|• Mayor||Friedhelm Bongartz (CDU)|
|• Total||64.33 km2 (24.84 sq mi)|
|Elevation||358 m (1,175 ft)|
|• Density||120/km2 (300/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)|
Gerolstein is a town in the Vulkaneifel district of Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. Gerolstein is a local municipality of the Verbandsgemeinde Gerolstein. It has been approved as a Luftkurort (spa town).
Gerolstein's subdivisions, besides the main town (also called Gerolstein), are Bewingen, Büscheich-Niedereich, Gees, Hinterhausen, Lissingen, Michelbach, Müllenborn, Oos, and Roth.
As early as the Stone Age, there is evidence of human habitation in the Buchenloch, a nearby cave. In the Bronze Age the Dietzenley was used by the Celts as a refuge castle. In Roman times a temple and dwellings were known to have existed, and remnants of them have been preserved.
One form of the name Gerolstein first appeared in connection with the building of the Löwenburg in 1115, which was then named the Burg Gerhardstein.
Town rights were granted to Gerolstein in 1336. In 1691, the town was almost completely destroyed when it was liberated from French occupation by troops from the Duchy of Jülich. After reconstruction, a devastating fire burnt down the town in 1708, and again in 1784. In the 1801 Treaty of Lunéville, Gerolstein, along with all of the area on the left bank of the Rhine river, was given to France, and wasn't returned to German control until 1815. As a landholder, Count Sternberg-Manderscheid acquired the holdings formerly belonging to the monasteries at Weissenau and Schussenried in Upper Swabia in the 1803 Reichsdeputationshauptschluss, among other things, to offset his loss of Blankenheim, Jünkerath, Gerolstein and Dollendorf. It is known that water—from the spring that once was used by the Celts and the Romans—was bottled and sold beginning in 1724. This still forms the basis for today’s mineral water industry in Gerolstein. Late in the Second World War, in both 1944 and 1945, Gerolstein’s status as a railway junction-town brought Allied air raids down on the town, and 80% of it was destroyed. Town rights were granted Gerolstein once again in 1953.
Bewingen is Gerolstein’s northernmost outlying centre, or Stadtteil, located three kilometres (about 1.86 miles) from the town center. Here, the Kyll river flows in a great arc around the mighty dolomite and basalt massif that juts out from the west, eastwards. The valley narrows and there is only enough room for the railway line, a field road, and the river itself. The road finds its way to Gerolstein over the Bewinger Höhe (heights), thus shortening the way to the nearby middle centre. The local lay of the land was brought about by volcanic activity that created two volcanic peaks—the Kasselburgmassiv, with the Burlich and the Hahn ("Cock") on the Kyll river's west bank, and the Rockeskyller Kopf on the east—whose volcanic minerals and deposits of lava, ash, and cinders during the Quaternary period narrowed the river valley.
The place-name ending —ingen points to early Frankish settlement. Bewingen was first mentioned in a document in 1218 as a holding of the church and monastery of Niederehe. From that mention it is known that the Brothers Theoderich, Alexander, and Albero, from Castle Kerpen, established an endowment for the Premonstratensian nuns in the years between 1162 and 1175. The next documentary mention came in 1282, when "Gerhard VI of Blankenheim" acquired the land, as well as Steffeln, Niederbettingen, and Bewingen. In the Middle Ages, the lords at Kasselburg (a castle in Pelm) and those at Castle Gerhardstein (Gerolstein) held lands and tithing rights in the village. In the time of French rule, beginning in 1794, Bewingen was assigned to the Mairie ("Mayoralty") of Rockeskyll, and the village remained within the Bürgermeisterei (also "Mayoralty") of Rockeskyll up to Prussian times. The formerly self-administering municipality of Bewingen was amalgamated with the town of Gerolstein in 1969.
One of the oldest buildings is the small chapel consecrated to Saint Brice, which underwent repairs in 1744 and 1745. Its Late Gothic choir suggests that there was an earlier church here, built perhaps around 1500.
Büscheich-Niedereich lies roughly 5 km from the town centre. In 1352, Büscheich had its first documentary mention; Niedereich’s first documentary mention did not come until 1398.
In 1501, the hereditary estate of Eich (Niedereich) belonged to the County of Gerolstein. On 13 May 1661, the hereditary estate was divided into Niedereich and Obereich.
