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George Lakoff: "The Present Political Divide: What To Do Now "
George Lakoff: "The Present Political Divide: What To Do Now "
Published: 2017/03/27
Channel: issi
George Lakoff on Trump
George Lakoff on Trump's moral challenge to liberals
Published: 2017/02/24
Channel: Slugger O'Toole
George Lakoff: How Brains Think: The Embodiment Hypothesis
George Lakoff: How Brains Think: The Embodiment Hypothesis
Published: 2015/04/07
Channel: PsychologicalScience
Idea Framing, Metaphors, and Your Brain - George Lakoff
Idea Framing, Metaphors, and Your Brain - George Lakoff
Published: 2008/07/16
Channel: FORA.tv
George Lakoff on Embodied Cognition and Language
George Lakoff on Embodied Cognition and Language
Published: 2013/10/22
Channel: Central European University
George Lakoff: Moral Politics
George Lakoff: Moral Politics
Published: 2008/02/01
Channel: University of California Television (UCTV)
George Lakoff | What Studying the Brain Tells Us About Arts Education
George Lakoff | What Studying the Brain Tells Us About Arts Education
Published: 2013/02/17
Channel: bigideasfest
George Lakoff: Don
George Lakoff: Don't Think of an Elephant
Published: 2012/07/18
Channel: TheEthanwashere
George Lakoff - How Does Metaphysics Reveal Reality?
George Lakoff - How Does Metaphysics Reveal Reality?
Published: 2016/02/01
Channel: Closer To Truth
This Is Your Brain On Donald Trump | The Beat With Ari Melber | MSNBC
This Is Your Brain On Donald Trump | The Beat With Ari Melber | MSNBC
Published: 2017/07/28
Channel: MSNBC
Fact Checking Donald Trump without repeating Lies - science behind trump lies , Prof Lakoff
Fact Checking Donald Trump without repeating Lies - science behind trump lies , Prof Lakoff
Published: 2017/02/27
Channel: Onthemarket Blog
UO Today Show #379 George Lakoff
UO Today Show #379 George Lakoff
Published: 2008/12/31
Channel: UOregon
Reaching Out to Trump Voters: An Evening with George Lakoff & Arlie Hochschild
Reaching Out to Trump Voters: An Evening with George Lakoff & Arlie Hochschild
Published: 2017/04/25
Channel: Brandon Curtis
Prof. George Lakoff - Reason is 98% Subconscious Metaphor in Frames & CULTural Narratives
Prof. George Lakoff - Reason is 98% Subconscious Metaphor in Frames & CULTural Narratives
Published: 2010/06/20
Channel: Slavestorms
Linguist George Lakoff on Rationality and Politics
Linguist George Lakoff on Rationality and Politics
Published: 2017/05/21
Channel: Public Manipulation And Techniques Used Through Media Disinformation
Prof. George Lakoff - The Political Mind - How Our Brains Understand Politics
Prof. George Lakoff - The Political Mind - How Our Brains Understand Politics
Published: 2017/03/25
Channel: Kevin Mieszala
Why Don
Why Don't Facts Move People?
Published: 2015/06/26
Channel: Climate One
George Lakoff. The Brain
George Lakoff. The Brain's Mathematics: The Cognitive and Neural Foundations of Mathematics
Published: 2015/12/09
Channel: UC Berkeley Events
George Lakoff On Message
George Lakoff On Message
Published: 2016/08/26
Channel: On Message Media
George Lakoff - What Makes Personal Identity Continue
George Lakoff - What Makes Personal Identity Continue
Published: 2015/06/01
Channel: Closer To Truth
George Lakoff on Embodied Cognition and Language
George Lakoff on Embodied Cognition and Language
Published: 2016/11/19
Channel: Claude Butler
How Democrats & Progressives Can Win: George Lakoff
How Democrats & Progressives Can Win: George Lakoff
Published: 2008/01/28
Channel: magnoliazoom
PROFESSOR GEORGE LAKOFF
PROFESSOR GEORGE LAKOFF
Published: 2017/03/04
Channel: TheChrChannel
George Lakoff on how he started his work on conceptual metaphor
George Lakoff on how he started his work on conceptual metaphor
Published: 2009/05/27
Channel: tonyberber
George Lakoff on Empathy & Care as Core Values
George Lakoff on Empathy & Care as Core Values
Published: 2017/02/28
Channel: Edwin Rutsch
Panel on Political Language: George Lakoff, Frank Lutz, Nicholas Lemann, Andras Szanto, Drew Westen
Panel on Political Language: George Lakoff, Frank Lutz, Nicholas Lemann, Andras Szanto, Drew Westen
Published: 2012/07/18
Channel: TheEthanwashere
Debate Watch with Dr. George Lakoff
