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SYN104 - Generative Grammar
SYN104 - Generative Grammar
Published: 2012/03/19
Channel: The Virtual Linguistics Campus
ABCD Generative Semantic Category Subtest
ABCD Generative Semantic Category Subtest
Published: 2016/03/13
Channel: Kelci Fulkerson
Semantics in Generative Grammar Blackwell Textbooks in Linguistics
Semantics in Generative Grammar Blackwell Textbooks in Linguistics
Published: 2016/04/26
Channel: Andrea Sweet
How Do We Capture the Truth of Beliefs? Type Theory
How Do We Capture the Truth of Beliefs? Type Theory
Published: 2016/12/15
Channel: The Ling Space
2014 Whatmough Lecture in Linguistics
2014 Whatmough Lecture in Linguistics
Published: 2014/04/29
Channel: Harvard Department of Linguistics
Syntax vs Semantics (Philosophical Distinctions)
Syntax vs Semantics (Philosophical Distinctions)
Published: 2015/09/20
Channel: Carneades.org
SEM101 - Semantics - An Overview
SEM101 - Semantics - An Overview
Published: 2013/03/11
Channel: The Virtual Linguistics Campus
SEM101 - Word Semantics
SEM101 - Word Semantics
Published: 2012/09/14
Channel: The Virtual Linguistics Campus
How to Pronounce Generative-semantics
How to Pronounce Generative-semantics
Published: 2016/12/06
Channel: Dictionary Voice
Generalization and Equilibrium in Generative Adversarial Nets (GANs)
Generalization and Equilibrium in Generative Adversarial Nets (GANs)
Published: 2017/03/30
Channel: Simons Institute
Learning Semantic Concepts from Image Database with Hybrid Generative/Discriminative Approach
Learning Semantic Concepts from Image Database with Hybrid Generative/Discriminative Approach
Published: 2014/01/10
Channel: Elsevier Journals
Generative Models of Discourse
Generative Models of Discourse
Published: 2016/09/06
Channel: Microsoft Research
Understanding High-Level Semantics by Modeling Traffic Patterns
Understanding High-Level Semantics by Modeling Traffic Patterns
Published: 2013/09/09
Channel: Andreas Geiger
How Can Sentences Work Like Adjectives? The Syntax and Semantics of Relative Clauses
How Can Sentences Work Like Adjectives? The Syntax and Semantics of Relative Clauses
Published: 2017/06/01
Channel: The Ling Space
Motion Graphs++: a Compact Generative Model for Semantic Motion Analysis and Synthesis
Motion Graphs++: a Compact Generative Model for Semantic Motion Analysis and Synthesis
Published: 2012/09/22
Channel: Jianyuan Min
angela friederici - how do syntax and semantics work together?
angela friederici - how do syntax and semantics work together?
Published: 2011/05/05
Channel: gocognitive
Noam Chomsky on Linguistics - Poverty of Stimulus
Noam Chomsky on Linguistics - Poverty of Stimulus
Published: 2013/03/28
Channel: Philosophical Overdose
User Interfaces for Smart Things - A Generative Approach with Semantic Interaction Descriptions
User Interfaces for Smart Things - A Generative Approach with Semantic Interaction Descriptions
Published: 2015/04/06
Channel: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)
Noam Chomsky on Mind & Language
Noam Chomsky on Mind & Language
Published: 2013/02/15
Channel: Philosophical Overdose
[Introduction to Linguistics] Thematic Roles
[Introduction to Linguistics] Thematic Roles
Published: 2015/03/05
Channel: TheTrevTutor
What Is Generative Grammar?
What Is Generative Grammar?
Published: 2017/08/22
Channel: Obu Obu
What Changes in a Sentence When We Swap Verbs? Raising vs. Control Verbs
What Changes in a Sentence When We Swap Verbs? Raising vs. Control Verbs
Published: 2015/11/04
Channel: The Ling Space
Photo-Realistic Single Image Super-Resolution Using a Generative Adversarial Network, CVPR 2017
Photo-Realistic Single Image Super-Resolution Using a Generative Adversarial Network, CVPR 2017
Published: 2017/08/15
Channel: Preserve Knowledge
What is COMPONENTIAL ANALYSIS? What does COMPONENTIAL ANALYSIS mean? COMPONENTIAL ANALYSIS meaning
What is COMPONENTIAL ANALYSIS? What does COMPONENTIAL ANALYSIS mean? COMPONENTIAL ANALYSIS meaning
Published: 2017/05/23
Channel: The Audiopedia
Implicit Modeling — A Generalization of Discriminative and Generative Approaches - Dr. D.Schlesinger
Implicit Modeling — A Generalization of Discriminative and Generative Approaches - Dr. D.Schlesinger
Published: 2015/10/23
Channel: Компьютерные науки
How Can One Greek Letter Help Us Understand Language? Lambda Calculus
How Can One Greek Letter Help Us Understand Language? Lambda Calculus
Published: 2016/05/04
Channel: The Ling Space
