|The Citizenship Act, 2000|
|An Act to provide for acquisition and determination of Ghanaian citizenship.|
|Citation||Act No. 591 of 2000|
|Enacted by||Parliament of Ghana|
|Date assented to||30 December 2000|
|The Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 1971, the Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 1972, the Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 1978, the Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 1979, the Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 2000, and the Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 2002|
|Along with the Constitution of Ghana, the Citizenship Act, 2000 is the exhaustive law relating to citizenship in Ghana.|
Ghana amended its nationality law in 2000, to the 2000 Ghana Citizen Act Dual Citizenship Scheme, which came into effect from Friday, November 1, 2002 in accordance with the provisions of the Citizenship Act 2002. Applicants eligible for dual citizenship are those who hold citizenship of any country in addition to the citizenship of Ghana. In these instances, all applicants are required by law to provide evidence of their Ghanaian nationality or their country of birth. Its intention was to increase immigration of skilled labour, but the law has been criticised for not giving full citizens rights as native-born citizens.
People who have been convicted of criminal acts are ineligible for Ghanaian nationality.
Every person who on the coming into force of the Constitution was a citizen of Ghana by law shall continue to be a citizen of Ghana.
For ease of ascertaining the law on Ghanaian citizenship by birth, the applicable provisions are in this Part restated.
(1) A person born before 6th March 1957 is a citizen of Ghana by birth if—
(1) A person born on or after 6th March 1957 and before 22nd August 1969 is a citizen of Ghana by birth if—
(2) A person is not a citizen of Ghana for the purposes of subsection (1) of this section if at the time of his/her birth the parent, grandparent or great-grandparent through whom the citizenship is claimed has lost his/her citizenship of Ghana.
(3) A person born on or after 6th March 1957 and before 22nd August 1969 is a citizen of Ghana by birth if—
A person is a citizen of Ghana by birth if he/she was born in or outside Ghana on or after 22nd August 1969 and before 24th September 1979 and at the date of his birth either of his/her parents was a citizen of Ghana.
A person born on or after 24th September 1979 and before 7th January 1993 is a citizen of Ghana by birth if—
A person is a citizen of Ghana by birth if he/she was born on 7th January 1993 or born after that date in or outside Ghana and at the date of his/her birth either of his/her parents or one grandparent was or is a citizen of Ghana.
A child of not more than seven years of age found in Ghana whose parents are not known shall be presumed to be a citizen of Ghana by birth.
A child of not more than sixteen years of age neither of whose parents is a citizen of Ghana who is adopted by a citizen of Ghana shall, by virtue of the adoption, be a citizen of Ghana.
(1) A citizen of age and capacity of any approved country may upon an application, and with the approval of the President, be registered as a citizen of Ghana if he satisfies the Minister that—
(2) A person who is not a citizen and is or was married to a citizen may, upon an application for naturalisation in the prescribed manner, be registered as a citizen.
(3) Subsection (2) applies to an applicant who was married to a person who was a citizen at the time of the of that person.
(4) Where the marriage of a person registered as a citizen under subsection (2) is dissolved, the person shall continue to be a citizen unless the citizenship is renounced.
(5) A child of the marriage of a person registered as a citizen under subsection (2) shall continue to be a citizen unless the child renounces the citizenship.
(6) Where upon an application for registration under subsection (2) it appears to the Minister that the marriage had been entered into primarily for the purpose of obtaining the registration, the Minister shall request the applicant to establish that the marriage was entered into in good faith.
(7) In the case of a man seeking registration, subsection (1) applies only if the applicant is permanently resident in Ghana.
(8) A person shall not be registered as a citizen unless he has taken the oath of allegiance.
The Minister shall register as a citizen of Ghana a child of any person who becomes a citizen of Ghana by registration or naturalisation upon application of the parent or guardian of the child.
(1) A person registered under section 10 or 11 is a citizen by registration from the date stated on the certificate of registration.
(2) The date stated on the certificate of registration shall be the date of the taking of the oath of allegiance.
(1) The Minister may with the approval of the President grant a certificate of naturalisation to a person of age and capacity who satisfies the Minister that he/she is qualified under section 14 of this Act for naturalisation.
(2) A person to whom a certificate of naturalisation is granted under subsection (1) shall take the oath of allegiance and become a citizen by naturalisation from the date on which the oath of allegiance is taken.