Debate Watch with Dr. George Lakoff
Published: 2016/10/21
Channel: AlbanyKALB
George Lakoff: Don
George Lakoff: Don't Think of an Elephant: The Future of the Democratic Party
Published: 2012/07/16
Channel: TheEthanwashere
George Lakoff on The Political Mind
George Lakoff on The Political Mind
Published: 2008/06/04
Channel: WNYC
George Lakoff, "Retaking Political Discourse"
George Lakoff, "Retaking Political Discourse"
Published: 2012/03/01
Channel: I-House Berkeley
Exclusive: How Trump Won & How All Can Win-Win Now! Dr. George Lakoff On The Carol Rosin Show
Exclusive: How Trump Won & How All Can Win-Win Now! Dr. George Lakoff On The Carol Rosin Show
Published: 2016/12/10
Channel: American Freedom Radio
George Lakoff | Talks at Google
George Lakoff | Talks at Google
Published: 2008/06/13
Channel: Talks at Google
Professor George Lakoff on Climate Denial and Logic
Professor George Lakoff on Climate Denial and Logic
Published: 2017/02/25
Channel: Climate One
Roots Of Conservatism - George Lakoff
Roots Of Conservatism - George Lakoff
Published: 2017/05/17
Channel: Moe Hass
George Lakoff pt1 of 6 - Frameworks, Empathy and Sustainability
George Lakoff pt1 of 6 - Frameworks, Empathy and Sustainability
Published: 2010/07/08
Channel: Debs
October 2016 Meeting - Dr. George Lakoff
October 2016 Meeting - Dr. George Lakoff
Published: 2016/10/09
Channel: Citizens' Climate Lobby
George Lakoff | Talks at Google
George Lakoff | Talks at Google
Published: 2007/07/16
Channel: Talks at Google
George Lakoff on the 2012 election
George Lakoff on the 2012 election
Published: 2012/11/13
Channel: UC Berkeley Events
The Myth of the Political Moderate - George Lakoff
The Myth of the Political Moderate - George Lakoff
Published: 2008/07/16
Channel: FORA.tv
George Lakoff Speaks on Fact Checking without Lies. @realdonaldtrump #POTUS @GeorgeLakoff
George Lakoff Speaks on Fact Checking without Lies. @realdonaldtrump #POTUS @GeorgeLakoff
Published: 2017/02/27
Channel: Almutaz Bur News Network
How Dems Are Failing to Sell Health Care Reform - George Lakoff
How Dems Are Failing to Sell Health Care Reform - George Lakoff
Published: 2009/08/13
Channel: FORA.tv
How to fact check Trump without repeating lies
How to fact check Trump without repeating lies
Published: 2017/02/26
Channel: CNN
No pienses en un elefante, de George Lakoff. Breve reseña.
No pienses en un elefante, de George Lakoff. Breve reseña.
Published: 2016/10/11
Channel: Héctor Jerez
George Lakoff & Edwin Rutsch: Dialogs on How to Build a Culture of Empathy
George Lakoff & Edwin Rutsch: Dialogs on How to Build a Culture of Empathy
Published: 2012/06/23
Channel: Edwin Rutsch
The Left, the Right, and the Family View of Government
The Left, the Right, and the Family View of Government
Published: 2009/08/21
Channel: FORA.tv
George Lakoff "Two Different Views of Democracy" interviewed by Heekyung Ahn
George Lakoff "Two Different Views of Democracy" interviewed by Heekyung Ahn
Published: 2016/08/26
Channel: Heekyung Ahn
A Conservative Congress - George Lakoff
A Conservative Congress - George Lakoff
Published: 2012/03/19
Channel: Thom Hartmann Program
:: words matter : George Lakoff : On freedom ::
:: words matter : George Lakoff : On freedom ::
Published: 2008/01/06
Channel: observationspring
Global Economic Symposium (GES) 2013 - interview with George Lakoff
Global Economic Symposium (GES) 2013 - interview with George Lakoff
Published: 2013/10/02
Channel: GESOfficialAccount
George Lakoff "The Brain and Its Politics"
George Lakoff "The Brain and Its Politics"
Published: 2010/07/14
Channel: UOregon
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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George Lakoff
George Lakoff.jpg
Professor George Lakoff, 2012
Born (1941-05-24) May 24, 1941 (age 76)
Bayonne, New Jersey
Residence Berkeley, California, United States
Nationality United States
Alma mater Indiana University
MIT
Known for Conceptual metaphor theory
Embodied cognition
Spouse(s) Robin Lakoff (divorced), Kathleen Frumkin (current spouse)
Website georgelakoff.com
Scientific career
Fields Cognitive linguistics
Cognitive science
Institutions University of California, Berkeley

