more sophisticated rock sounds coming out at the time, which often relied on long instrumental soloing and jams.
In the waning days of the Detroit scene, a group called the Punks recorded a batch of songs, including "My Time's Comin'" and "Drop Dead", that display a thrashing sound indicative of later punk and hardcore, which was posthumously released on their 2003 anthology The Most Powerful Music on Earth. In 1974, Death, made up of brothers David, Bobby, and Dannis Hackney, who were African American, recorded a series of demos in their home rehearsal space and went to Detroit's United Sound Studios to record seven tracks to an album that remained unreleased for over 30 years, ...For the Whole World to See.
The Ramones (pictured in 1977), who were influenced by garage rock, spearheaded the mid-1970s punk movement in New York.
Critical identification of garage rock by certain critics in the early 1970s (and their use of the term "punk rock" to describe it), as well as the 1972 Nuggets compilation exerted a marked degree of influence on the subsequent punk movement of the mid-to-late 1970s. As a result of the popularity of Nuggets, and critical attention being paid to primitive-sounding rock of past and present, a self-conscious musical aesthetic began to emerge around the term, "punk", that, with the eventual arrival of the New York and London scenes, grew into a subculture, having its own look, iconography, identity, and values.Iggy and the Stooges and others of their generation carried garage rock and protopunk into the early 1970s.
But the mid- to late-1970s saw the arrival of the bands most often viewed as the quintessential punk rock acts, most notably the Ramones, from New York, some of whose members had played in 1960s garage bands, and who are usually considered the first punk band as the term is now commonly understood, followed by the Sex Pistols, from London, who struck an even more defiant pose and effectively herald the arrival punk as a cause célèbre in the larger public mind. Both bands spearheaded the popular movement from their two respective locations. Though garage rock and protopunk influenced many of the bands from the New York and London scenes of this period, punk rock now emerged as a movement with a subculture all of its own, and the garage band era of the 1960s came to be viewed as a distant forerunner.
Revivalist and hybrid movements 1980-present
"Garage rock revival" redirects here. For the late 1980s garage rock/punk fusion genre, see Garage punk. For the 2000s revival, see Post-punk revival.
Garage rock has experienced various revivals in the ensuing years and continues to influence numerous modern acts who prefer a "back to basics" and "do it yourself" musical approach. The earliest group to attempt to revive the sound of 1960s garage was the Droogs, from Los Angeles, who formed in 1972 and pre-dated many of the revival acts of the 1980s. In the early 1980s, revival scenes linked to the underground music movements of the period sprung up in Los Angeles, New York, Boston, and elsewhere, with acts such as the Chesterfield Kings, the Fuzztones, the Pandoras, and the Lyres earnestly attempting to replicate the sound and look of the 1960s garage bands. This trend fed in into the alternative rock movement and future grunge explosion, which embraced influenceces by 1960s garage bands such as the Sonics and the Wailers.
^Markesich mentions that the number of bands/acts included in the book's discography amounts to over 4,500. His discography on pages 53–281 is devoted strictly to US acts.
^Nobles describes the Celler, a rowdy and popular nightclub in Fort Worth owned by Pat Kirkwood, which was where President Kennedy's Secret Service detail supposedly went the night before the assassination when the Knightbeats were playing a gig. Nobles mentions that the Knightbeats' leader Arvel Strickland later played in the Neurotic Sheep, who also performed at the Cellar. Nobles also mentions other "teen-scene" acts that played there, such as the Warlocks from Irving.
^On p. 294-295, Markesich quotes Greg Shaw: "I don't think we ever called it garage then...punk, later appropriated for the next genre in that long lineage..."
