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Global Cities: Introduction
Global Cities: Introduction
Published: 2017/10/03
Channel: Complexity Labs
Global Cities: Full Documentary
Global Cities: Full Documentary
Published: 2017/10/05
Channel: Complexity Labs
Bonifacio Global City Overview Driving Tour Taguig 2015 by HourPhilippines.com
Bonifacio Global City Overview Driving Tour Taguig 2015 by HourPhilippines.com
Published: 2015/04/12
Channel: Hour Philippines TV
Global Cities, the 2017 Report
Global Cities, the 2017 Report
Published: 2016/09/15
Channel: Knight Frank
Saskia Sassen 1/6 - Global Cities as Today
Saskia Sassen 1/6 - Global Cities as Today's Frontiers - Leuphana Digital School
Published: 2013/01/11
Channel: Leuphana Digital School
Global City - HeartBeat
Global City - HeartBeat
Published: 2011/11/26
Channel: Eddie Carrillo
Global City Virar (Mumbai) by Rustomjee & Evershine Builders
Global City Virar (Mumbai) by Rustomjee & Evershine Builders
Published: 2011/09/08
Channel: Shah Sons
Pinoy Joyride - BGC (Bonifacio Global City) Joyride 2016
Pinoy Joyride - BGC (Bonifacio Global City) Joyride 2016
Published: 2016/03/31
Channel: dmitrivalencia
What is GLOBAL CITY? What does GLOBAL CITY mean? GLOBAL CITY meaning, definition & explanation
What is GLOBAL CITY? What does GLOBAL CITY mean? GLOBAL CITY meaning, definition & explanation
Published: 2016/08/11
Channel: The Audiopedia
Redefining Global Cities
Redefining Global Cities
Published: 2016/10/13
Channel: Brookings Institution
Global Cities 2015 - An Introduction
Global Cities 2015 - An Introduction
Published: 2014/09/25
Channel: Knight Frank
The Future of Singapore As a Global City | FT World
The Future of Singapore As a Global City | FT World
Published: 2014/11/27
Channel: Financial Times
2017 Uptown Bonifacio Fort BGC Global City Updated Drone Aerial Shot Latest Video
2017 Uptown Bonifacio Fort BGC Global City Updated Drone Aerial Shot Latest Video
Published: 2017/08/15
Channel: Randy Lucero
2016 Bonifacio Global City Driving Tour Overview Taguig by HourPhilippines.com
2016 Bonifacio Global City Driving Tour Overview Taguig by HourPhilippines.com
Published: 2016/04/14
Channel: Hour Philippines TV
Top 10 Global Cities 2014
Top 10 Global Cities 2014
Published: 2014/08/30
Channel: TopListVideos
Global Cities
Global Cities
Published: 2012/11/13
Channel: Squint/Opera
Global City Virar
Global City Virar
Published: 2016/07/30
Channel: News N Views
Urbanisation and the growth of global cities
Urbanisation and the growth of global cities
Published: 2016/02/29
Channel: Macquarie Group
Manila, Philippines, Day 4.2 - Walking around Bonifacio High Street, Global City BGC [4K, Zhiyun]
Manila, Philippines, Day 4.2 - Walking around Bonifacio High Street, Global City BGC [4K, Zhiyun]
Published: 2017/04/19
Channel: Less Talk, More Delicious
London, a Global City
London, a Global City
Published: 2015/11/17
Channel: Plush Made
Best Place to Live in Manila - Bonifacio Global City  | PHILIPPINES
Best Place to Live in Manila - Bonifacio Global City | PHILIPPINES
Published: 2017/08/09
Channel: Mika Elf
"On Global Cities" by Richard C. Longworth
"On Global Cities" by Richard C. Longworth
Published: 2015/05/21
Channel: Chicago Council on Global Affairs
Agglomeration, Global City & Primatstadt - Quick-Info #15
Agglomeration, Global City & Primatstadt - Quick-Info #15
Published: 2015/11/18
Channel: Wissensbooster
Global City Philippines
Global City Philippines
Published: 2016/08/30
Channel: senseofstile
The Icone Tower - The Light of Manila (in Fort Bonifacio Global City BGC)
The Icone Tower - The Light of Manila (in Fort Bonifacio Global City BGC)
Published: 2017/06/24
Channel: Randy Lucero
FOOD TOUR of BONIFACIO GlOBAL CITY, PHILIPPINES
FOOD TOUR of BONIFACIO GlOBAL CITY, PHILIPPINES
Published: 2016/07/25
Channel: Bekah Cunningham
Dubai Global City 2016
Dubai Global City 2016
Published: 2016/12/02
Channel: Wade 16
Saskia Sassen : The Global City - New Frontier/Strategic Site
Saskia Sassen : The Global City - New Frontier/Strategic Site
Published: 2014/03/26
Channel: pmilat