George P. Lakoff (/ˈlkɒf/, born May 24, 1941) is an American cognitive linguist and philosopher, best known for his thesis that lives of individuals are significantly influenced by the central metaphors they use to explain complex phenomena.

The conceptual metaphor thesis, introduced in his and Mark Johnson's 1980 book Metaphors We Live By has found applications in a number of academic disciplines and its application to politics, literature, philosophy and mathematics has led him into territory normally considered basic to political science. In the 1996 book Moral Politics, Lakoff described conservative voters as being influenced by the "strict father model" as a central metaphor for such a complex phenomenon as the state, and liberal/progressive voters as being influenced by the "nurturant parent model" as the folk psychological metaphor for this complex phenomenon. According to him, an individual's experience and attitude towards sociopolitical issues is influenced by being framed in linguistic constructions. In Metaphor and War: The Metaphor System Used to Justify War in the Gulf, he argues that the American involvement in the Gulf war was obscured or "spun" by the metaphors which were used by the first Bush administration to justify it. Between 2003 and 2008, Lakoff was involved with a progressive think tank, the now defunct Rockridge Institute.[1][2] He is a member of the scientific committee of the Fundación IDEAS (IDEAS Foundation), Spain's Socialist Party's think tank.

The more general theory that elaborated his thesis is known as embodied mind. Lakoff was a professor of linguistics at the University of California, Berkeley, from 1972 until his retirement in 2016.[3]

Work[edit]

Reappraisal of metaphor[edit]

Although some of Lakoff's research involves questions traditionally pursued by linguists, such as the conditions under which a certain linguistic construction is grammatically viable, he is best known for his reappraisal of the role that metaphors play in socio-political lives of humans.

Metaphor has been seen within the Western scientific tradition as purely a linguistic construction. The essential thrust of Lakoff's work has been the argument that metaphors are primarily a conceptual construction, and indeed are central to the development of thought.

He suggested that:

"Our ordinary conceptual system, in terms of which we both think and act, is fundamentally metaphorical in nature."

Non-metaphorical thought is for Lakoff only possible when we talk about purely physical reality. For Lakoff, the greater the level of abstraction the more layers of metaphor are required to express it. People do not notice these metaphors for various reasons. One reason is that some metaphors become 'dead' and we no longer recognize their origin. Another reason is that we just don't "see" what is "going on." Lakoff's disfluent, frequent use of "you know" e.g. 'ferries our attention between the knowable enclave of things and the veiled world of the intellect.'

