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Polynesian Cultural Center Samoan Tattoos
Polynesian Cultural Center Samoan Tattoos
Published: 2009/04/08
Channel: polynesiancultural
Top 10 TERRIFYING Facts About MAORI WARRIORS
Top 10 TERRIFYING Facts About MAORI WARRIORS
Published: 2016/11/08
Channel: TopTenz
Polynesian Cultural Center
Polynesian Cultural Center's Haunted Lagoon 2011 ホンテッドラグーン
Published: 2011/10/02
Channel: Starlet Shay
Polynesian Cultural Center Official Haunted Lagoon Trailer
Polynesian Cultural Center Official Haunted Lagoon Trailer
Published: 2009/09/10
Channel: polynesiancultural
The Turtle and the Shark
The Turtle and the Shark
Published: 2010/05/22
Channel: स्टीफन आर्थर महाबीर
Nu
Nu'uanu Ghost Tour
Published: 2015/03/09
Channel: Real Paranormal Oahu
Polynesian Cultural Center Haunted Lagoon
Polynesian Cultural Center Haunted Lagoon
Published: 2015/05/13
Channel: Shane Harder
Hawaiian Heritage
Hawaiian Heritage
Published: 2017/03/21
Channel: polynesiancultural
NIUE, ancient Polynesian burial cave (WARNING: images of human bones, Pacific Ocean)
NIUE, ancient Polynesian burial cave (WARNING: images of human bones, Pacific Ocean)
Published: 2015/10/24
Channel: Vic Stefanu - World Travels and Adventures
Tatau: Marks of Polynesia - Samoan Mike
Tatau: Marks of Polynesia - Samoan Mike
Published: 2016/07/29
Channel: stateofgrace sanjose
Big Samoan says "F*** You" to Dwayne "The Rock" Johnson
Big Samoan says "F*** You" to Dwayne "The Rock" Johnson
Published: 2011/02/06
Channel: xSiiANAx1
Polynesian Cultural Center Haunted Lagoon 2011
Polynesian Cultural Center Haunted Lagoon 2011
Published: 2011/10/15
Channel: Michael Bieber
Roadhog, Demigod of Overwatch? - Game Exchange
Roadhog, Demigod of Overwatch? - Game Exchange
Published: 2016/06/23
Channel: Gaijin Goombah Media
The untold story behind The Rock
The untold story behind The Rock's tattoo
Published: 2012/03/28
Channel: WWE
Polynesian Cultural Center Official Haunted Lagoon Trailer-Japanese Trailer
Polynesian Cultural Center Official Haunted Lagoon Trailer-Japanese Trailer
Published: 2009/09/10
Channel: polynesiancultural
Polynesian Cultural Center Haunted Lagoon 2011
Polynesian Cultural Center Haunted Lagoon 2011
Published: 2011/10/02
Channel: xjazzylicious
HAWAIIAN ROAD TRIP!!!  Playing with Fire at the Polynesian Cultural Center!
HAWAIIAN ROAD TRIP!!! Playing with Fire at the Polynesian Cultural Center!
Published: 2017/09/06
Channel: EvanTubeRAW
Haunted Lagoon Polynesian Cultural Center
Haunted Lagoon Polynesian Cultural Center
Published: 2010/10/31
Channel: jeff hunt
Polynesian Cultural Center (PCC) Haunted Lagoon Leadership Training
Polynesian Cultural Center (PCC) Haunted Lagoon Leadership Training
Published: 2009/11/19
Channel: byuhidd
2012 Haunted Lagoon: Dreams & Nightmares
2012 Haunted Lagoon: Dreams & Nightmares
Published: 2012/09/25
Channel: polynesiancultural
Ha Breath of Life - Polynesian Cultural Center
Ha Breath of Life - Polynesian Cultural Center
Published: 2010/08/24
Channel: polynesiancultural
Acupuncture, War And Prostitution: The Origins Of Tattoo Culture
Acupuncture, War And Prostitution: The Origins Of Tattoo Culture
Published: 2016/08/29
Channel: Science Plus
Lin-Manuel Miranda, Opetaia Foa
Lin-Manuel Miranda, Opetaia Foa'i - We Know The Way (From "Moana")
Published: 2016/12/05
Channel: DisneyMusicVEVO
Why Pokemon
Why Pokemon's Decidueye is a Ghost Type! - Game Exchange
Published: 2016/10/29
Channel: Gaijin Goombah Media
What Really Happened On Easter Island?
What Really Happened On Easter Island?