Semantic Segmentation using Adversarial Networks, NIPS 2016 | Pauline Luc, Facebook AI Research
Semantic Segmentation using Adversarial Networks, NIPS 2016 | Pauline Luc, Facebook AI Research
Published: 2017/08/30
Channel: Preserve Knowledge
Generative Models - Super-Resolution - TensorFlow and Deep Learning Singapore
Generative Models - Super-Resolution - TensorFlow and Deep Learning Singapore
Published: 2017/04/15
Channel: Engineers.SG
Generative Syntax 1.2: On Constituency
Generative Syntax 1.2: On Constituency
Published: 2015/06/29
Channel: Linguistics and English Language at the University of Edinburgh
Human Language Sentences - Basic Parse Trees, X-Bar Theory & Ambiguity -- Linguistics 101
Human Language Sentences - Basic Parse Trees, X-Bar Theory & Ambiguity -- Linguistics 101
Published: 2011/11/14
Channel: NativLang
Comprehending Things: Ontology and Semantics for Event Handling IoT
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Published: 2014/10/17
Channel: Wolfram
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What is GENERATIVE LEXICON? What does GENERATIVE LEXICON mean? GENERATIVE LEXICON meaning
Published: 2017/04/21
Channel: The Audiopedia
What Is Generative Grammar?
What Is Generative Grammar?
Published: 2017/08/16
Channel: Wade Wade
Connecting Generative Adversarial Networks and Actor Critic Methods, NIPS 2016 | David Pfau
Connecting Generative Adversarial Networks and Actor Critic Methods, NIPS 2016 | David Pfau
Published: 2017/08/29
Channel: Preserve Knowledge
SEM103 - Historical Semantics
SEM103 - Historical Semantics
Published: 2013/09/09
Channel: The Virtual Linguistics Campus
George Lakoff: How Brains Think: The Embodiment Hypothesis
George Lakoff: How Brains Think: The Embodiment Hypothesis
Published: 2015/04/07
Channel: PsychologicalScience
Syntax Vs Semantics - Programming Languages
Syntax Vs Semantics - Programming Languages
Published: 2012/06/03
Channel: Udacity
Lesson 1.5: Syntax and Semantics
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Published: 2015/06/13
Channel: Fitzle LLC
A Connection Between GANs, Inverse Reinforcement Learning, and Energy Based Models, NIPS 2016
A Connection Between GANs, Inverse Reinforcement Learning, and Energy Based Models, NIPS 2016
Published: 2017/08/27
Channel: Preserve Knowledge
AI Learns Semantic Style Transfer | Two Minute Papers #177
AI Learns Semantic Style Transfer | Two Minute Papers #177
Published: 2017/08/06
Channel: Two Minute Papers
Learning in Implicit Generative Models, NIPS 2016 | Shakir Mohamed, Google DeepMind
Learning in Implicit Generative Models, NIPS 2016 | Shakir Mohamed, Google DeepMind
Published: 2017/08/28
Channel: Preserve Knowledge
Designing new shoe with a few scribbles (by Generative Visual Manipulation ECCV 16
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Published: 2016/10/02
Channel: Jun-Yan Zhu
50 years of Linguistics at MIT, Lecture 6
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Published: 2011/12/15
Channel: MITLINGUISTICS
On the Quantitative Analysis of Decoder Based Generative Models, NIPS 2016 | Yuhuai Wu, U of Toronto
On the Quantitative Analysis of Decoder Based Generative Models, NIPS 2016 | Yuhuai Wu, U of Toronto
Published: 2017/08/30
Channel: Preserve Knowledge
SEM101 - Unit Advice (Semantics - Overview)
SEM101 - Unit Advice (Semantics - Overview)
Published: 2015/09/25
Channel: The Virtual Linguistics Campus
Type-Safe, Generative, Binding Macros
Type-Safe, Generative, Binding Macros
Published: 2016/09/06
Channel: Microsoft Research
[Syntax] Theta Roles and Theta Grids
[Syntax] Theta Roles and Theta Grids
Published: 2017/05/05
Channel: TheTrevTutor
English Semantics are Hard
English Semantics are Hard
Published: 2015/07/21
Channel: FREGE: A Logic Course Elaine Rich, Alan Cline
Model-based Deep Convolutional Face Autoencoder for Unsupervised Monocular Reconstruction, ICCV 2017
Model-based Deep Convolutional Face Autoencoder for Unsupervised Monocular Reconstruction, ICCV 2017
Published: 2017/08/07
Channel: Christian Theobalt
Matlab - A Mixed Generative-Discriminative Based Hashing Method
Matlab - A Mixed Generative-Discriminative Based Hashing Method
Published: 2017/08/02
Channel: jpinfotechprojects
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Generative semantics is the name of a research program within linguistics, initiated by the work of various early students of Noam Chomsky: John R. Ross, Paul Postal, and later James McCawley. George Lakoff and Pieter Seuren were also instrumental in developing and advocating the theory.[1]