^Conjuring up a more innocent time, on p. 8, Bangs in his June 1971 Creem essay, "Psychotic Reactions and Carburetor Dung," remarked about mid-1960s garage bands: "... then punk bands started cropping up who were writing their own songs but taking the Yardbirds' sound and reducing it to this kind of goony fuzztone clatter ... oh, it was beautiful, it was pure folklore, Old America, and sometimes I think those were the best days ever". Critics also used the word "punk" for certain current bands that they perceived as operating in the primitivist tradition of 1960s garage such as the Stooges.
^On p. 22-23, Laing states "The word 'punk' was not used generically until the early seventies when critics began applying it to unregenerate rock-and-rollers..." then he quotes Greg Shaw: "Punk rock in those days was a quaint fanzine term for a transient form of mid-'1960s music ..."
^On p. 51, Aaron says that the term "punk rock" was later "co-opted by the very wave it inspired".
^Later in 1971, in the fanzine Who Put the Bomp, Greg Shaw wrote about "what [he had] chosen to call 'punkrock' bands—white teenage hard rock of '64–66".Robert Christgau writing for the Village Voice in October 1971 referred to "mid-1960s punk" as a historical period of rock-and-roll.
^In the January 1973 Rolling Stone review of Nuggets, Greg Shaw commented "Punk rock at its best is the closest we came in the 1960s to the original rockabilly spirit of Rock 'n Roll ..."
^In John Mendelsohn's March 1971 Rolling Stone review of a Faces album where he alluded to "every last punk teenage garage band having its Own Original Approach". Later the same year, Lenny Kaye used the term "garage band" in the same magazine.
^In the 1980 edition of The Rolling Stone History of Rock and Roll, Lester Bangs uses the terms "garage rock" and "protopunk" in his chapter about the genre.
^The Playboys were a racially integrated R&B group hailing from Seattle and featured Ron Holden and were one of the popular bands that also influenced later acts.
^The Blue Notes from Tacoma, Washington, fronted by "Rockin' Robin" Roberts, were one of the city's first teenage rock & roll bands. After the demise of Blue Notes, "Rockin' Robin" did a brief stint with the Wailers, and with him on vocals in 1962, they recorded a version of Richard Berry's 1957 song "Louie Louie", which became an unofficial anthem for practically every band in the region.
^Paul Revere & the Raiders, who also recorded a version of "Louie Louie" around this time, were originally from Boise, Idaho, but relocated to Portland, Oregon in 1962. The Sonics, who formed in Tacoma in 1960, later recorded a rendition of Berry's "Have Love, Will Travel".
^In Milwaukee, the Nomads were formed in the late 1950s, influenced by rockabilly and blues recordings. A rival band were the Bonnevilles, a band led by guitarist Larry Lynne and based in a newly built middle-class suburb.
^On pg. 381 in Markesich's book, Project Blue is ranked at #114 out of the 1000 greatest garage rock songs voted on by a panel of garage rock experts and writers. The book lists over 16,000 garage rock records.
^On page 118, the song is given a rating of 10 out of 10. In the section listing the 1,000 greatest garage rock songs of all time (voted on by a panel of garage rock writers and experts), the song is ranked in the top two garage rock songs of all time at number #2 (page 387), second only to "You're Gonna Miss Me", by the 13th Floor Elevators.
^They went to Nashville and recorded a batch of self-composed songs for the Challenge and RCA labels, such as primitive rockers, "You Burn Me Upside Down" and "Mirror of my Mind", as well as eclectic pieces such as "In the Past", later covered by the Chocolate Watchband.
^In Mike Markesich's Teenbeat Mayhem, according to the polling of a handful of the most preeminent garage rock writers and experts, the song is rated as a ten out of ten, and ranked at number 4 in the list of the 1000 greatest garage rock records, placing it in the top five of all time, according to that poll.
^In response, many of the prior surf bands adapted by adding vocals over guitars, and a plethora of new bands formed. The first wave of British-inspired bands tended to be more pop-oriented in the Merseybeat mold. However, with rise in popularity of bands such as the Rolling Stones and the Animals, a second wave of Australian bands emerged who favored a harder, blues-influenced approach.