For instance, in intellectual debate the underlying metaphor is usually that argument is war (later revised as "argument is struggle"):

  • He won the argument.
  • Your claims are indefensible.
  • He shot down all my arguments.
  • His criticisms were right on target.
  • If you use that strategy, he'll wipe you out.

For Lakoff, the development of thought has been the process of developing better metaphors. The application of one domain of knowledge to another domain of knowledge offers new perceptions and understandings.

Linguistics wars[edit]

Lakoff began his career as a student and later a teacher of the theory of transformational grammar developed by Massachusetts Institute of Technology professor Noam Chomsky. In the late 1960s, however, he joined with others to promote generative semantics[4] as an alternative to Chomsky's generative syntax. In an interview he stated:

During that period, I was attempting to unify Chomsky's transformational grammar with formal logic. I had helped work out a lot of the early details of Chomsky's theory of grammar. Noam claimed then — and still does, so far as I can tell — that syntax is independent of meaning, context, background knowledge, memory, cognitive processing, communicative intent, and every aspect of the body...In working through the details of his early theory, I found quite a few cases where semantics, context, and other such factors entered into rules governing the syntactic occurrences of phrases and morphemes. I came up with the beginnings of an alternative theory in 1963 and, along with wonderful collaborators like "Haj" Ross and Jim McCawley, developed it through the sixties.[5]

Lakoff's claim that Chomsky asserts independence between syntax and semantics has been rejected by Chomsky, who has given examples from within his work where he talks about the relationship between semantics and syntax. Chomsky goes further and claims that Lakoff has "virtually no comprehension of the work he is discussing" (the work in question being Chomsky's).[6] His differences with Chomsky contributed to fierce, acrimonious debates among linguists that have come to be known as the "linguistics wars."

Embodied mind[edit]

When Lakoff claims the mind is "embodied," he is arguing that almost all of human cognition, up through the most abstract reasoning, depends on and makes use of such concrete and "low-level" facilities as the sensorimotor system and the emotions. Therefore, embodiment is a rejection not only of dualism vis-a-vis mind and matter, but also of claims that human reason can be basically understood without reference to the underlying "implementation details."

Lakoff offers three complementary but distinct sorts of arguments in favor of embodiment. First, using evidence[which?] from neuroscience and neural network simulations, he argues that certain concepts, such as color and spatial relation concepts (e.g. "red" or "over"; see also qualia), can be almost entirely understood through the examination of how processes of perception or motor control work.

Second, based on cognitive linguistics' analysis of figurative language, he argues that the reasoning we use for such abstract topics as warfare, economics, or morality is somehow rooted in the reasoning we use for such mundane topics as spatial relationships. (See conceptual metaphor.)

Finally, based on research in cognitive psychology and some investigations in the philosophy of language, he argues that very few of the categories used by humans are actually of the black-and-white type amenable to analysis in terms of necessary and sufficient conditions. On the contrary, most categories are supposed to be much more complicated and messy, just like our bodies.

"We are neural beings," Lakoff states, "Our brains take their input from the rest of our bodies. What our bodies are like and how they function in the world thus structures the very concepts we can use to think. We cannot think just anything — only what our embodied brains permit."[7]

Lakoff believes consciousness to be neurally embodied, however he explicitly states that the mechanism is not just neural computation alone. Using the concept of disembodiment, Lakoff supports the physicalist approach to the afterlife. If the soul can not have any of the properties of the body, then Lakoff claims it can not feel, perceive, think, be conscious, or have a personality. If this is true, then Lakoff asks what would be the point of the afterlife?[citation needed]

Many scientists share the belief that there are problems with falsifiability and foundation ontologies purporting to describe "what exists", to a sufficient degree of rigor to establish a reasonable method of empirical validation. But Lakoff takes this further to explain why hypotheses built with complex metaphors cannot be directly falsified. Instead, they can only be rejected based on interpretations of empirical observations guided by other complex metaphors. This is what he means when he says[8] that falsifiability itself can never be established by any reasonable method that would not rely ultimately on a shared human bias. The bias he's referring to is the set of conceptual metaphors governing how people interpret observations.