(1) Subject to subsection (2) of this section, a person qualifies for naturalisation if—
(2) The Minister, may in such special circumstances as he thinks fit and with the approval of the President—
(3) The Minister, in other special circumstances as he thinks fit and with the approval of the President, may modify, vary or waive any one of the qualifications for naturalisation set out in this section except the qualification specified in subsection 1 (e) of this section.
The Minister shall publish in the Gazette within three months of any application, registration or grant of a certificate of naturalisation, the names, particulars and other details of a person who—
(1) A citizen of Ghana may hold the citizenship of any other country in addition to his citizenship of Ghana.
(2) Without prejudice to article 94(2)(a) of the Constitution, no citizen of Ghana shall qualify to be appointed as a holder of any office specified in this subsection if he/she holds the citizenship of any other country in addition to his citizenship of Ghana—
(3) A citizen of Ghana who—
(4) A citizen of Ghana who is also a citizen of any other country shall whilst in Ghana be subject to the laws of Ghana as any other citizen.
(5) A citizen who has lost his/her citizenship as a result of the law in Ghana which prohibited the holding of dual citizenship by a Ghanaian may on an application to the Minister be issued with a certificate of citizenship which shall be effective from the date of issue.
(6) A certificate issued under subsection (5) shall specify whether the citizenship is by birth, adoption, registration or naturalisation.
(1) If any citizen of Ghana of age and capacity who is also a citizen of another country makes a declaration of renunciation of citizenship of Ghana, the Minister shall cause the declaration to be registered; and upon the registration, that person shall cease to be a citizen of Ghana.
(2) Where the law of a country requires a person who marries a citizen of that country to renounce the citizenship of his/her own country by virtue of that marriage, a citizen of Ghana who is deprived of his/her citizenship of Ghana by virtue of that marriage shall, on the dissolution of that marriage, become a citizen of Ghana.
The High Court may on an application by the Attorney-General for the purpose, deprive a person who is a citizen of Ghana, otherwise than by birth or adoption of that citizenship on the ground—
A reference in this Act to the citizenship status of the parent of a person at the time of the birth of that person shall, in relation to a person born after the death of the parent, be construed as a reference to the citizenship status of the parent at the time of the parent's death.
The Minister may, on an application for naturalisation made by or on behalf of any person with respect to whose citizenship of Ghana a doubt exists under Part I of this Act, certify that the person is a citizen of Ghana and a certificate issued under this section shall be prima facie evidence that the person was such a citizen at the date indicated in the certificate, but without prejudice to any evidence that he/she was such a citizen at an earlier date.
(1) A document purporting to be a notice, certificate, order or declaration or an entry in a register, or a subscription to an oath of allegiance, given, granted or made under this Act shall be received in evidence.
(2) The evidence may be given by the production of a certified true copy of the document by the person.
(3) An entry in a register made under this Act shall be received as evidence of the matters stated in the entry.
Any person who for the purpose of procuring anything to be done or not to be done under this Act makes any statement which he/she knows to be false in a material particular, or recklessly makes any statement which is false in a material particular, commits an offence and is liable on summary conviction to a fine of not less than GH¢500,000 and not exceeding GH¢5 million or a term of imprisonment not exceeding 12 months or to both.
The Minister may by legislative instrument make Regulations for—
(1) In this Act unless the context otherwise requires—
(2) A reference in this Act to Ghana in relation to a birth or residence before 6th March 1957 shall be read as a reference to the territories comprised in Ghana on that date.
(3) For the purposes of this Act, a person born aboard a registered ship or aircraft or aboard an unregistered ship or aircraft of the government of any country, shall be deemed to have been born in the place in which the ship or aircraft was registered or in that country.
(4) For the purposes of this Act, a person is of age if he has attained the age of eighteen years and is of capacity if he is of sound mind.
|British & Commonwealth
|Commonwealth nationality laws|
|Classes of citizens and subjects|
|Rights and visas|
(1) The Ghana Nationality Act, 1971 (Act 361) as amended by the—
(2) Notwithstanding the repeal in subsection (1) of this section any Regulations made under Act 361 or continued in force under that Act and in force immediately before the coming into force of this Act shall continue in force until amended or revoked under this Act.
(4) Any person who immediately before the coming into force of this Act is a citizen by adoption, registration or naturalisation acquired validly under any enactment before the coming into force of this Act shall continue to hold the citizenship subject to the Constitution and the provisions of this Act.
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