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SYN104 - Generative Grammar
SYN104 - Generative Grammar
Published: 2012/03/19
Channel: The Virtual Linguistics Campus
Noam Chomsky: "After 60+ Years of Generative Grammar: A Personal Perspective"
Noam Chomsky: "After 60+ Years of Generative Grammar: A Personal Perspective"
Published: 2013/01/22
Channel: Noam Chomsky
Noam Chomsky - Generative Grammar - Deep and Surface Structure
Noam Chomsky - Generative Grammar - Deep and Surface Structure
Published: 2015/10/05
Channel: Stephanie Alberto Ⓥ
What is GENERATIVE GRAMMAR? What does GENERATIVE GRAMMAR mean? GENERATIVE GRAMMAR meaning
What is GENERATIVE GRAMMAR? What does GENERATIVE GRAMMAR mean? GENERATIVE GRAMMAR meaning
Published: 2016/08/07
Channel: The Audiopedia
Generative Grammar | Generative Grammar Explained
Generative Grammar | Generative Grammar Explained
Published: 2017/08/21
Channel: English Literature Hub
SYN110 - Variants of Generative Grammar I
SYN110 - Variants of Generative Grammar I
Published: 2013/06/10
Channel: The Virtual Linguistics Campus
Generative Syntax 1.1: Prescriptive and Descriptive Rules
Generative Syntax 1.1: Prescriptive and Descriptive Rules
Published: 2015/06/28
Channel: Linguistics and English Language at the University of Edinburgh
Mod-01 Lec-32B Guest Lecture: Generative Grammar by Professor B. N. Patnaik
Mod-01 Lec-32B Guest Lecture: Generative Grammar by Professor B. N. Patnaik
Published: 2015/01/02
Channel: nptelhrd
Generative grammar
Generative grammar
Published: 2016/01/22
Channel: WikiAudio
essay about generative grammar
essay about generative grammar
Published: 2017/04/25
Channel: Илья Куимов
noam chomsky on universal grammar and the genetics of language with captioning
noam chomsky on universal grammar and the genetics of language with captioning
Published: 2012/05/11
Channel: Kimberly Murza
67  Syntax 5   Generative Grammar Pra Sally.
67 Syntax 5 Generative Grammar Pra Sally.
Published: 2013/11/02
Channel: rene reyes
Generative Syntax 4.2-4.4: Sentence Structure
Generative Syntax 4.2-4.4: Sentence Structure
Published: 2014/10/02
Channel: Linguistics and English Language at the University of Edinburgh
Professor John Goldsmith: Generative Grammar and Machine Learning
Professor John Goldsmith: Generative Grammar and Machine Learning
Published: 2017/01/24
Channel: Department of Linguistics at College of Information UNT
Noam Chomsky, Transformational Generative Grammar
Noam Chomsky, Transformational Generative Grammar
Published: 2016/05/12
Channel: Nouf Alammar
SYN104 - Unit Advice (Generative Grammar)
SYN104 - Unit Advice (Generative Grammar)
Published: 2015/09/24
Channel: The Virtual Linguistics Campus
generative grammar at SPARK Dance Forum
generative grammar at SPARK Dance Forum
Published: 2017/10/09
Channel: nattletig
Generative Grammar by hatayu
Generative Grammar by hatayu
Published: 2013/04/29
Channel: QZY03321
What Is Generative Grammar?
What Is Generative Grammar?
Published: 2017/08/16
Channel: Wade Wade
SYN110 - Unit Advice (Variants of Generative Grammar)
SYN110 - Unit Advice (Variants of Generative Grammar)
Published: 2016/03/31
Channel: The Virtual Linguistics Campus
Generative Syntax 1.2: On Constituency
Generative Syntax 1.2: On Constituency
Published: 2015/06/29
Channel: Linguistics and English Language at the University of Edinburgh
Generative grammar
Generative grammar
Published: 2016/05/24
Channel: Wikivoicemedia
Generative Syntax 1.3: Constituent Recursion
Generative Syntax 1.3: Constituent Recursion
Published: 2015/06/30
Channel: Linguistics and English Language at the University of Edinburgh
Human Language Sentences - Basic Parse Trees, X-Bar Theory & Ambiguity -- Linguistics 101
Human Language Sentences - Basic Parse Trees, X-Bar Theory & Ambiguity -- Linguistics 101
Published: 2011/11/14
Channel: NativLang
ESP language description- transformational generative grammar
ESP language description- transformational generative grammar
Published: 2011/12/05
Channel: espdoscst2011
Transformational Grammar 1 حلقات الترجمة التعليمية
Transformational Grammar 1 حلقات الترجمة التعليمية
Published: 2016/12/05
Channel: Translation Courses
What Is Generative Grammar?
What Is Generative Grammar?
Published: 2017/08/22
Channel: Obu Obu
Generative Syntax 4.1: The X-bar Schema
Generative Syntax 4.1: The X-bar Schema
Published: 2014/10/02
Channel: Linguistics and English Language at the University of Edinburgh
