Typically, when it is said that the genome of a sexually reproducingspecies has been "sequenced", it refers to a determination of the sequences of one set of autosomes and one of each type of sex chromosome, which together represent both of the possible sexes. Even in species that exist in only one sex, what is described as a "genome sequence" may be a composite read from the chromosomes of various individuals. Colloquially, the phrase "genetic makeup" is sometimes used to signify the genome of a particular individual or organism. The study of the global properties of genomes of related organisms is usually referred to as genomics, which distinguishes it from genetics which generally studies the properties of single genes or groups of genes.
An analogy to the human genome stored on DNA is that of instructions stored in a book:
The book (genome) would contain 23 chapters (chromosomes);
Each chapter contains 48 to 250 million letters (A,C,G,T) without spaces;
Hence, the book contains over 3.2 billion letters total;
The book fits into a cell nucleus the size of a pinpoint;
At least one copy of the book (all 23 chapters) is contained in most cells of our body. The only exception in humans is found in mature red blood cells which become enucleated during development and therefore lack a genome.
The development of new technologies has made it dramatically easier and cheaper to do sequencing, and the number of complete genome sequences is growing rapidly. The US National Institutes of Health maintains one of several comprehensive databases of genomic information. Among the thousands of completed genome sequencing projects include those for rice, a mouse, the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the puffer fish, and the bacteria E. coli. In December 2013, scientists first sequenced the entire genome of a Neanderthal, an extinct species of humans. The genome was extracted from the toe bone of a 130,000-year-old Neanderthal found in a Siberian cave.
Whereas a genome sequence lists the order of every DNA base in a genome, a genome map identifies the landmarks. A genome map is less detailed than a genome sequence and aids in navigating around the genome. The Human Genome Project was organized to map and to sequence the human genome. A fundamental step in the project was the release of a detailed genomic map by Jean Weissenbach and his team at the Genoscope in Paris.
Genome composition is used to describe the make up of contents of a haploid genome, which should include genome size, proportions of non-repetitive DNA and repetitive DNA in details. By comparing the genome compositions between genomes, scientists can better understand the evolutionary history of a given genome.
When talking about genome composition, one should distinguish between prokaryotes and eukaryotes as there are significant differences with contents structure. In prokaryotes, most of the genome (85–90%) is non-repetitive DNA, which means coding DNA mainly forms it, while non-coding regions only take a small part. On the contrary, eukaryotes have the feature of exon-intron organization of protein coding genes; the variation of repetitive DNA content in eukaryotes is also extremely high. In mammals and plants, the major part of the genome is composed of repetitive DNA.
Most biological entities that are more complex than a virus sometimes or always carry additional genetic material besides that which resides in their chromosomes. In some contexts, such as sequencing the genome of a pathogenic microbe, "genome" is meant to include information stored on this auxiliary material, which is carried in plasmids. In such circumstances then, "genome" describes all of the genes and information on non-coding DNA that have the potential to be present.
In eukaryotes such as plants, protozoa and animals, however, "genome" carries the typical connotation of only information on chromosomal DNA. So although these organisms contain chloroplasts or mitochondria that have their own DNA, the genetic information contained by DNA within these organelles is not considered part of the genome. In fact, mitochondria are sometimes said to have their own genome often referred to as the "mitochondrial genome". The DNA found within the chloroplast may be referred to as the "plastome".
Log-log plot of the total number of annotated proteins in genomes submitted to GenBank as a function of genome size.
Genome size is the total number of DNA base pairs in one copy of a haploid genome. The genome size is positively correlated with the morphological complexity among prokaryotes and lower eukaryotes; however, after mollusks and all the other higher eukaryotes above, this correlation is no longer effective. This phenomenon also indicates the mighty influence coming from repetitive DNA act on the genomes.
Since genomes are very complex, one research strategy is to reduce the number of genes in a genome to the bare minimum and still have the organism in question survive. There is experimental work being done on minimal genomes for single cell organisms as well as minimal genomes for multi-cellular organisms (see Developmental biology). The work is both in vivo and in silico.
Here is a table of some significant or representative genomes. See #See also for lists of sequenced genomes.
The proportion of non-repetitive DNA is calculated by using the length of non-repetitive DNA divided by genome size. Protein-coding genes and RNA-coding genes are generally non-repetitive DNA. A bigger genome does not mean more genes, and the proportion of non-repetitive DNA decreases along with increasing genome size in higher eukaryotes.
It had been found that the proportion of non-repetitive DNA can vary a lot between species. Some E. coli as prokaryotes only have non-repetitive DNA, lower eukaryotes such as C. elegans and fruit fly, still possess more non-repetitive DNA than repetitive DNA. Higher eukaryotes tend to have more repetitive DNA than non-repetitive ones. In some plants and amphibians, the proportion of non-repetitive DNA is no more than 20%, becoming a minority component.