^They followed it up with "Get Me to the World on Time", and both songs were included on their self-titled debut album. Their second album, Underground, saw the band exercising a greater degree of creative freedom.
^Lead by guitarist Mark Loomis and fronted by charismatic lead singer David Aguilar signed with Capitol's Tower label in 1966 and released several singles in 1967, including "Are You Gonna Be There (at the Love In)", which was also featured on their debut album No Way Out, which came out that same year. The album's opening cut was a feverish rendition of "Let's Talk About Girls", written by Manny Feiser and previously recorded by the Tongues of Truth (aka the Grodes).
^Their second album, The Fugs (afterward re-titled The Fugs Second Album), was released in 1966 and included the likes of "Kill for Peace", "Dirty Old Man", "Group Grope", and "Frenzy". In a 1970 interview, Ed Sanders became the first known musician to describe his music as "punk rock".The Godz were another New York group who specialized in an experimental mixture of sounds, beginning with their rough-hewn folk-influenced first album, Contact High with the Godz, followed-up by Godz II in 1967, which made greater use of electric amplification.
^Henry Flynt & The Insurrections were another New York-based experimental rock combo headed by philosopher and multi-media artist Henry Flynt, who had spent time working with fluxus artists such as Yoko Ono, and is sometimes credited with coining the phrase "conceptual art" and whose philosophy he has described as "cognitive nihilism". Flynt briefly played with the Velvet Underground in 1966 before forming his own group and proceeding record a series of tracks later that year, subsequently released almost forty years later on the retrospective album I Don't Wanna. Like the Fugs, Henry Flynt & the Insurrections' lyrics were laced with agit prop and antiwar sentiments.
^Kaye, Lenny. Original liner notes for Nuggets LP. (Elektra, 1972): first he uses the term "punk rock" to describe genre of 1960s garage bands: "The name that has been unofficially coined for them—"punk rock"—seems particularly fitting in this case ..." then later, in the track-by-track notes, he uses the term, "garage punk" to describe a song by the Shadows of Knight as "classic garage punk"
^Houghton, Mick, "White Punks on Coke", Let It Rock. December 1975.
^Shaw, Greg (January 4, 1973). "Review of Nuggets". Rolling Stone.
^ abcdefgShaw, Greg (September 15, 1998). Nuggets: Original Artyfacts from the First Psychedelic Era, 1965–1968 (4-CD Box Set) - Sic Transit Gloria: The Story of Punk Rock in the '60s (liner notes). UPC 081227546625.
^Whiteside, Jonny (February 28, 2015). "Rockin' from the Golden Age". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 3, 2016. - According to Whiteside, a Farfisa organ was used on "Let's Dance".
^Viglione, Joe. "The More I See You/Call Me". AllMusic. Retrieved April 3, 2016. – In a review of one of Montez's later albums, Viglione describes his earlier 1962 hit "Let's Dance" as "a proto garage rock song".
^ abcLemlich, Jeffrey M. (1992). Savage Lost: Florida Garage Bands of the '60s and Beyond (First ed.). Plantation, FL: Distinctive Publishing Corporation. pp. 2–3. ISBN0-942963-12-1. It shouldn't be too difficult to understand why The Beatles arrival in America was such a sociological as well as musical phenomenon. The shooting of president John F. Kennedy just eight weeks or so earlier ... The Beatles not only gave music a much-needed shot in the arm, but also provided a new kind of optimism for young people ... The Beatles as well as their other British and German contemporaries, played American rock 'n roll with an intensity that had sorely been missed on our own shores and provided thousands of American teenagers with the impetus to play rock 'n roll themselves.Source B: Gilmore, Mikal (August 23, 1990). "Bob Dylan, the Beatles, and the Rock of the Sixties". Rolling Stone. No. 585. Retrieved July 9, 2015. The Beatles's first Ed Sullivan appearance and date are mentioned. According to Gilmore: "Within days it was apparent that a genuine upheaval was underway, offering a frenetic distraction to the dread that had set into America after the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, and a renewal of the brutally wounded ideal that youthfulness carried our national hope...the Beatles were showing us how style could have the impact of cultural revelation — or at least how a pop vision might be forged into an unimpeachable consensus. Virtually overnight, the Beatles' arrival in the American consciousness announced not only that the music and times were changing but also that we were changing. Everything about the band — its look, sound, style and abandon — made it plain that we were entering a different age, that young people were free to redefine themselves in completely new terms."
