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Garamantian Empire
Garamantian Empire
Published: 2015/10/04
Channel: Concerned Citizen
El enigma de los Garamantes. La conexión Atlante
El enigma de los Garamantes. La conexión Atlante
Published: 2014/09/21
Channel: La Entrada Secreta
Les Garamantes ⴳⴰⵔⴰⵎⴰⵏⴻⵙ
Les Garamantes ⴳⴰⵔⴰⵎⴰⵏⴻⵙ
Published: 2017/08/09
Channel: D N
La Campagne des Hommes du désert: Les Garamantes (FR): Le Chacal sort de son nid
La Campagne des Hommes du désert: Les Garamantes (FR): Le Chacal sort de son nid
Published: 2016/04/27
Channel: La Taverne des Casus
Niakson - Garamantes (Prod. Virgule)
Niakson - Garamantes (Prod. Virgule)
Published: 2016/10/13
Channel: Niaks La Menace
Total War Attila Online - Garamantes
Total War Attila Online - Garamantes
Published: 2016/05/21
Channel: Gorben
Garamentes ft. Ass-i (Ctp) & YMH - Tempête de sable
Garamentes ft. Ass-i (Ctp) & YMH - Tempête de sable
Published: 2016/05/06
Channel: Garamentes
The Garamantes - Djalla | Peace
The Garamantes - Djalla | Peace
Published: 2014/06/27
Channel: Alga´s Pizza Palace
The Garamantes - Djalla  | War
The Garamantes - Djalla | War
Published: 2014/06/27
Channel: Alga´s Pizza Palace
Who Is Septimius Severus?
Who Is Septimius Severus?
Published: 2015/04/28
Channel: MadeInTurkey
North African Soul Brother Fights Arab Imperialism and Genocide
North African Soul Brother Fights Arab Imperialism and Genocide
Published: 2014/03/10
Channel: knowledgeiswhatsup2
Garamentes - Je m
Garamentes - Je m'isole
Published: 2016/09/09
Channel: Garamentes
Garamantians FLC Faction Preview and Battle - Total War Attila
Garamantians FLC Faction Preview and Battle - Total War Attila
Published: 2016/02/26
Channel: Maximus Decimus Meridius
Sahara Emotions
Sahara Emotions
Published: 2011/06/01
Channel: helmut79367
How to Pronounce Garamantes
How to Pronounce Garamantes
Published: 2015/02/24
Channel: Pronunciation Guide
IDADE MÉDIA: Reinos Africanos #5
IDADE MÉDIA: Reinos Africanos #5
Published: 2016/05/23
Channel: Se Liga Nessa História
Ella
Ella
Published: 2010/08/21
Channel: garamantes6666
Attila total war  Garamantes  cap 1  preparacion de guerra
Attila total war Garamantes cap 1 preparacion de guerra
Published: 2016/03/02
Channel: Torito TW
Total War: Attila - Garamantians #1 (FLC)
Total War: Attila - Garamantians #1 (FLC)
Published: 2016/02/26
Channel: Turumba TV
Le Campagne des Hommes du Désert : Les Garamantes (FR): Guerre intérieur
Le Campagne des Hommes du Désert : Les Garamantes (FR): Guerre intérieur
Published: 2016/05/08
Channel: La Taverne des Casus
GARAMANTIAN GLORY! - Garamantia Update - Total War: Attila (Garamantia vs ERE)
GARAMANTIAN GLORY! - Garamantia Update - Total War: Attila (Garamantia vs ERE)
Published: 2016/02/28
Channel: WarriorofSparta
La Campagne des Hommes du désert: Les Garamantes (FR): Le Chacal sort les crocs
La Campagne des Hommes du désert: Les Garamantes (FR): Le Chacal sort les crocs
Published: 2016/04/28
Channel: La Taverne des Casus
La Campagne des Hommes du désert: Les Garamantes (FR): La conquête peux commencer
La Campagne des Hommes du désert: Les Garamantes (FR): La conquête peux commencer
Published: 2016/05/19
Channel: La Taverne des Casus
Total War: Attila - Garamantians #1 | Death to the Gaetulians
Total War: Attila - Garamantians #1 | Death to the Gaetulians
Published: 2016/03/03
Channel: HForHavoc
Total War Attila NEW DLC Slavic Nations & FLC Garamantes All 4 Factions Battle
Total War Attila NEW DLC Slavic Nations & FLC Garamantes All 4 Factions Battle
Published: 2016/02/28
Channel: snowhood
Attila total war  garamantes  cap 19  viendo nuevas guerras
Attila total war garamantes cap 19 viendo nuevas guerras
Published: 2016/04/09
Channel: Torito TW
VOD Live - 27/02/2016 - Sigieron & Yzokras ~ Garamantes & Aksum [P.2]
VOD Live - 27/02/2016 - Sigieron & Yzokras ~ Garamantes & Aksum [P.2]
Published: 2016/02/29
Channel: TotalWar Studio
VOD Live - 27/02/2016 - Sigieron & Yzokras ~ Garamantes & Aksum [P.4]
VOD Live - 27/02/2016 - Sigieron & Yzokras ~ Garamantes & Aksum [P.4]
Published: 2016/02/29
Channel: TotalWar Studio
Garamantians Part 10 - TW Attila Let
Garamantians Part 10 - TW Attila Let's play
Published: 2016/12/21