Philippines Manila Global City Bonifacio Taguig City Tour Paul Ranky 4K UHD H264 Video
Philippines Manila Global City Bonifacio Taguig City Tour Paul Ranky 4K UHD H264 Video
Published: 2017/08/29
Channel: Paul Ranky
Saskia Sassen: "The Global City: A New Frontier"
Saskia Sassen: "The Global City: A New Frontier"
Published: 2013/04/12
Channel: Syracuse Architecture (Syracuse University School of Architecture)
BGC Bonifacio Global City Philippines Aerial view
BGC Bonifacio Global City Philippines Aerial view
Published: 2017/10/03
Channel: A day with Mil
Living In A Global City
Living In A Global City
Published: 2009/05/16
Channel: jamiegallantfilms
Global City Rankings - JLL Cities Research Center
Global City Rankings - JLL Cities Research Center
Published: 2015/06/17
Channel: JLL
Boston: A Global City - Annual Meeting 2016
Boston: A Global City - Annual Meeting 2016
Published: 2016/05/16
Channel: GreaterBostonChamber
HOOQ Hangouts in Bonifacio Global City - Vlog 21
HOOQ Hangouts in Bonifacio Global City - Vlog 21
Published: 2016/07/30
Channel: Gadget Addict
The Bonifacio Global City - Kenneth McIlvaine
The Bonifacio Global City - Kenneth McIlvaine
Published: 2017/04/27
Channel: Kenneth McIlvaine
Bonifacio Global City Bonifacio High Street Serendra Overview Tour Taguig by HourPhilippines.com
Bonifacio Global City Bonifacio High Street Serendra Overview Tour Taguig by HourPhilippines.com
Published: 2015/04/27
Channel: Hour Philippines TV
Bonifacio Global City, Taguig (Metro Manila)
Bonifacio Global City, Taguig (Metro Manila)
Published: 2015/12/27
Channel: Walkabouts - Explore Philippines
Uptown Bonifacio - Megaworld
Uptown Bonifacio - Megaworld's latest Township in Fort Bonifacio Global City
Published: 2017/01/18
Channel: Jazel Carla Santiago
Majority of senators approve transfer of Senate office to Bonifacio Global City
Majority of senators approve transfer of Senate office to Bonifacio Global City
Published: 2017/11/22
Channel: Eagle News
Global Cities: Globalization
Global Cities: Globalization
Published: 2017/10/03
Channel: Complexity Labs
Uptown Mall Walking Tour Overview Bonifacio Global City Now Open Taguig by HourPhilippines.com
Uptown Mall Walking Tour Overview Bonifacio Global City Now Open Taguig by HourPhilippines.com
Published: 2016/01/26
Channel: Hour Philippines TV
Philippines:Walk around BGC( Bonifacio Global City) to Malls and Fruits Market
Philippines:Walk around BGC( Bonifacio Global City) to Malls and Fruits Market
Published: 2017/01/19
Channel: Simple Active Life Of Us
Travel Buddies: The Bonifacio Global City
Travel Buddies: The Bonifacio Global City
Published: 2017/05/05
Channel: Paula Antonia Bagual
Panamá Global City
Panamá Global City
Published: 2017/01/17
Channel: Guarura Producciones Panamá
NEW Bonifacio Global City - Ortigas Bridge - Why It Matters
NEW Bonifacio Global City - Ortigas Bridge - Why It Matters
Published: 2017/07/26
Channel: MetroGuide Realty
Global Cities - Toronto
Global Cities - Toronto
Published: 2016/04/07
Channel: Wilson Ruiz
Global City Virar
Global City Virar
Published: 2016/07/30
Channel: News N Views
Huawei Enterprise Safe City Case Study, Bonifacio Global City, Philippines
Huawei Enterprise Safe City Case Study, Bonifacio Global City, Philippines
Published: 2016/10/24
Channel: Huawei APAC
Bonifacio High Street Walking Tour Bonifacio Global City Taguig Manila by HourPhilippines.com
Bonifacio High Street Walking Tour Bonifacio Global City Taguig Manila by HourPhilippines.com
Published: 2015/03/31
Channel: Hour Philippines TV
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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A global city, also called world city or sometimes alpha city or world center, is a city generally considered to be an important node in the global economic system. The concept comes from geography and urban studies, and the idea that globalization can be understood as largely created, facilitated, and enacted in strategic geographic locales according to a hierarchy of importance to the operation of the global system of finance and trade.