^ abcdefghiKauppila, Paul (October 2006). "The Sound of the Suburbs: A Case Study of Three Garage Bands in San Jose, California during the 1960s". San Jose State University SJSU Scholar Works. San Jose, California: 7–8, 10–11. Retrieved August 1, 2015. – On pages 7–8, in the "British Invasion" and "Technology" sections, Kaupilla, in discussing garage rock, mentions the dynamics of a changing society and technology. In the "Alienation" section on page 10, he mentions the Kennedy assassination, along with Viet Nam, the threat of nuclear war and other sociological factors that were part of the sociological milieu of garage rock. On pg. 7-8, Kaupilla discusses garage bands' use of distortion as well as the role of technology on society affecting the sixties generation. In the "Alienation" and "Matters of Taste" (pg. 10–11) the author discusses other sociological dimensions of garage rock. The study discusses San Jose bands such as Chocolate Watchband, the Count Five, and the Syndicate of Sound.
^ abcDean, Bill (February 9, 2014). "50 Years Ago Today, The Beatles Taught a Young America to Play". Scene. Retrieved October 10, 2015. The article discusses the role of the connection between the JFK assassination and the Beatles' impact. According to Dean, the Beatles "brought a sense of excitement and renewed optimism for baby boomers and the rest of the nation alike". He writes, "It's impossible to say just how many of America's young people began playing guitars and forming bands in the wake of The Beatles' appearance on the Sullivan show. But the anecdotal evidence suggests thousands – if not hundreds of thousands or even more – young musicians across the country formed bands and proceeded to play ..."
^Spitz, Bob (2013). Koepp, Stephen, ed. "The Beatles Invasion (TIME Magazine special issue)" (newsstand special issue)|format= requires |url= (help). 135 West 50th St., New York, NY 10020: TIME Books, an imprint of Time Home Entertainment, Inc. pp. 5–6.
^Spitz, Bob (2013). Koepp, Stephen, ed. "The Beatles Invasion (TIME Magazine special issue)" (newsstand special issue)|format= requires |url= (help). 135 West 50th St., New York, NY 10020: TIME Books, an imprint of Time Home Entertainment, Inc. pp. 55–59.
^According to a panel of noted garage rock writers and experts who voted, "All the Way" is rated at a 10 out of 10 and ranked number 3 in the list of 1000 greatest garage rock records of all time (Markesich p. 387).
^Stax, Mike (1998). Nuggets: Original Artyfacts from the First Psychedelic Era 1965–1968 (4-Cd Box Set) - 'Optical Sound: The Technicolor Tales Behind the Various Nuggets' (track-by-track liner notes). Rhino Entertainment Company. R2 75466.
^Lemlich 1992, pp. 7-25, 48-60, 94-127140-142 - In Chapter 2, Lemlich provides an overview of the scope and size of the Florida scene, mentioning many of its notable acts. South Florida, and the Peninsula receive much discussion, with Miami being identified as the largest scene..