Channel: Awful Gamer
Attila total war  campaña garamantes  cap 4  reorganizacion
Attila total war campaña garamantes cap 4 reorganizacion
Published: 2016/03/08
Channel: Torito TW
VOD Live - 27/02/2016 - Sigieron & Yzokras ~ Garamantes & Aksum [P.3]
VOD Live - 27/02/2016 - Sigieron & Yzokras ~ Garamantes & Aksum [P.3]
Published: 2016/02/29
Channel: TotalWar Studio
Attila total war  campaña Garamantes  cap 7  convirtiendo a la gente y faccion destruida mauri
Attila total war campaña Garamantes cap 7 convirtiendo a la gente y faccion destruida mauri
Published: 2016/03/14
Channel: Torito TW
Attila  total war  campaña garamantes  cap 11  Nuevas conquistas
Attila total war campaña garamantes cap 11 Nuevas conquistas
Published: 2016/03/22
Channel: Torito TW
Attila total war  campaña Garamantes  cap 8  entramos en hispania
Attila total war campaña Garamantes cap 8 entramos en hispania
Published: 2016/03/16
Channel: Torito TW
attila total war  campaña garamantes  cap 13  faccion destruida Nobatia
attila total war campaña garamantes cap 13 faccion destruida Nobatia
Published: 2016/03/26
Channel: Torito TW
Attila total war  campaña Garamantes  cap 6  rebeldes vandalos
Attila total war campaña Garamantes cap 6 rebeldes vandalos
Published: 2016/03/12
Channel: Torito TW
When blacks Ruled The World our ancestors.
When blacks Ruled The World our ancestors.
Published: 2014/06/20
Channel: twatson21570
Attila total war  Garamantes  cap 2  faccion destruida getulianos y nueva guerra
Attila total war Garamantes cap 2 faccion destruida getulianos y nueva guerra
Published: 2016/03/04
Channel: Torito TW
VOD Live - 27/02/2016 - Sigieron & Yzokras ~ Garamantes & Aksum [P.1]
VOD Live - 27/02/2016 - Sigieron & Yzokras ~ Garamantes & Aksum [P.1]
Published: 2016/02/29
Channel: TotalWar Studio
Attila total war  campaña garamantes  cap 15  Rebeldes de Nobatia
Attila total war campaña garamantes cap 15 Rebeldes de Nobatia
Published: 2016/03/30
Channel: Torito TW
Attila total war  campaña garamantes  cap 14  aplacando rebeliones y nuevas conquistas
Attila total war campaña garamantes cap 14 aplacando rebeliones y nuevas conquistas
Published: 2016/03/28
Channel: Torito TW
Attila total war  campaña garamantes  cap 9  guerra declarada Imperio Romano de Oriente
Attila total war campaña garamantes cap 9 guerra declarada Imperio Romano de Oriente
Published: 2016/03/18
Channel: Torito TW
Attila total war  campaña garamantes  cap 10  reorganizacion
Attila total war campaña garamantes cap 10 reorganizacion
Published: 2016/03/20
Channel: Torito TW
VOD Live - 27/02/2016 - Sigieron & Yzokras ~ Garamantes & Aksum [P.5]
VOD Live - 27/02/2016 - Sigieron & Yzokras ~ Garamantes & Aksum [P.5]
Published: 2016/02/29
Channel: TotalWar Studio
Attila total war  campaña garamantes  cap 5  Faccion destruida separatistas africanos
Attila total war campaña garamantes cap 5 Faccion destruida separatistas africanos
Published: 2016/03/10
Channel: Torito TW
Attila total war  campaña garamantes  cap 16  La provincia de Egipto es nuestra
Attila total war campaña garamantes cap 16 La provincia de Egipto es nuestra
Published: 2016/04/01
Channel: Torito TW
Attila total war  campaña garamantes  cap 12  faccion destruida lazica
Attila total war campaña garamantes cap 12 faccion destruida lazica
Published: 2016/03/24
Channel: Torito TW
Attila Total war  campaña garamantes  cap 3  alimentos en positivo
Attila Total war campaña garamantes cap 3 alimentos en positivo
Published: 2016/03/06
Channel: Torito TW
Attila Total War  campaña Garamantes  cap 17  reorganizacion del orden publico y la toma de Aila
Attila Total War campaña Garamantes cap 17 reorganizacion del orden publico y la toma de Aila
Published: 2016/04/03
Channel: Torito TW
Attila total war  campaña Garamantes  cap 17  conquista de Nova trajana Bostra y Tarraco
Attila total war campaña Garamantes cap 17 conquista de Nova trajana Bostra y Tarraco
Published: 2016/04/05
Channel: Torito TW
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Map of the Roman empire under Hadrian (ruled 117–138 AD), showing the location of the Garamantes kingdom, in the desert regions south of the Roman province of Africa proconsularis (Tunisia, Libya).