Generative Syntax 5.2 - The DP Hypothesis
Generative Syntax 5.2 - The DP Hypothesis
Published: 2014/10/08
Channel: Linguistics and English Language at the University of Edinburgh
Noam Chomsky’s Theory of Universal Grammar
Noam Chomsky’s Theory of Universal Grammar
Published: 2014/12/04
Channel: Mark Garman
GENERATING GRAMMAR FROM LANGUAGE - PART_1 || THEORY OF COMPUTATION
GENERATING GRAMMAR FROM LANGUAGE - PART_1 || THEORY OF COMPUTATION
Published: 2017/02/24
Channel: Chanchal Agarwal
Natural Language Computing An English Generative Grammar in Prolog
Natural Language Computing An English Generative Grammar in Prolog
Published: 2017/05/11
Channel: fitri tia
Generative Syntax 6.1 - Wh- Interrogatives
Generative Syntax 6.1 - Wh- Interrogatives
Published: 2014/11/12
Channel: Linguistics and English Language at the University of Edinburgh
What is GENERATIVE GRAMMAR? What does GENERATIVE GRAMMAR mean? GENERATIVE GRAMMAR meaning - 2017
What is GENERATIVE GRAMMAR? What does GENERATIVE GRAMMAR mean? GENERATIVE GRAMMAR meaning - 2017
Published: 2017/02/28
Channel: Cesar Howell
Generative Syntax 2.1: Substituting Constituents
Generative Syntax 2.1: Substituting Constituents
Published: 2015/09/12
Channel: Linguistics and English Language at the University of Edinburgh
Optimality Theory - is grammar about rules or constraints? -- Linguistics 101
Optimality Theory - is grammar about rules or constraints? -- Linguistics 101
Published: 2012/10/04
Channel: NativLang
Grammar Variational Autoencoder
Grammar Variational Autoencoder
Published: 2017/05/20
Channel: Microsoft Research
Generative Syntax 2.3: It-Clefts and Constituency
Generative Syntax 2.3: It-Clefts and Constituency
Published: 2016/02/14
Channel: Linguistics and English Language at the University of Edinburgh
Prosodic Phonology Studies in Generative Grammar Sgg Pdf
Prosodic Phonology Studies in Generative Grammar Sgg Pdf
Published: 2015/12/14
Channel: Ava Clarkson
Generative Syntax 2.2: Moving Constituents
Generative Syntax 2.2: Moving Constituents
Published: 2015/09/28
Channel: Linguistics and English Language at the University of Edinburgh
Generative Grammar Book
Generative Grammar Book
Published: 2007/07/04
Channel: yermishkina
Language use & design: conflicts & their significance | Prof Noam Chomsky
Language use & design: conflicts & their significance | Prof Noam Chomsky
Published: 2013/04/09
Channel: UCD - University College Dublin
Chomsky
Chomsky's Universal Grammar: True or False?
Published: 2011/03/25
Channel: twinklybird
Generative Grammar Book (2)
Generative Grammar Book (2)
Published: 2007/07/04
Channel: yermishkina
Morphological Theory An Introduction to Word Structure in Generative Grammar
Morphological Theory An Introduction to Word Structure in Generative Grammar
Published: 2016/04/22
Channel: Brenda Phillips
Phonology in Generative Grammar Blackwell Textbooks in Linguistics, No  7
Phonology in Generative Grammar Blackwell Textbooks in Linguistics, No 7
Published: 2016/04/26
Channel: Maria Britt
The minimalist program and language acquisition
The minimalist program and language acquisition
Published: 2012/10/15
Channel: VideoLecturesChannel
Phonology in Generative Grammar Blackwell Textbooks in Linguistics No  7 Pdf
Phonology in Generative Grammar Blackwell Textbooks in Linguistics No 7 Pdf
Published: 2015/12/14
Channel: Ava Clarkson
Download Morphological Theory An Introduction to Word Structure in Generative Grammar Blackwell Text
Download Morphological Theory An Introduction to Word Structure in Generative Grammar Blackwell Text
Published: 2017/03/18
Channel: Klobučar
Interview with Stephen Gilligan on Generative Change
Interview with Stephen Gilligan on Generative Change
Published: 2017/01/04
Channel: IAGC. The International Association for Generative Change
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Generative grammar is a linguistic theory that regards grammar as a system of rules that generates exactly those combinations of words that form grammatical sentences in a given language. Noam Chomsky first used the term in relation to the theoretical linguistics of grammar that he developed in the late 1950s.[1] Linguists who follow the generative approach have been called generativists. The generative school has focused on the study of syntax, but has also addressed other aspects of a language's structure, including morphology and phonology.