The approach developed out of transformational generative grammar in the mid-1960s, but stood largely apart from, and in opposition to, work by Noam Chomsky and his later students. This move led to a more abstract framework and lately to the abandonment of the notion of the CFG formal grammar induced deep structure.

A number of ideas from later work in generative semantics have been incorporated into cognitive linguistics, head-driven phrase structure grammar (HPSG), construction grammar, and into mainstream Chomskyan linguistics.[1]

History[edit]

The nature and genesis of the program are a matter of some controversy and have been extensively debated. Generative semanticists took Chomsky's concept of deep structure and ran with it, assuming (contrary to later work by Chomsky and Ray Jackendoff) that deep structures were the sole input to semantic interpretation. This assumption, combined with a tendency to consider a wider range of empirical evidence than Chomskyan linguists, led generative semanticists to develop considerably more abstract and complex theories of deep structure than those advocated by Chomsky and his students—and indeed to abandon altogether the notion of "deep structure" as a locus of lexical insertion.

Throughout the late 1960s and 1970s, there were heated debates between generative semanticists and more orthodox Chomskyans. Neither side can be accurately said to have "won" those debates, as positions and theories shifted considerably along with each bit of new data that was examined. By the end of the 1970s, there were few linguists who would call themselves generative semanticists, while Chomsky's program continued to produce able students dedicated to advancing Chomsky's evolving theories.

"Interpretive" vs. "generative" semantics[edit]

The controversy surrounding generative semantics stemmed in part from the competition between two fundamentally different approaches to semantics within transformational generative syntax. The first semantic theories designed to be compatible with transformational syntax were interpretive. Syntactic rules enumerated a set of well-formed sentences paired with syntactic structures, each of which was assigned an interpretation by the rules of a separate semantic theory. This left syntax relatively (though by no means entirely) "autonomous" with respect to semantics, and was the approach preferred by Chomsky.

In contrast, generative semanticists argued that interpretations were generated directly by the grammar as deep structures, and were subsequently transformed into recognizable sentences by transformations. This approach necessitated more complex underlying structures than those proposed by Chomsky, and more complex transformations as a consequence. Despite this additional complexity, the approach was appealing in several respects. First, it offered a powerful mechanism for explaining synonymity. In his initial work in generative syntax, Chomsky motivated transformations using active/passive pairs such as "I hit John" and "John was hit by me", which despite their identical meanings have quite different surface forms.[2] Generative semanticists wanted to account for all cases of synonymity in a similar fashion—an impressively ambitious goal before the advent of more sophisticated interpretive theories in the 1970s. Second, the theory had a pleasingly intuitive structure: the form of a sentence was quite literally derived from its meaning via transformations. To some, interpretive semantics seemed rather "clunky" and ad hoc in comparison. This was especially so before the development of trace theory.