The Garamantes (possibly from the Berber igherman / iɣerman, meaning: "cities" in modern Berber; or possibly from igerramen meaning "saints, holy/sacred people" in modern Berber) were a Berber tribe who developed an advanced civilization in ancient southwestern Libya. They used an elaborate underground irrigation system, and founded prosperous Berber kingdoms or city-states in the Fezzan area of Libya, in the Sahara desert. They were a local power between 500 BC and 700 AD.

There is little textual information about the Garamantes, but their written language was "...a still nearly indecipherable proto-Tifaniq, the script of modern-day Tuaregs."[1] Even the name Garamantes was a Greek name, which the Romans later adopted. Available information comes mainly from Greek and Roman sources, as well as archaeological excavations in the area, though large areas in ruins remain unexcavated. Another important source of information is the abundant rock art, which often depicts life prior to the rise of the realm.

Garamantian life[edit]

In the 1960s, archaeologists excavated part of the Garamantes' capital at modern Germa (situated around 150 km west of modern-day Sabha) and named it Garama (an earlier capital, Zinchecra, was located not far from the later Garama). Current research indicates that the Garamantes had about eight major towns, three of which have been examined as of 2004. In addition they had a large number of other settlements. Garama had a population of around four thousand and another six thousand living in villages within a 5 km radius.

The Garamantes were farmers and merchants. Their diet consisted of grapes, figs, barley, and wheat. They traded wheat, salt and slaves in exchange for imported wine and olive oil, oil lamps and Roman tableware. According to Strabo and Pliny, the Garamantes quarried amazonite in the Tibesti Mountains. In 2011, Efthymia Nikita reported that Garamantes skeletons do not suggest regular warfare or strenuous activities. "The Garamantes exhibited low sexual dimorphism in the upper limbs, which is consistent to the pattern found in agricultural populations and implies that the engagement of males in warfare and construction works was not particularly intense. [...] the Garamantes did not appear systematically more robust than other North African populations occupying less harsh environments, indicating that life in the Sahara did not require particularly strenuous daily activities."[2]

Archaeological remains[edit]

The ruins include numerous tombs, forts, and cemeteries. The Garamantes constructed a network of underground tunnels and shafts to mine the fossil water from under the limestone layer under the desert sand. The dating of these foggara is disputed, they appear between 200 BC to 200 AD but continued to be in use until at least the 7th century and perhaps later.[3] The network of tunnels is known to Berbers as Foggaras. The network allowed agriculture to flourish, and used a system of slave labor to keep it maintained.

History[edit]

Location of the Garamantes in the Fezzan ca. 600 AD, before the Islamic conquest.

The Garamantes were probably present as tribal people in the Fezzan by 1000 BC. They appear in the written record for the first time in the 5th century BC: according to Herodotus, they were "a very great nation" who herded cattle, farmed dates, and hunted the Troglodytae ("cave-dwellers") who lived in the desert, from four-horse chariots.[4] Roman depictions describe them as bearing ritual scars and tattoos. Tacitus wrote that they assisted the rebel Tacfarinas and raided Roman coastal settlements. According to Pliny the Elder, Romans eventually grew tired of Garamantian raiding and Lucius Cornelius Balbus captured 15 of their settlements in 19 BC. In 202, Septimius Severus captured the capital city of Garama.[5]

By around 150 AD the Garamantian kingdom (in today's central Libya (Fezzan), principally along the still existing Wadi al-Ajal), covered 180,000 square kilometres in modern-day southern Libya. It lasted from about 400 BC to 600 AD.

The decline of the Garamantian culture may have been connected to worsening climatic conditions, or overuse of water resources.[6] What is desert today was once fairly good agricultural land and was enhanced through the Garamantian irrigation system 1,500 years ago. As fossil water is a non-renewable resource, over the six centuries of the Garamantian kingdom, the ground water level fell.[citation needed] The kingdom declined and fragmented.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Werner, Louis. "Libya's Forgotten Desert Kingdom". saudiaramcoworld.com. Saudi Aramco World. Retrieved August 15, 2016. May/June 2004; Volume 55, Number 3 
  2. ^ Nikita, Efthymia (2011). "Activity patterns in the Sahara Desert: An interpretation based on cross-sectional geometric properties". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 146: 423–434. doi:10.1002/ajpa.21597. 
  3. ^ David Mattingly (ed.). 2003. Archaeology of Fazzan. Volume 1, Synthesis. London
  4. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg History of Herodotus. Book 4. Melpomene.
  5. ^ Birley (1999), p. 153.
  6. ^ Fall of Gaddafi opens a new era for the Sahara's lost civilisation, Guardian, retrieved 5/11/2011

Bibliography[edit]

  • Birley, Anthony R. (1999) [1971]. Septimius Severus: The African Emperor. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-16591-1. 
  • N. Barley (Review). Reviewed work(s): Les chars rupestres sahariens: des syrtes au Niger, par le pays des Garamantes et des Atlantes by Henri Lhote Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 48, No. 1 (1985), pp. 210–210

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

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