Early versions of Chomsky's theory were called transformational grammar, which is still used as a general term that includes his subsequent theories.[2] The most recent is the minimalist program, from which Chomsky and other generativists have argued that many of the properties of a generative grammar arise from a universal grammar that is innate to the human brain, rather than being learned from the environment (see the poverty of the stimulus argument).

There are a number of versions of generative grammar currently practiced within linguistics. A contrasting approach is that of constraint-based grammars. Where a generative grammar attempts to list all the rules that result in all well-formed sentences, constraint-based grammars allow anything that is not otherwise constrained. Constraint-based grammars that have been proposed include certain versions of dependency grammar, head-driven phrase structure grammar, lexical functional grammar, categorial grammar, relational grammar, link grammar, and tree-adjoining grammar. In stochastic grammar, grammatical correctness is taken as a probabilistic variable, rather than a discrete (yes or no) property.

Frameworks[edit]

There are a number of different approaches to generative grammar. Common to all is the effort to come up with a set of rules or principles that formally defines each and every one of the members of the set of well-formed expressions of a natural language. The term generative grammar has been associated with at least the following schools of linguistics:

Historical development of models of transformational grammar[edit]

Although Leonard Bloomfield, whose work Chomsky rejects, saw the ancient Indian grammarian Pāṇini as an antecedent of structuralism,[3][4] Chomsky, in an award acceptance speech delivered in India in 2001, claimed "The first generative grammar in the modern sense was Panini's grammar".

Generative grammar has been under development since the late 1950s, and has undergone many changes in the types of rules and representations that are used to predict grammaticality. In tracing the historical development of ideas within generative grammar, it is useful to refer to various stages in the development of the theory.

Standard theory (1957–1965)[edit]

The so-called standard theory corresponds to the original model of generative grammar laid out by Chomsky in 1965.

A core aspect of standard theory is the distinction between two different representations of a sentence, called deep structure and surface structure. The two representations are linked to each other by transformational grammar.

Extended standard theory (1965–1973)[edit]

The so-called extended standard theory was formulated in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Features are:

  • syntactic constraints
  • generalized phrase structures (X-bar theory)

Revised extended standard theory (1973–1976)[edit]

The so-called revised extended standard theory was formulated between 1973 and 1976. It contains

Relational grammar (ca. 1975–1990)[edit]

An alternative model of syntax based on the idea that notions like subject, direct object, and indirect object play a primary role in grammar.

Government and binding / Principles and parameters theory (1981–1990)[edit]

Chomsky's Lectures on Government and Binding (1981) and Barriers (1986).

Minimalist program (1990–present)[edit]

Context-free grammars[edit]

Generative grammars can be described and compared, with the aid of the Chomsky hierarchy (proposed by Chomsky) in the 1950s. This sets out a series of types of formal grammars with increasing expressive power. Among the simplest types are the regular grammars (type 3); Chomsky claims that these are not adequate as models for human language, because of the allowance of the center-embedding of strings within strings, in all natural human languages.