The proportion of repetitive DNA is calculated by using length of repetitive DNA divide by genome size. There are two categories of repetitive DNA in genome: tandem repeats and interspersed repeats.
Tandem repeats are usually caused by slippage during replication, unequal crossing-over and gene conversion,satellite DNA and microsatellites are forms of tandem repeats in the genome. Although tandem repeats count for a significant proportion in genome, the largest proportion in mammalian is the other type, interspersed repeats.
Interspersed repeats mainly come from transposable elements (TEs), but they also include some protein coding gene families and pseudogenes. Transposable elements are able to integrate into the genome at another site within the cell. It is believed that TEs are an important driving force on genome evolution of higher eukaryotes. TEs can be classified into two categories, Class 1 (retrotransposons) and Class 2 (DNA transposons).
Retrotransposons can be transcribed into RNA, which are then duplicated at another site into the genome. Retrotransposons can be divided into Long terminal repeats (LTRs) and Non-Long Terminal Repeats (Non-LTR).
Long Terminal Repeats (LTRs)
similar to retroviruses, which have both gag and pol genes to make cDNA from RNA and proteins to insert into genome, but LTRs can only act within the cell as they lack the env gene in retroviruses. It has been reported that LTRs consist of the largest fraction in most plant genome and might account for the huge variation in genome size.
Non-Long Terminal Repeats (Non-LTRs)
can be divided into long interspersed elements (LINEs), short interspersed elements (SINEs) and Penelope-like elements. In Dictyostelium discoideum, there is another DIRS-like elements belong to Non-LTRs. Non-LTRs are widely spread in eukaryotic genomes.
Long interspersed elements (LINEs)
are able to encode two Open Reading Frames (ORFs) to generate transcriptase and endonuclease, which are essential in retrotransposition. The human genome has around 500,000 LINEs, taking around 17% of the genome.
Short interspersed elements (SINEs)
are usually less than 500 base pairs and need to co-opt with the LINEs machinery to function as nonautonomous retrotransposons. The Alu element is the most common SINEs found in primates, it has a length of about 350 base pairs and takes about 11% of the human genome with around 1,500,000 copies.
DNA transposons generally move by "cut and paste" in the genome, but duplication has also been observed. Class 2 TEs do not use RNA as intermediate and are popular in bacteria, in metazoan it has also been found.
Genomes are more than the sum of an organism's genes and have traits that may be measured and studied without reference to the details of any particular genes and their products. Researchers compare traits such as chromosome number (karyotype), genome size, gene order, codon usage bias, and GC-content to determine what mechanisms could have produced the great variety of genomes that exist today (for recent overviews, see Brown 2002; Saccone and Pesole 2003; Benfey and Protopapas 2004; Gibson and Muse 2004; Reese 2004; Gregory 2005).
Duplications play a major role in shaping the genome. Duplication may range from extension of short tandem repeats, to duplication of a cluster of genes, and all the way to duplication of entire chromosomes or even entire genomes. Such duplications are probably fundamental to the creation of genetic novelty.
Horizontal gene transfer is invoked to explain how there is often extreme similarity between small portions of the genomes of two organisms that are otherwise very distantly related. Horizontal gene transfer seems to be common among many microbes. Also, eukaryotic cells seem to have experienced a transfer of some genetic material from their chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes to their nuclear chromosomes.
^Philippe, N.; Legendre, M.; Doutre, G.; Coute, Y.; Poirot, O.; Lescot, M.; Arslan, D.; Seltzer, V.; Bertaux, L.; Bruley, C.; Garin, J.; Claverie, J.-M.; Abergel, C. (2013). "Pandoraviruses: Amoeba Viruses with Genomes Up to 2.5 Mb Reaching That of Parasitic Eukaryotes". Science341 (6143): 281–6. Bibcode:2013Sci...341..281P. doi:10.1126/science.1239181. PMID23869018.
^Bennett, G. M.; Moran, N. A. (5 August 2013). "Small, Smaller, Smallest: The Origins and Evolution of Ancient Dual Symbioses in a Phloem-Feeding Insect". Genome Biology and Evolution5 (9): 1675–1688. doi:10.1093/gbe/evt118. PMID23918810.
^Shigenobu, S; Watanabe, H; Hattori, M; Sakaki, Y; Ishikawa, H (Sep 7, 2000). "Genome sequence of the endocellular bacterial symbiont of aphids Buchnera sp. APS". Nature407 (6800): 81–6. doi:10.1038/35024074. PMID10993077.