Published: 2016/03/03
Channel: Seeker
Polynesian Culture Center
Polynesian Culture Center
Published: 2009/04/05
Channel: polynesiancultural
Coco Palms Resort Kauai, Hawaii Investigation Archived footage released in 2016 Bearfort Paranormal
Coco Palms Resort Kauai, Hawaii Investigation Archived footage released in 2016 Bearfort Paranormal
Published: 2012/12/04
Channel: Bearfort Paranormal
BYU-Hawaii and the Polynesian Cultural Center - A Unique Partnership Since 1963
BYU-Hawaii and the Polynesian Cultural Center - A Unique Partnership Since 1963
Published: 2016/04/25
Channel: David Preece
2010 Haunted Lagoon "Sneak Peak"-Guests Reactions
2010 Haunted Lagoon "Sneak Peak"-Guests Reactions
Published: 2010/10/01
Channel: polynesiancultural
PCC Haunted Lagoon interviews
PCC Haunted Lagoon interviews
Published: 2009/09/30
Channel: Cinjyn
Polynesian Cultural Center
Polynesian Cultural Center
Published: 2009/04/06
Channel: polynesiancultural
Hawaii Polynesian Cultural Center - Hawaii Village (Part-2) - 06_15_2016
Hawaii Polynesian Cultural Center - Hawaii Village (Part-2) - 06_15_2016
Published: 2016/06/16
Channel: Raj Lakhanpal
2008 Polynesian Cultural Center Christmas Program - A Gift for Sadie
2008 Polynesian Cultural Center Christmas Program - A Gift for Sadie
Published: 2008/12/17
Channel: polynesiancultural
WTF Is Marowak in Pokemon Sun and Moon!? - A Look At Samoan Culture
WTF Is Marowak in Pokemon Sun and Moon!? - A Look At Samoan Culture
Published: 2016/08/18
Channel: Gaijin Goombah Media
Night SUP at Polynesian Cultural Center
Night SUP at Polynesian Cultural Center
Published: 2015/07/31
Channel: CareerChangersTV
Polynesian Cultural Center Christmas canoe ride
Polynesian Cultural Center Christmas canoe ride
Published: 2008/12/19
Channel: Mike Foley
Polynesian Culture Center
Polynesian Culture Center
Published: 2011/10/01
Channel: imd1calldoc
Hanamura
Hanamura's New Year Secret in Overwatch! - Game Exchange
Published: 2016/12/31
Channel: Gaijin Goombah Media
Hawaii: Polynesian Culture Center Boat Ride
Hawaii: Polynesian Culture Center Boat Ride
Published: 2013/05/03
Channel: Golden Legion Honey
Haunted Plantation Official 2017 Trailer
Haunted Plantation Official 2017 Trailer
Published: 2017/10/03
Channel: Haunted Plantation
KAP Polynesian Hero
KAP Polynesian Hero
Published: 2016/08/12
Channel: Don Chivazo
Polynesian Cultural Center Laie, Hawaii 2015
Polynesian Cultural Center Laie, Hawaii 2015
Published: 2015/10/18
Channel: #longhairedmormon
Ghouls And Laie Lady Haunts KITV
Ghouls And Laie Lady Haunts KITV
Published: 2010/10/01
Channel: KITV
Haunted Plantation Commercial Hawaii
Haunted Plantation Commercial Hawaii's Best Haunt!
Published: 2009/10/22
Channel: Haunted Plantation
Polynesian Cultural Center Devotional
Polynesian Cultural Center Devotional
Published: 2016/11/07
Channel: Sugardoodle.net
Polynesian Cultural Center
Polynesian Cultural Center
Published: 2013/07/13
Channel: Oahu Vacation Guide
canoe ride at Polynesian Cultural Center
canoe ride at Polynesian Cultural Center
Published: 2009/09/07
Channel: c_chan808
HAUNTED WATERFALL IN HAWAII
HAUNTED WATERFALL IN HAWAII
Published: 2010/02/12
Channel: dbo808
Polynesian Story - American Samoa (1997)
Polynesian Story - American Samoa (1997)
Published: 2010/09/28
Channel: Kip Evans
Polynesian Cultural Center 3D Video Tour
Polynesian Cultural Center 3D Video Tour
Published: 2012/08/21
Channel: 3DHawaiiDotCom
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Spirit of the Dead Watching (Manao tupapau) by Paul Gauguin (1892)