Lakoff is, with coauthors Mark Johnson and Rafael E. Núñez, one of the primary proponents of the embodied mind thesis. Lakoff discussed these themes in his 2001 Gifford Lectures at the University of Glasgow, published as The Nature and Limits of Human Understanding.[9] Others who have written about the embodied mind include philosopher Andy Clark (See his Being There), philosopher and neurobiologists Humberto Maturana and Francisco Varela and his student Evan Thompson (See Varela, Thompson & Rosch's "The Embodied Mind"), roboticists such as Rodney Brooks, Rolf Pfeifer and Tom Ziemke, the physicist David Bohm (see his Thought As A System), Ray Gibbs (see his "Embodiment and Cognitive Science"), John Grinder and Richard Bandler in their neuro-linguistic programming, and Julian Jaynes. The work of these writers can be traced back to earlier philosophical writings, most notably in the phenomenological tradition, such as Maurice Merleau-Ponty and Heidegger. The basic thesis of "embodied mind" is also traceable to the American contextualist or pragmatist tradition, notably John Dewey in such works as "Art As Experience."

Mathematics[edit]

According to Lakoff, even mathematics is subjective to the human species and its cultures: thus "any question of math's being inherent in physical reality is moot, since there is no way to know whether or not it is." By this, he is saying that there is nothing outside of the thought structures we derive from our embodied minds that we can use to "prove" that mathematics is somehow beyond biology. Lakoff and Rafael E. Núñez (2000) argue at length that mathematical and philosophical ideas are best understood in light of the embodied mind. The philosophy of mathematics ought therefore to look to the current scientific understanding of the human body as a foundation ontology, and abandon self-referential attempts to ground the operational components of mathematics in anything other than "meat".

Mathematical reviewers have generally been critical of Lakoff and Núñez, pointing to mathematical errors[citation needed]. Lakoff claims that these errors have been corrected in subsequent printings[citation needed]. Although their book attempts a refutation of some of the most widely accepted viewpoints in philosophy of mathematics and advice for how the field might proceed, they have yet to elicit much of a reaction from philosophers of mathematics themselves.[citation needed] The small community specializing in the psychology of mathematical learning, to which Núñez belongs, is paying attention.[10]

Lakoff has also claimed that we should remain agnostic about whether math is somehow wrapped up with the very nature of the universe. Early in 2001 Lakoff told the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS): "Mathematics may or may not be out there in the world, but there's no way that we scientifically could possibly tell." This is because the structures of scientific knowledge are not "out there" but rather in our brains, based on the details of our anatomy. Therefore, we cannot "tell" that mathematics is "out there" without relying on conceptual metaphors rooted in our biology. This claim bothers those who believe that there really is a way we could "tell". The falsifiability of this claim is perhaps the central problem in the cognitive science of mathematics, a field that attempts to establish a foundation ontology based on the human cognitive and scientific process.[11]

Political significance and involvement[edit]

Lakoff has publicly expressed both ideas about the conceptual structures that he views as central to understanding the political process, and some of his particular political views. He almost always discusses the latter in terms of the former.

Moral Politics (1996, revisited in 2002) gives book-length consideration to the conceptual metaphors that Lakoff sees as present in the minds of American "liberals" and "conservatives". The book is a blend of cognitive science and political analysis. Lakoff makes an attempt to keep his personal views confined to the last third of the book, where he explicitly argues for the superiority of the liberal vision.[2]