^ abcMarks, Ian D.; McIntyre, Iain (2010). Wild About You: The Sixties Beat Explosion in Australia and New Zealand. Portland, London, Melbourne: Verse Chorus Press. pp. 7–9, 11–35. ISBN978-1-891241-28-4. The entire 352-page book is devoted to garage rock in Australia during the 1960s. Ian McFarland, one of the best known writers covering Australian rock, uses the term "garage, "garage punk" or "punk" repeatedly in his Forward on pp. 7–9 when describing the Australian 1960s bands; his first sentence reads: "When the subject of 1960s Aussie garage-punk-/R&B/psych comes up in conversation, most aficionados of the genre will grin knowingly, nod enthusiastically and immediately rattle of a list of their personal fave raves". The main text by Marks and McIntyre uses these same terms constantly throughout the whole book, whose central purpose is to address the Australian garage rock bands. The book in its coverage of numerous acts, underscores the scope and size of the Australian garage rock scene in the mid-'60s. Also see: Everett True's Australian Garage Rock Primer (website)True's Australian Garage Rock Primer
^ abcBangs, Lester (2003). Marcus, Greil, ed. Psychotic Reactions and Carburetor Dung (First ed.). New York: Ancor Books, a division of Random House Inc. pp. 56–57, 61, 64, 101. ISBN0-679-72045-6. Lester Bangs, one of the first writers to define genre, in his article, "James Taylor Marked for Death", which appeared in the Spring 1971 edition of Grag Shaw's publication, Who Put the Bomp, extolls the virtues of British band, the Troggs', seemingly unrepentant primitivism and sexually charged innuendo (pp. 54, 57) and wrote that he considered them not only of the genre, but quintessential to it. He constantly uses the word "punk" (which at the time was the term used for the garage rock genre) to describe them (pages 56–57, 61, 64). On page 101 he uses the word "punk" again and even goes to the extreme of calling them its "supreme archetype" and also equates them with the Stooges and Modern Lovers, whom he holds in similar but lesser regard in that respect.
^Hicks 1999, p. 36. Hicks remarks about the Troggs: "...often considered Britain's first garage band...".
^Bhatia 2014, pp. 1-4, 10, 51. On pages 1 and 2 Bhatia discusses the Simla Beat Contest in 1971. (One listen to the Simla Beat 70/71 compilation confirms that the mid-'60s style of garage rock was still present in India, not as a revival, but as a living, organic, and unconscious continuation of the form.) On pages 3 and 4 the author describes the famine and economic hardship, as well as political instability in India at the time. On pages 10 and 51 the author indicates that the term often used for many the Indian bands of the 1960s is "garage bands".
^A: Bishop, Chris (June 23, 2011). "The Frustrations Amalgamated". Garage Hangover. Retrieved August 7, 2015.B: Bishop, Chris (September 8, 2006). "Simla Beat". Garage Hangover. Retrieved August 7, 2015. The album was not recorded live on stage, but in the studio albeit with very little overdubbing or sound reinforcement.
^ abcdBerger, Jacob; Coston, Daniel (2014). There Was a Time: Rock & Roll in the 1960s in Charlotte and North Carolina (1st ed.). Charlotte: Fort Canoga Press. pp. 97–105. ISBN9780615809403. - Berger, who played in the Ajents (Charlotte,NC) comments: " We were the first generation to have the "miracle technology" of television, and for the first time we got to see the ugly side of America. He goes on to mention racial tension and goes on: "Now what had been on the back burner of their minds and not fully been fully ware of was splattered across the seven o'clock news. Now we saw everyday people caught up in a whirlwind of change." From pg. 97-105, former members of North Carolina garage bands discuss the Viet Nam War and a host of other issues they faced. Source B: Gilmore, Mikal (August 23, 1990). "Bob Dylan, the Beatles, and the Rock of the Sixties". Rolling Stone. No. 585. Retrieved July 9, 2015.
^Nobles, Mark (2011). Fort Worth's Rock and Roll Roots. Charleston, South Carolina: Arcadia Publishing. pp. 7, 9–10. ISBN978-0-7385-8499-7. - Nobles discusses how the Beatles Ed Sullivan appearance and its influence on garage bands tied in with the Kennedy assassination and looming Vietnam crisis (and even the nuclear arms race with the Soviet Union) and how it relates "organically" with the whole psychedelic movement that emerged in the second half of the decade. He contends that the Beatles visit unleashed much of the (previously pent up) inertia that propelled many of the subsequent changes in attitudes and styles of 60s youth.