When the French occupied the Eifel in the 18th century, the Counts lost all their holdings. After the French were driven out, the Eifel became Prussian. In 1815, the Prussian government changed Obereich’s name to Büscheich.
Gerolstein is the seat of the Verbandsgemeinde of Gerolstein, to which the municipalities of Berlingen, Birresborn, Densborn, Duppach, Hohenfels-Essingen, Kalenborn-Scheuern, Kopp, Mürlenbach, Neroth, Pelm, Rockeskyll, and Salm belong.
The council is made up of 24 members elected by proportional representation at municipal elections, with the mayor as chairman.
Seats in the council:
|Year of Election||SPD||CDU||Alliance 90/The Greens||FDP||FWG||BUV||Total|
Gerolstein’s mayor is chosen every five years in a direct vote. The current officeholder is Karl-Heinz Schwartz (CDU).
On 7 June 1969, the municipalities of Bewingen, Hinterhausen, and Lissingen were amalgamated with Gerolstein. Büscheich, Gees, Michelbach, Müllenborn, Oos, and Roth were amalgamated on 1 December 1972.
The town’s coat of arms consists of a lion rampant sable (black and standing on the left hind foot) armed and langued gules (red tongue, teeth, and claws viable) surmounted at the shoulder by a label of five points of the last.
The town’s arms are those formerly borne by the Counts of Gerolstein-Blankenheim, the former landholders, and are from as early as 1567 when they appeared in a seal used by the town’s Schöffen (roughly "lay jurists"). The town has borne these arms since about 1890, but no official approval to do so is known to have been issued.
Gerolstein has fostered partnerships with the following places:
In Gerolstein, the historical Eifelquerbahn (Cross Eifel Railway) branches off, leading by way of Daun to Kaisersesch and on to Andernach, as does the Westeifelbahn, leading by way of Prüm to Sankt Vith (until 1918 a part of the German Empire, now part of Belgium).
For all local public transport three tariff systems apply: the Verkehrsverbund Region Trier (VRT), the Verkehrsverbund Rhein-Sieg, and for journeys crossing tariff zones, the NRW-Tarif.
The mineral-water firm Gerolsteiner Brunnen has its headquarters in Gerolstein.
The German army (Bundeswehr) Eifel barracks (Eifelkaserne) house the 281st headquarters support battalion (Führungsunterstützungsbataillon 281).
In addition to the attractions listed below, other things to see in and around Gerolstein include the dried-up maar called Papenkaule; the Buchenloch, a 36-metre-long karst cave that served as a dwelling for Stone Age people; the Mühlsteinhöhlen ("millstone caves") or Eishöhlen ("ice caves") near Roth; a natural history museum; and a district local history museum. In walking distance is the Gerolsteiner Dolomiten, a Devonian limestone reef formed by extinct Rugosa, Tabulata, and Stromatoporoids, comprising the Hustley, the Munterley, and the Auber, which dominate the surrounding landscape, looming 100 meters above the valley.
On the outskirts of the outlying community of Lissingen stands the formerly moated Lissingen Castle, near the Kyll. The oldest parts of the building date to 1280, although the castle had already been mentioned in documents by 1212. Unlike most castles in the Eifel, it was not destroyed. In 1559, it was divided into an upper and lower castle. The lower castle is used as an event and cultural venue.
The Evangelical Erlöserkirche ("Church of the Redeemer") was built between 1907 and 1913 by Franz Schwechten (the same architect who designed, among other things, Berlin’s Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church), and was consecrated on 15 October 1913. The interior is decorated with broad gold mosaics, round arches, and a commanding cupola.
Villa Sarabodis is the name given the ruins of a Roman country house – villa rustica – which were unearthed in the course of preparatory work for building the Church of the Redeemer in 1907 and have been dated to the first century AD. The Kirchenbauverein Berlin ("Berlin Church-Building Association"), which built the Church of the Redeemer, excavated and preserved the finds. The foundation and a hypocaust can now be viewed in a protective building.
The Juddekirchhof, as it is known locally, is a Celtic-Roman worship site. It lies above Gerolstein on the Hustley, a part of the Gerolsteiner Dolomiten.
The Roman Marcus Victorius Pellentius had this temple complex built in AD 124. The remains of the walls measure roughly 63 by 46 metres, within which the foundations of many buildings, among which are two temples, are preserved. One temple was dedicated to Hercules while the other was dedicated to the Celtic goddess Caiva. In 1927 and 1928, remains of the temple complex were excavated.
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