Lakoff argues that the differences in opinions between liberals and conservatives follow from the fact that they subscribe with different strength to two different central metaphors about the relationship of the state to its citizens. Both, he claims, see governance through metaphors of the family. Conservatives would subscribe more strongly and more often to a model that he calls the "strict father model" and has a family structured around a strong, dominant "father" (government), and assumes that the "children" (citizens) need to be disciplined to be made into responsible "adults" (morality, self-financing). Once the "children" are "adults", though, the "father" should not interfere with their lives: the government should stay out of the business of those in society who have proved their responsibility. In contrast, Lakoff argues that liberals place more support in a model of the family, which he calls the "nurturant parent model", based on "nurturant values", where both "mothers" and "fathers" work to keep the essentially good "children" away from "corrupting influences" (pollution, social injustice, poverty, etc.). Lakoff says that most people have a blend of both metaphors applied at different times, and that political speech works primarily by invoking these metaphors and urging the subscription of one over the other.[12]

Lakoff further argues that one of the reasons liberals have had difficulty since the 1980s is that they have not been as aware of their own guiding metaphors, and have too often accepted conservative terminology framed in a way to promote the strict father metaphor. Lakoff insists that liberals must cease using terms like partial birth abortion and tax relief because they are manufactured specifically to allow the possibilities of only certain types of opinions. Tax relief for example, implies explicitly that taxes are an affliction, something someone would want "relief" from. To use the terms of another metaphoric worldview, Lakoff insists, is to unconsciously support it. Liberals must support linguistic think tanks in the same way that conservatives do if they are going to succeed in appealing to those in the country who share their metaphors.[13]

Between 2003 and 2008, Lakoff was involved with a progressive think tank, the Rockridge Institute, an involvement that follows in part from his recommendations in Moral Politics. Among his activities with the Institute, which concentrates in part on helping liberal candidates and politicians with re-framing political metaphors, Lakoff has given numerous public lectures and written accounts of his message from Moral Politics. In 2008, Lakoff joined Fenton Communications, the nation's largest public interest communications firm, as a Senior Consultant.

One of his political works, Don't Think of an Elephant! Know Your Values and Frame the Debate, self-labeled as "the Essential Guide for Progressives", was published in September 2004 and features a foreword by former Democratic presidential candidate Howard Dean.

Disagreement with Steven Pinker[edit]

In 2006 Steven Pinker wrote an unfavorable review of Lakoff's book Whose Freedom? in The New Republic.[14] Pinker argued that Lakoff's propositions are unsupported, and his prescriptions are a recipe for electoral failure. He wrote that Lakoff was condescending and deplored Lakoff's "shameless caricaturing of beliefs" and his "faith in the power of euphemism". Pinker portrayed Lakoff's arguments as "cognitive relativism, in which mathematics, science, and philosophy are beauty contests between rival frames rather than attempts to characterize the nature of reality." Lakoff wrote a rebuttal to the review [15] stating that his position on many matters is the exact reverse of what Pinker attributes to him. Lakoff states that he explicitly rejects cognitive relativism, arguing that he is "a realist, both about how the mind works and how the world works. Given that the mind works by frames and metaphors, the challenge is to use such a mind to accurately characterize how the world works."[15]

Works[edit]

Writings[edit]

2016 Moral Politics

Videos[edit]

  • How Democrats and Progressives Can Win: Solutions from George Lakoff DVD format. OCLC 315514475