^Palao, Alec (September 15, 1998). "Get Me to the World On Time: How the Sound of Nuggets Engulfed the Globe". Nuggets: Original Artyfacts from the First Psychedelic Era, 1965–1968 (4-CD Box Set): 27. UPC 081227546625. - On pg. 27, Palao speaks of the innocence of 1960s garage rock.
^ abBillet, Alexander (March 29, 2016). "Monk Time". Red Wedge. Retrieved February 13, 2017. Billet mentions "there is such a thing as 'avant-garde garage rock' and associates the Monks with the term. He also uses the term "proto-punk" to describe them. - Source B:Seavey, Todd Seavey (October 28, 2013). "All Tomorrow's Partisans: Lou Reed, 1942-2013". The American Spectator. Retrieved June 11, 2016. - Seavy uses "garage rock" as a descriptor for the Velvet Underground's stylistic approach.
^Shaw, Greg (September 15, 1998). "Sic Transit Gloria: The Story of Punk Rock in the '60s". Nuggets: Original Artyfacts from the First Psychedelic Era, 1965–1968 (4-CD Box Set): 17–18. UPC 081227546625.
^ abcM. Gray, The Clash: Return of the Last Gang in Town, Hal Leonard, 2004, Ch. 1, pp. 26–29. Gray discusses influence of garage rock and Nuggets compilation on Mick Jones; he mentions on page 27 that his mother, who was living overseas (in Detroit) in the early 1970s, sent him copies of Creem magazine – he read articles by Lester Bangs using word "punk rock" to describe 60s garage bands and early 1970s Detrit acts. Gray discusses how the perception of punk shifted away from its previous 60s and early 70s connotations following the rise of the Sex Pistols and the whole "year zero" outlook.
^ abRobb, John. Punk Rock: An Oral Biography. PM Press. Oakland, California. 2012, pp. 34, 66, 76, 106, 132, 133, 187, 215. Oral accounts by Mick Jones, Charlie Harper, Poly Styrene, Vic Godard, Bryan James, and Captain Sensible that discuss the influence of garage rock (American bands such as the Seeds and the Shadows of Knight, as well as British bands such as the Troggs, and the Nuggets compilation) on musicians in the early London punk scene; Page 76: Mick Jones refers to bands on Nuggets as "early punk".
^Laing, Dave. One Chord Wonders: Power and Meaning in Punk Rock. PM Press, Oakland, California, 2015, pp. 22–23: Laing discusses the beginning of the punk aesthetic in the early 1970s, which he describes on page 22 as at first strictly musical, not cultural. On page 23, after providing quotes from Greg Shaw and Billy Altman, he discusses the genesis of the punk aesthetic: "The construction of punk as a musical type and ideal, then took place in America in the early '70s as part of the reaction against the centrality of progressive rock in its various forms".
^M. Blake (ed.). Punk: The Whole Story (Mojo Magazine). Dorling Kindersley Limited. 2006. Nick Kent (journalist and very early member of the Sex Pistols), in his piece, "Punk Rock Year Zero" describes the origin of the punk aesthetic: "For me, punk didn't start in 1976: it started in 1971 when I first read US rock magazine Creem. The writer Dave Marsh claims he coined the phrase 'punk rock' in a review he wrote for the magazine late '71 of a gig by ? & the Mysterians. But it was fellow Creem scribe Lester Bangs who really took the term and created a whole aesthetic for it. For Bangs and his disciples, punk rock began in 1963 when Seattle quartet the Kingsmen hit Number 1 stateside with the deliciously moronic Louie, Louie, grew with the influx of one hit wonders from the US mid-'60s that Creem correspondent, Lenny Kaye paid fulsome tribute to with his influential 1972 album Nuggets ..."