The most complex of these entities is the "global city", whereby the linkages binding a city have a direct and tangible effect on global affairs through socio-economic means.[1] The use of "global city", as opposed to "megacity", was popularized by sociologist Saskia Sassen in her 1991 work, The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo;[2] although the term "world city", which refers to cities involved with large amounts of global business, dates to at least the May 1886 description of Liverpool, by The Illustrated London News.[3] Patrick Geddes also used the term "world city" later in 1915.[4] More recently, the term has been described as being synonymous with a city's influence and "financial capital", with other factors becoming less relevant.[5][6]

Criteria

Global city status is considered[by whom?] to be beneficial and desired, and because of this, many groups have tried to classify and rank which cities are seen as world cities or non-world cities.[4] Although there is a consensus upon leading world cities,[7] the criteria upon which a classification is made can affect which other cities are included.[4] The criteria for identification tend either to be based on a yardstick value (e.g., if the producer-service sector is the largest sector then city X is a world city)[4] or on an imminent determination (if the producer-service sector of city X is greater than the combined producer-service sectors of N other cities then city X is a world city.)[4]

Cities can also fall from such categorization, as in the case of cities that have become less cosmopolitan and less internationally renowned in the current era.

Characteristics

Although what constitutes a world city is still subject to debate, standard characteristics of world cities are:[8]

  • A variety of international financial services,[9] notably in finance, insurance, real estate, banking, accountancy, and marketing
  • Headquarters of several multinational corporations
  • The existence of financial headquarters, a stock exchange, and major financial institutions
  • Domination of the trade and economy of a large surrounding area
  • Major manufacturing centres with port and container facilities
  • Considerable decision-making power on a daily basis and at a global level
  • Centres of new ideas and innovation in business, economics, culture, and politics
  • Centres of media and communications for global networks
  • Dominance of the national region with great international significance
  • High percentage of residents employed in the services sector and information sector
  • High-quality educational institutions, including renowned universities, international student attendance,[10] and research facilities
  • Multi-functional infrastructure offering some of the best legal, medical, and entertainment facilities in the country

Variant rankings

Global Economic Power Index

In 2015, the second Global Economic Power Index, a "survey of the surveys" compiled by Richard Florida, was published by The Atlantic (to be differentiated from a namesake list[11] published by the Martin Prosperity Institute), with cities ranked according to criteria reflecting their presence on 5 separate lists as published by 5 different entities.[11][12]

Global Power City Index

The Institute for Urban Strategies at The Mori Memorial Foundation in Tokyo issued a comprehensive study of global cities in 2016. The ranking is based on six overall categories, "Economy", "Research & Development", "Cultural Interaction", "Livability", "Environment", and "Accessibility", with 70 individual indicators among them. This Japanese ranking also breaks down top ten world cities ranked in subjective categories such as "manager, researcher, artist, visitor and resident".[13]

GaWC study

A map showing the distribution of GaWC-ranked world cities (2010 data)

Together, Jon Beaverstock, Richard G. Smith and Peter J. Taylor established the Globalization and World Cities Research Network (GaWC). A roster of world cities was outlined in the GaWC Research Bulletin 5 and ranked cities based on their connectivity through four "advanced producer services": accountancy, advertising, banking/finance, and law.[7] The GaWC inventory identifies three levels of global cities and several sub-ranks.[14]

The 2004 rankings acknowledged several new indicators while continuing to rank city economics more heavily than political or cultural factors. The 2008 roster, similar to the 1998 version, is sorted into categories of "Alpha" world cities (with four sub-categories), "Beta" world cities (three sub-categories), "Gamma" world cities (three sub-categories) and additional cities with "High sufficiency" or "Sufficiency" presence. The following is a list of the cities in the 2016 rankings, as they appear on the GaWC website:[15]