At a higher level of complexity are the context-free grammars (type 2). The derivation of a sentence by such a grammar can be depicted as a derivation tree. Linguists working within generative grammar often view such trees as a primary object of study. According to this view, a sentence is not merely a string of words, but rather a hierarchy with subordinate and superordinate branches connected at nodes.

Essentially, the tree model works something like this example, in which S is a sentence, D is a determiner, N a noun, V a verb, NP a noun phrase and VP a verb phrase:

Basic english syntax tree.svg

The resulting sentence could be The dog ate the bone. Such a tree diagram is also called a phrase marker. They can be represented more conveniently in text form, (though the result is less easy to read); in this format the above sentence would be rendered as:
[S [NP [D The ] [N dog ] ] [VP [V ate ] [NP [D the ] [N bone ] ] ] ]

Chomsky has argued that phrase structure grammars are also inadequate for describing natural languages, and formulated the more complex system of transformational grammar.[5]

Music[edit]

Generative grammar has been used to a limited extent in music theory and analysis since the 1980s.[6][7] The most well-known approaches were developed by Mark Steedman[8] as well as Fred Lerdahl and Ray Jackendoff,[9] who formalized and extended ideas from Schenkerian analysis.[10] More recently, such early generative approaches to music were further developed and extended by various scholars.[11][12][13][14]The theory of generative grammar has been manipulated by the Sun Ra Revival Post-Krautrock Archestra in the development of their post-structuralist lyrics. This is particularly emphasised in their song "Sun Ra Meets Terry Lee".[citation needed] French Composer Philippe Manoury transferred the systematic of generative Grammar to the field of contemporary classical music.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Tool Module: Chomsky's Universal Grammar". thebrain.mcgill.ca. Retrieved 2017-08-28. 
  2. ^ "Mod 4 Lesson 4.2.3 Generative-Transformational Grammar Theory". www2.leeward.hawaii.edu. Retrieved 2017-02-02. 
  3. ^ Bloomfield, Leonard, 1929, 274; cited in Rogers, David, 1987, 88
  4. ^ Hockett, Charles, 1987, 41
  5. ^ Chomsky, Noam (1956). "Three models for the description of language" (PDF). IRE Transactions on Information Theory. 2 (3): 113–124. doi:10.1109/TIT.1956.1056813. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-09-19. 
  6. ^ Baroni, M., Maguire, S., and Drabkin, W. (1983). The Concept of Musical Grammar. Music Analysis, 2:175–208.
  7. ^ Baroni, M. and Callegari, L. (1982) Eds., Musical grammars and computer analysis. Leo S. Olschki Editore: Firenze, 201–218.
  8. ^ Steedman, M.J. (1989). "A Generative Grammar for Jazz Chord Sequences". Music Perception. 2 (1): 52–77. doi:10.2307/40285282. JSTOR 40285282. 
  9. ^ Lerdahl, Fred; Ray Jackendoff (1996). A Generative Theory of Tonal Music. Cambridge: MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-62107-6. 
  10. ^ Heinrich Schenker, Free Composition. (Der Freie Satz) translated and edited by Ernst Ostler. New York: Longman, 1979.
  11. ^ Tojo, O. Y. & Nishida, M. (2006). Analysis of chord progression by HPSG. In Proceedings of the 24th IASTED international conference on Artificial intelligence and applications, 305–310.
  12. ^ Rohrmeier, Martin (2007). A generative grammar approach to diatonic harmonic structure. In Spyridis, Georgaki, Kouroupetroglou, Anagnostopoulou (Eds.), Proceedings of the 4th Sound and Music Computing Conference, 97–100. http://smc07.uoa.gr/SMC07%20Proceedings/SMC07%20Paper%2015.pdf
  13. ^ Giblin, Iain (2008). Music and the generative enterprise. Doctoral dissertation. University of New South Wales.
  14. ^ Katz, Jonah; David Pesetsky (2009) "The Identity Thesis for Language and Music". http://ling.auf.net/lingBuzz/000959

[1] [2]

Further reading[edit]

  1. ^ "Mod 4 Lesson 4.2.3 Generative-Transformational Grammar Theory". www2.leeward.hawaii.edu. Retrieved 2017-02-02. 
  2. ^ Kamalani Hurley, Pat. "Mod 4 Lesson 4.2.3 Generative-Transformational Grammar Theory". www2.leeward.hawaii.edu. Retrieved 2017-02-02. 

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