^ abRodel (2004), p. 237; Bennett (2001), pp. 49–50
^N. E. Tawa, Supremely American: Popular Song in the 20th Century: Styles and Singers and what They Said about America (Scarecrow Press, 2005), p. 179.
^Aaron 2013, p. 53 - Book mentions that three of the original members of the Ramones had been in 1960s garage bands: Johnny and Tommy had been members of the Tangerine Puppets and Joey had been in the Intruders..
^Shaw, Greg (September 15, 1998). "Sic Transit Gloria: The Story of Punk Rock in the '60s". Nuggets: Original Artyfacts from the First Psychedelic Era, 1965–1968 (4-CD Box Set): 21. UPC 081227546625. – Greg Shaw describes how, after the rise of the Sex Pistols, critics moved away from using the term "punk rock" for 60s garage bands and began to speak of the 60s bands as "garage rock". This tendency clearly reflected the larger public perception—these critics did not want to detract from what was perceived as an exciting new movement (i.e. 1975–1978) or confuse readers who generally understood punk in terms of current trends.
Bangs, Lester (2003). Psychotic Reactions and Carburetor Dung (1st ed.). New York: Anchor Books (a division of Random House). ISBN0-679-72045-6.
Bangs, Lester (1981). "Protopunk: The Garage Bands". In Miller, Jim. The Rolling Stone Illustrated History of Rock & Roll. Picador Books. ISBN0-330-26568-7.
Gendron, Bernard (2002). Between Montmartre and the Mudd Club: Popular Music and the Avant-Garde (1st ed.). Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press. ISBN0-226-28735-1.
Bogdanov, Vladamir; Woodstra, Chris; Erlewine, Stephen Thomas (2002). All Music Guide to Rock: The Definitive Guide to Rock, Pop, and Soul (3rd ed.). 600 Harrison St., San Francisco, CA 94105: Backbeat Books. ISBN0-87930-653-X.
Berger, Jacob; Coston, Daniel (2014). There Was a Time: Rock & Roll in the 1960s in Charlotte and North Carolina (1st ed.). Charlotte: Fort Canoga Press. ISBN9780615809403.
Bhatia, Sidharth (2014). India Psychedelic: The Story of a Rocking Generation (1st ed.). Charleston, SC, Chicago, IL, Portsmouth, NH, San Francisco, CA: Harper Collins Publishers. ISBN978-93-5029-837-4.
Blecha, Peter (2009). Sonic Boom: The History of Northwest Rock, from "Louie Louie" to "Smells Like Teen Spirit (1st ed.). New York: Backstreet Books (a imprint of Hal Leonard Corporation). ISBN978-0-87930-946-6.
Blecha, Peter (2007). Music in Washington, Seattle and Beyond (Images of America) (1st ed.). Charleston, SC, Chicago, IL, Portsmouth, NH, San Francisco, CA: Arcadia Publishing. ISBN978-0-7835-4818-0.
Davidson, Eric (May 1, 2010). We Never Learn: The Gunk Punk Undergut, 1988–2001. Backbeat Books (Hal Leonard Performing Arts Publishing). ISBN978-0-87930-972-5.
Edmondson, Jacqueline Ph.D (April 2009). Jerry Garcia: A Biography. Santa Barbara, California: Greenwood Biographies. ISBN978-0-313-35121-1.
Grubbs, David (2014). Records Ruin the Landscape: John Cage, the Sixties, and Sound Recording (1st ed.). Duke University Press. ISBN978-0-8223-5576-2.
Hall, Mitchell (2014). The Emergence of Rock and Roll: Music and the Rise of American Youth Culture (1st ed.). 711 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017: Routlage: Taylor & Francis Group. ISBN978-0-415-83312-7.