Global Cities Index

In 2008, the American journal Foreign Policy, in conjunction with the Chicago-based consulting firm A.T. Kearney and the Chicago Council on Global Affairs, published a ranking of global cities, based on consultation with Saskia Sassen, Witold Rybczynski, and others.[16] Foreign Policy noted that "the world’s biggest, most interconnected cities help set global agendas, weather transnational dangers, and serve as the hubs of global integration. They are the engines of growth for their countries and the gateways to the resources of their regions."[17] The ranking is based on 27 metrics across five dimensions: business activity, human capital, information exchange, cultural experience, and political engagement and was updated in 2010, 2012, 2014, 2015 and 2016. Since 2015 it is published together with the Global Cities Outlook, a projection of a city’s potential based on rate of change in 13 indicators across four dimensions: personal well-being, economics, innovation, and governance.[18]

The Wealth Report

"The Wealth Report" (a global perspective on prime property and wealth) is made by the London-based estate agent Knight Frank LLP together with the Citi Private Bank. The report includes a "Global Cities Survey", evaluating which cities are considered the most important to the world’s HNWIs (high-net-worth individuals, having over $25 million of investable assets). For the Global Cities Survey, Citi Private Bank’s wealth advisors, and Knight Frank’s luxury property specialists were asked to name the cities that they felt were the most important to HNWIs, in regard to: "economic activity", "political power", "knowledge and influence" and "quality of life".[19][20]

Global City Competitiveness Index

In 2012, the Economist Intelligence Unit (The Economist Group), ranked the competitiveness of global cities according to their demonstrated ability to attract capital, businesses, talent and visitors.[21]

See also

References

  1. ^ Sassen, Saskia - The global city: strategic site/new frontier
  2. ^ Sassen, Saskia - The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo. Archived 16 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine. (1991) - Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-07063-6
  3. ^ "UK History". History.ac.uk. 18 December 2009. Retrieved 9 May 2012. 
  4. ^ a b c d e Doel, M. & Hubbard, P., (2002), "Taking World Cities Literally: Marketing the City in a Global Space of flows", City, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 351–68. Subscription required
  5. ^ "Asian Cities Pay Hidden Price for Global Status". The Diplomat. 15 February 2015. 
  6. ^ "The World's Most Influential Cities". Forbes. 14 August 2014. 
  7. ^ a b GaWC Research Bulletin 5, GaWC, Loughborough University, 28 July 1999
  8. ^ Pashley, Rosemary. "HSC Geography". Pascal Press, 2000, p.164
  9. ^ J.V. Beaverstock, World City Networks 'From Below', GaWC, Loughborough University, 29 September 2010
  10. ^ K. O'Connor, International Students and Global Cities, GaWC, Loughborough University, 17 February 2005
  11. ^ a b Richard Florida (3 March 2015). "Sorry, London: New York Is the World's Most Economically Powerful City". The Atlantic Monthly Group. Retrieved 16 March 2015. Our new ranking puts the Big Apple firmly on top. 
  12. ^ "The Top 10 most powerful cities in the world". Yahoo! India Finance. 11 May 2012. Retrieved 19 June 2013. 
  13. ^ "Global Power City Index 2017". Tokyo, Japan: Institute for Urban Strategies at The Mori Memorial Foundation. 12 October 2017. Archived from the original on 26 October 2017. 
  14. ^ "The World According to GaWC". GaWC. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
  15. ^ "The World According to GaWC 2016". GaWC. 24 April 2017. Retrieved 15 June 2017. 
  16. ^ "2012 Global Cities Index and Emerging Cities Outlook". Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 October 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2012. 
  17. ^ The main parameters are "Business activity" (30%), "Human capital" (30%), "Information exchange" (15%), "Cultural experience" (15%) and "Political engagement" (10%)."The 2008 Global Cities Index". Foreign Policy (November/December 2008). 21 October 2008. Archived from the original on 7 January 2010. Retrieved 31 October 2008. 
  18. ^ "A.T. Kearney: Global Cities 2016". 
  19. ^ "The Wealth Report 2015". Knight Frank LLP. 
  20. ^ "Global Cities Survey" (PDF). 
  21. ^ "Benchmarking global city competitiveness" (PDF). Economist Intelligence Unit. Economist Intelligence Unit. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 July 2014. 

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