^Rocap, G.; Larimer, F. W.; Lamerdin, J.; Malfatti, S.; Chain, P.; Ahlgren, N. A.; Arellano, A.; Coleman, M.; Hauser, L.; Hess, W. R.; Johnson, Z. I.; Land, M.; Lindell, D.; Post, A. F.; Regala, W.; Shah, M.; Shaw, S. L.; Steglich, C.; Sullivan, M. B.; Ting, C. S.; Tolonen, A.; Webb, E. A.; Zinser, E. R.; Chisholm, S. W. (2003). "Genome divergence in two Prochlorococcus ecotypes reflects oceanic niche differentiation". Nature424 (6952): 1042–7. Bibcode:2003Natur.424.1042R. doi:10.1038/nature01947. PMID12917642.
^ScienceShot: Biggest Genome Ever, comments: "The measurement for Amoeba dubia and other protozoa which have been reported to have very large genomes were made in the 1960s using a rough biochemical approach which is now considered to be an unreliable method for accurate genome size determinations."
^Fleischmann A; Michael TP; Rivadavia F; Sousa A; Wang W; Temsch EM; Greilhuber J; Müller KF & Heubl G (2014). "Evolution of genome size and chromosome number in the carnivorous plant genus Genlisea (Lentibulariaceae), with a new estimate of the minimum genome size in angiosperms". Annals of Botany114 (8): 1651–1663. doi:10.1093/aob/mcu189. PMID25274549.
^Greilhuber J; Borsch T; Müller K; Worberg A; Porembski S & Barthlott W (2006). "Smallest angiosperm genomes found in Lentibulariaceae, with chromosomes of bacterial size". Plant Biology8 (6): 770–777. doi:10.1055/s-2006-924101. PMID17203433.
^PELLICER, JAUME; FAY, MICHAEL F.; LEITCH, ILIA J. (15 September 2010). "The largest eukaryotic genome of them all?". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society164 (1): 10–15. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2010.01072.x.
^The International Silkworm Genome (2008). "The genome of a lepidopteran model insect, the silkworm Bombyx mori". Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology38 (12): 1036–1045. doi:10.1016/j.ibmb.2008.11.004. PMID19121390.
^Venter, J. C.; Adams, M.; Myers, E.; Li, P.; Mural, R.; Sutton, G.; Smith, H.; Yandell, M.; Evans, C.; Holt, R. A.; Gocayne, J. D.; Amanatides, P.; Ballew, R. M.; Huson, D. H.; Wortman, J. R.; Zhang, Q.; Kodira, C. D.; Zheng, X. H.; Chen, L.; Skupski, M.; Subramanian, G.; Thomas, P. D.; Zhang, J.; Gabor Miklos, G. L.; Nelson, C.; Broder, S.; Clark, A. G.; Nadeau, J.; McKusick, V. A.; Zinder, N. (2001). "The Sequence of the Human Genome". Science291 (5507): 1304–1351. Bibcode:2001Sci...291.1304V. doi:10.1126/science.1058040. PMID11181995.
^Britten, RJ; Davidson, EH (June 1971). "Repetitive and non-repetitive DNA sequences and a speculation on the origins of evolutionary novelty". The Quarterly Review of Biology46 (2): 111–38. doi:10.1086/406830. PMID5160087.
^Naclerio, G; Cangiano, G; Coulson, A; Levitt, A; Ruvolo, V; La Volpe, A (1992-07-05). "Molecular and genomic organization of clusters of repetitive DNA sequences in Caenorhabditis elegans". Journal of Molecular Biology226 (1): 159–68. doi:10.1016/0022-2836(92)90131-3. PMID1619649.
^Stojanovic, edited by Nikola (2007). Computational genomics : current methods. Wymondham: Horizon Bioscience. ISBN1-904933-30-0.
^Li, YC; Korol, AB; Fahima, T; Beiles, A; Nevo, E (December 2002). "Microsatellites: genomic distribution, putative functions and mutational mechanisms: a review". Molecular Ecology11 (12): 2453–65. doi:10.1046/j.1365-294X.2002.01643.x. PMID12453231.
^ abcWessler, S. R. (13 November 2006). "Eukaryotic Transposable Elements and Genome Evolution Special Feature: Transposable elements and the evolution of eukaryotic genomes". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences103 (47): 17600–17601. Bibcode:2006PNAS..10317600W. doi:10.1073/pnas.0607612103.
^Han, Jeffrey S.; Boeke, Jef D. (1 August 2005). "LINE-1 retrotransposons: Modulators of quantity and quality of mammalian gene expression?". BioEssays27 (8): 775–784. doi:10.1002/bies.20257. PMID16015595.