Hall, Ron (2001). Playing for a Piece of the Door: A History of Garage & Frat Bands in Memphis 1960-1975 (1st ed.). Memphis: Sharngri-La Projects. ISBN0-9668575-1-8.
Hicks, Michael (1999). Sixties Rock: Garage, Psychedelic, and Other Satisfactions. University of Illinois Press. ISBN0-252-06915-3.
Kitts, Thomas M. (November 28, 2007). Ray Davies: Not Like Everybody Else. Routledge. ISBN978-0-415-97769-2.
Kristiansen, Lars J. (2010). Screaming for Change: Articulating a Unifying Philosophy of Punk Rock. Lanham, Boulder, New York, Toronto, Plymouth UK: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc. ISBN978-0-7391-4274-5.
Laing, Dave. One Chord Wonders: Power and Meaning in Punk Rock.
Lemlich, Jeffrey M. (2001). Savage Lost: Florida Garage Bands: The '60s and Beyond (1st ed.). Miami, Florida: Distinctive Punishing Corp. ISBN978-0-942963.
MacLeod, Sean (2015). Leaders of the Pack: Girl Groups of the 1960s and Their Influence on Popular Culture in Britain and America (First ed.). London, UK/Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN978-1-4422-5201-1.
Markesich, Mike (2012). Teenbeat Mayhem (1st ed.). Branford, Connecticut: Priceless Info Press. ISBN978-0-985-64825-1.
Marks, Ian D.; McIntyre, Iain (2010). Wild About You: The Sixties Beat Explosion in Australia and New Zealand (1st ed.). Portland, London, Melbourne: Verse Chorus Press. ISBN978-1-891241-28-4.
Morrison, Craig (2005). Komara, Edward, ed. Encyclopedia of the Blues. Psychology Press. ISBN0-415-92699-8.
Murrells, Joseph (1978). The Book of Golden Discs (2nd ed.). London: Barrie and Jenkins Ltd. ISBN0-214-20512-6.
Nobles, Mark (2012). Fort Worth's Rock and Roll Roots (Images of America series) (1st ed.). Charleston, SC, Chicago, IL, Prtsmouth, NH, San Francisco, CA: Arcadia Publishing. ISBN9780738584997.
Philo, Simon (2015). British Invasion: The Crosscurrents of Musical Influence (1st ed.). Lanham, Boulder, New York, London: Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group Inc. ISBN978-0-8108-8626-1.
Rogan, Johnny (1998). The Byrds: Timeless Flight Revisited (2nd ed.). Rogan House. ISBN0-9529540-1-X.
Roller, Peter (2013). Milwaukee Garage Bands: Generations of Grassroots Rock (1st ed.). Charleston, London: The History Press. ISBN978-1-60949-625-8.
Rosenberg, Stuart (2008). Rock and Roll and the American Landscape: The Birth of an Industry and the Expansion of the Popular Culture, 1955-1969. 1663 Liberty Drive, Bloomington, Indiana 47403: iUniverse. ISBN1440164584.
Buckley, Peter (2003). The Rough Guide to Rock: The Definitive Guide to More than 1200 Artists and Bands (3rd ed.). London: Rough Guides. ISBN1-84353-105-4.
Unterberger, Richie (1998) Unknown Legends of Rock 'n' Roll: Psychedelic Unknowns, Mad Geniuses, Punk Pioneers, Lo-Fi Mavericks & More. Backbeat Books. ISBN 0-87930-534-7 / ISBN 978-0-87930-534-5 – covers lesser known and overlooked rock artists from the 1960s, including garage and psychedelic
Unterberger, Richie (2000) Urban Spacemen and Wayfaring Strangers: Overlooked Innovators and Eccentric Visionaries of '60s Rock. Backbeat Books. ISBN 0-87930-616-5 / ISBN 978-0-87930-616-8 – covers more lesser known and overlooked rock artists from the 1960s, including garage and psychedelic