There was widespread belief in ghosts in Polynesian culture, some of which persists today. After death, a person's ghost would normally travel to the sky world or the underworld, but some could stay on earth. In many Polynesian legends, ghosts were often involved in the affairs of the living. Ghosts might also cause sickness or even invade the body of ordinary people, to be driven out through strong medicines.[1]

Ghost spirit[edit]

In the reconstructed Proto-Polynesian language, the word "*qaitu"[2] refers to a ghost, the spirit of a dead person, while the word "*tupuqa" has a broader meaning including all supernatural beings.[3] Some of the ancient Māui legends that are common throughout the Polynesian islands include the idea of a double soul inhabiting the body. One was the soul which never forsakes man, and the other the soul that could be separated or charmed away from the body by incantations was the "hau".[4]

In some societies, the tattoo marks on the Polynesian's face indicated their cult. A spiral symbol meant that the man favoured the sky world, but before ascending there on a whirlwind his ghost had to travel to his people's homeland, situated in the navel of the world. Different markings indicated that the ghost chose to live in the underworld.[5] The Hawaiians believed in "aumakua", ghosts who did not go down into Po, the land of King Milu. These ghosts remained in the land of the living, guarding their former families.[6]

Legends[edit]

All Polynesian societies have many stories of ghosts or spirits who played a role in their traditional legends. William Drake Westervelt collected and published eighteen of them in Hawaiian Legends of Ghosts and Ghost-Gods (1915).[7] The legend of Pele, the Hawaiian goddess of volcanic fire, relates how she fell in love with a man, but found that he had died. She found his ghost as a thin presence in a cave, and with great difficulty used her magical powers to restore him to life. He was destroyed again, but his ghost was once more found, this time in the form of a bird flitting over the waters, and once more restored to life.[8]

Another Hawaiian legend tells of a young man who fell into the hands of the priests of a high temple who captured and sacrificed him to their god, and then planned to treat his bones dishonorably. The young man's ghost revealed the situation to his father through a dream, and aided his father to retrieve the bones through great exertions and to place them in his own secret burial cave. The ghost of the young man was then able to joyfully go down to the spirit world.[9]

Influence of ghosts[edit]

Ghost sickness in Polynesia takes two forms: possession and bizarre behavior, where the victim often talks with the voice of a dead person, and retarded healing caused by a ghost or evil spirit. The patient is treated with strong-smelling plants such as beach pea, island rue or ti plant (Cordyline fruticosa), and in the case of possession through reasoning with the ghost.[10]

In the arts[edit]

Of his 1892 Tahitian painting Manao Tupapau, Paul Gauguin said "according to Tahitian beliefs, the title Manao Tupapau has a double meaning . . . either she thinks of the ghost or the ghost thinks of her".[11]

Robert Louis Stevenson wrote about Polynesian beliefs and customs, including the belief in ghosts, in his last collection of stories, Island Nights' Entertainments. He wrote the book on Samoa in 1893 in a realistic style that was not well received by the critics, but the stories which dealt with false and real supernatural events are now considered among his best .[12][13]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ William Drake Westervelt (1985). Hawaiian Legends of Ghosts and Ghost-Gods. Forgotten Books. ISBN 1-60506-964-7. 
  2. ^ *q in reconstructed Proto-Polynesian words indicates a glottal stop.
  3. ^ Patrick Vinton Kirch, Roger Curtis Green (2001). Hawaiki, ancestral Polynesia: an essay in historical anthropology. Cambridge University Press. p. 240. ISBN 0-521-78879-X. 
  4. ^ W. D. Westervelt (1910). Legends of Maui, A Demi-God of Polynesia. 
  5. ^ Donald A. MacKenzie (2003). Migration of Symbols. Kessinger Publishing. p. xvi. ISBN 0-7661-4638-3. 
  6. ^ "Aumakuas, Or Ancestor-Ghosts". Sacred Texts. Retrieved 2010-03-11. 
  7. ^ Robert D. Craig (2004). Handbook of Polynesian mythology. ABC-CLIO. p. 112. ISBN 1-57607-894-9. 
  8. ^ "Pe-le, Hawaii's Goddess Of Volcanic Fire". Sacred Texts. Retrieved 2010-03-11. 
  9. ^ "The Ghost Of Wahaula Temple". Sacred Texts. Retrieved 2010-03-11. 
  10. ^ "Polynesian Herbal Medicine" (PDF). University of Hawai'i. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 2, 2006. Retrieved 2010-03-11. 
  11. ^ Lee Wallace. "Tropical Rearwindow: Gauguin's Manao Tupapau and Primitivist Ambivalence". Genders 28 1998. Archived from the original on 2010-03-23. Retrieved 2010-03-11. 
  12. ^ Island Nights' Entertainments. Charles Scribner. Retrieved 2010-03-11. 
  13. ^ Stephen Arata (2006). The Oxford Encyclopedia of British Literature. Vol. 5: 99-102: Robert Louis Stevenson. 

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