Notes[edit]

^ There is little agreement concerning the question of whose idea generative semantics was. All of the people mentioned here have been credited with its invention (often by each other).

^ Strictly speaking, it was not the fact that active/passive pairs are synonymous that motivated the passive transformation, but the fact that active and passive verb forms have the same selectional requirements. For example, the agent of the verb kick (i.e. the thing that's doing the kicking) must be animate whether it is the subject of the active verb (as in "John kicked the ball") or appears in a by phrase after the passive verb ("The ball was kicked by John").

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Newmeyer, Frederick, J. (1986). Linguistic Theory in America (Second Edition). Academic Press.  See p. 138.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Brame, Michael K. (1976). Conjectures and refutations in syntax and semantics. New York: North-Holland Pub. Co. ISBN 0-7204-8604-1.
  • Chomsky (1957). Syntactic structures. The Hague: Mouton.
  • Chomsky (1965). Aspects of the theory of syntax. Cambridge: The MIT Press.
  • Chomsky (1965). Cartesian linguistics. New York: Harper and Row.
  • Dougherty, Ray C. (1974). Generative semantics methods: A Bloomfieldian counterrevolution. International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics, 3, 255-286.
  • Dougherty, Ray C. (1975). Reply to the critics on the Bloomfieldian counterrevolution. International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics, 4, 249-271.
  • Fodor, Jerry A.; & Katz, Jerrold J. (Eds.). (1964). The structure of language. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
  • Harris, Randy Allen. (1995). The linguistics wars. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509834-X.
  • Huck, Geoffrey J.; & Goldsmith, John A.. (1995). Ideology and Linguistic Theory: Noam Chomsky and the deep structure debates. New York: Routledge.
  • Katz, Jerrold J.; & Fodor, Jerry A. (1964). The structure of a semantic theory. In J. A. Fodor & J. J. Katz (Eds.) (pp. 479–518).
  • Katz, Jerrold J.; & Postal, Paul M. (1964). An integrated theory of linguistic descriptions. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • Lakoff, George. (1971). On generative semantics. In D. D. Steinberg & L. A. Jakobovits (Eds.), Semantics: An interdisciplinary reader in philosophy, linguistics and psychology (pp. 232–296). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Lakoff, George. (1976 [1963]). Toward generative semantics. In J. D. McCawley (Ed.) (pp. 43–61).
  • Lakoff, George; & Ross, John R. [Háj]. (1976). Is deep structure necessary?. In J. D. McCawley (Ed.), Syntax and semantics 7 (pp. 159–164).
  • McCawley, James D. (1975). Discussion of Ray C. Dougherty's "Generative semantics methods: A Bloomfieldian counterrevolution". International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics, 4, 151-158.
  • McCawley, James D. (Ed.). (1976a). Syntax and semantics 7: Notes from the linguistic underground. New York: Academic Press.
  • McCawley, James D. (1976b). Grammar and meaning. New York: Academic Press.
  • McCawley, James D. (1979). Adverbs, vowels, and other objects of wonder. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Postal, Paul M. (1972). The best theory. In S. Peters (Ed.), Goals of linguistic theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
  • Ross, John R. (1967). Constraints on variables in syntax. (Doctoral dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology). Free copy available at http://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/15166. (Published as Ross 1986).
  • Ross, John R. (1986). Infinite syntax!. Norwood, NJ: ABLEX, ISBN 0-89391-042-2.
  • Ross, John R. [Háj]. (1970). On declarative sentences. In R. A. Jacobs & P. S. Rosenbaum (Eds.), Readings in English transformational grammar (pp. 222–272). Washington: Georgetown University Press.
  • Ross, John R. [Háj]. (1972). Doubl-ing. In J. Kimball (Ed.), Syntax and semantics (Vol. 1, pp. 157–186). New York: Seminar Press.
  • Seuren, Pieter A. M. (1974). Semantic syntax. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-875028-5.

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