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "George Lakoff". Rockridge Institute. Archived from the original on 2007-06-11. Retrieved 2007-06-13. 
  2. ^ a b Lakoff, George (2002). Moral Politics: How Liberals and Conservatives Think. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-46771-6. 
  3. ^ White, Daphne (May 2, 2017). "Berkeley author George Lakoff says, 'Don't underestimate Trump'". Berkeleyside.com. 
  4. ^ http://www.db-thueringen.de/servlets/DerivateServlet/Derivate-4550/Government_and_Binding.pdf
  5. ^ John Brockman (03/09/99), Edge.org, "Philosophy In The Flesh" A Talk With George Lakoff [1]
  6. ^ The New York Review of Books, Chomsky Replies, 1973 20;12
  7. ^ "EDGE 3rd Culture: A TALK WITH GEORGE LAKOFF". Edge.org. Retrieved 2013-09-29. 
  8. ^ Lakoff, G., and M. Johnson, 1999, Philosophy in the Flesh: The Embodied Mind and its Challenge to Western Thought, New York: Basic Books
  9. ^ ed. Anthony Sanford, T & T Clark, 2003. Summary at giffordlectures.org by Brannon Hancock.
  10. ^ G. Lakoff & R. Núñez. (2000). Where Mathematics Comes From: How the Embodied Mind Brings Mathematics into Being. New York: Basic Books.
  11. ^ Dehaene, S. (1997) The number sense: How the mind creates mathematics. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-513240-8
  12. ^ Lakoff, George (2002). Moral Politics: How Liberals and Conservatives Think. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. pp. 143–176. ISBN 0-226-46771-6. 
  13. ^ Lakoff, George (2002). Moral Politics: How Liberals and Conservatives Think. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. pp. 415–418. ISBN 0-226-46771-6. 
  14. ^ ""Block that Metaphor!" New Republic October 8, 2006.
  15. ^ a b ""When cognitive science enters politics"". Archived from the original on May 17, 2008. Retrieved 2006-10-15.  , rockridgeinstitute.org, 12 October 2006.
  16. ^ http://www.ppls.ed.ac.uk/ppig/documents/brainconcepts_000.pdf

Further reading[edit]

  • Dean, John W. (2006), Conservatives without Conscience, Viking Penguin ISBN 0-670-03774-5.
  • Harris, Randy Allen (1995). The Linguistics Wars. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509834-X. (Focuses on the disputes Lakoff and others have had with Chomsky.)
  • Haser, Verena (2005). Metaphor, Metonymy, and Experientialist Philosophy: Challenging Cognitive Semantics (Topics in English Linguistics), Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-018283-5 (A critical look at the ideas behind embodiment and conceptual metaphor.)
  • Kelleher, William J. (2005). Progressive Logic: Framing A Unified Field Theory of Values For Progressives. La CaCañada Flintridge, CA: The Empathic Science Institute. ISBN 0-9773717-1-9.
  • McGlone, M. S. (2001). "Concepts as Metaphors" in Sam Glucksberg, Understanding Figurative Language: From Metaphors to Idioms. Oxford Psychology Series 36. Oxford University Press, 90–107. ISBN 0-19-511109-5.
  • O'Reilly, Bill (2006). Culture Warrior. New York: Broadway Books. ISBN 0-7679-2092-9. (Calls Lakoff the guiding philosopher behind the "secular progressive movement".)
  • Renkema, Jan (2004). Introduction to Discourse Studies. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. ISBN 1-58811-529-1.
  • Rettig, Hillary (2006). The Lifelong Activist: How to Change the World Without Losing Your Way. New York: Lantern Books. ISBN 1-59056-090-6. (Documents strong parallels between Lakoff's nurturant parent model of progressive thought and psychologist Abraham Maslow's model of the self-actualized individual. Also discusses framing in the context of marketing and sales with the aim of bolstering progressive activists' persuasive skills.)
  • Richardt, Susanne (2005). Metaphor in Languages for Special Purposes: The Function of Conceptual Metaphor in Written Expert Language and Expert-Lay Communication in the Domains of Economics, Medicine and Computing. European University Studies: Series XIV, Anglo-Saxon Language and Literature, 413. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang. ISBN 0-8204-7381-2.
  • Soros, George (2006). The Age of Fallibility: Consequences of the War on Terror. ISBN 1-58648-359-5. (discusses Lakoff in regard to the application of his theories on the work of Frank Luntz and with respect to his own theory about perception and reality)
  • Winter, Steven L. (2003). A Clearing in the Forest. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-90222-6. (Applies Lakoff's work in cognitive science and metaphor to the field of law and legal reasoning.)
  • http://www.ppls.ed.ac.uk/ppig/documents/brainconcepts_000.pdf

External links[edit]

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