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Civil Rights Pioneer Gloria Richardson, 91, on How Women Were Silenced at 1963 March on Washington
Civil Rights Pioneer Gloria Richardson, 91, on How Women Were Silenced at 1963 March on Washington
Published: 2013/08/27
Channel: Democracy Now!
The Side Eye That Changed the Culture #SmartBrownGirl | Jouelzy
The Side Eye That Changed the Culture #SmartBrownGirl | Jouelzy
Published: 2017/02/13
Channel: Jouelzy
Civil Rights Pioneer Gloria Richardson at Cabrini College
Civil Rights Pioneer Gloria Richardson at Cabrini College
Published: 2015/04/21
Channel: Cabrini University
Gloria Richardson:  The Cambridge Movement
Gloria Richardson: The Cambridge Movement
Published: 2017/03/10
Channel: Anne Cook
Gloria Richardson Looks Back on the Rift Between Malcolm X and "March on Washington" Organizers
Gloria Richardson Looks Back on the Rift Between Malcolm X and "March on Washington" Organizers
Published: 2013/08/27
Channel: Democracy Now!
Civil Rights History Project: Gloria Hayes Richardson
Civil Rights History Project: Gloria Hayes Richardson
Published: 2014/06/24
Channel: LibraryOfCongress
Conversations in Black Freedom Studies: Black Women Radicals Gloria Richardson and Mae Mallory
Conversations in Black Freedom Studies: Black Women Radicals Gloria Richardson and Mae Mallory
Published: 2016/12/02
Channel: Schomburg Center
Happy 95th Birthday Ms. Gloria!
Happy 95th Birthday Ms. Gloria!
Published: 2017/05/06
Channel: Dion Banks
Gloria
Gloria's Video
Published: 2016/06/08
Channel: Gloria Richardson
Delmarva Stories: Gloria Richardson Dandridge
Delmarva Stories: Gloria Richardson Dandridge
Published: 2015/05/27
Channel: DelmarvaAlmanac
Gloria Richardson Talks About the Civil Rights movement in Cambridge, Md in the 1960s
Gloria Richardson Talks About the Civil Rights movement in Cambridge, Md in the 1960s
Published: 2017/07/22
Channel: Maryland Politics
Malcolm X  talks about the March on Washington
Malcolm X talks about the March on Washington
Published: 2013/08/30
Channel: Calvin 3X Muhammad
BDI Employee of the Year 2016
BDI Employee of the Year 2016
Published: 2016/03/03
Channel: BobbyDoddInstitute
Praise and worship with Gloria Richardson
Praise and worship with Gloria Richardson
Published: 2015/02/24
Channel: Tabernacle Of The Congregation
Gloria La Riva confronta a BIll Richardson en el caso de los Cinco Cubanos
Gloria La Riva confronta a BIll Richardson en el caso de los Cinco Cubanos
Published: 2013/10/20
Channel: FreeTheFive
May 18, 2017
May 18, 2017
Published: 2017/05/18
Channel: Gloria Richardson
STRONG BLACK WOMEN PT. 3 (GLORIA RICHARDSON)
STRONG BLACK WOMEN PT. 3 (GLORIA RICHARDSON)
Published: 2012/02/23
Channel: basarnyc
Malcolm X & Gloria Richardson on the March on Washington, then & now
Malcolm X & Gloria Richardson on the March on Washington, then & now
Published: 2013/08/27
Channel: yrrmom
Gloria Richardson interview
Gloria Richardson interview
Published: 2016/05/27
Channel: evan ly
Cabrini Q&A: Gloria Richardson Q2: The Civil Rights Movement
Cabrini Q&A: Gloria Richardson Q2: The Civil Rights Movement
Published: 2015/05/07
Channel: Cabrini University
First Lady Gloria Richardson Singing Anyhow Praise by: Barbara Mitchell
First Lady Gloria Richardson Singing Anyhow Praise by: Barbara Mitchell
Published: 2017/01/16
Channel: Jemira Marie
Lady Gloria Richardson singing Fill me up By Casey J
Lady Gloria Richardson singing Fill me up By Casey J
Published: 2016/11/15
Channel: Jemira Marie
Celebrating Gloria Richardson Dandridge - Reflections On Pine
Celebrating Gloria Richardson Dandridge - Reflections On Pine
Published: 2017/07/27
Channel: Dion Banks
gloria richardson
gloria richardson
Published: 2016/04/19
Channel: Cheska Santos
Baby akaOtto out.of.jail.
Baby akaOtto out.of.jail.
Published: 2017/06/14
Channel: Gloria Richardson
Gloria Richardson 2016
Gloria Richardson 2016
Published: 2016/05/27
Channel: evan ly
Le Richardson sings Gloria
Le Richardson sings Gloria
Published: 2012/05/19
Channel: david levich
Cabrini Q&A: Gloria Richardson Q3: MLK and the
Cabrini Q&A: Gloria Richardson Q3: MLK and the '63 March
Published: 2015/05/07
Channel: Cabrini University
Cabrini Q&A: Gloria Richardson Q1: Service as a Family Tradition
Cabrini Q&A: Gloria Richardson Q1: Service as a Family Tradition
Published: 2015/05/07
Channel: Cabrini University
Gloria Richardson Sings With the Pfister Sisters
Gloria Richardson Sings With the Pfister Sisters
Published: 2016/10/03
Channel: Michael Catalanello
Week 3 Phentermine Weight Loss Update
Week 3 Phentermine Weight Loss Update
Published: 2013/04/06
Channel: Gloria Richardson
Phentermine Weight Loss Update wk 1
Phentermine Weight Loss Update wk 1
Published: 2013/03/18
Channel: Gloria Richardson
Gloria D. Richardson
Gloria D. Richardson
Published: 2013/09/16
Channel: LAfuneral
Capture 20160815 3
Capture 20160815 3
Published: 2016/08/15
Channel: Gloria Richardson
Hairstyles by Gloria aka Gloagain32
Hairstyles by Gloria aka Gloagain32
Published: 2012/07/16
Channel: Gloria Richardson
Freedom Week Crlebration at L.R. Jackson Elementary
Freedom Week Crlebration at L.R. Jackson Elementary
Published: 2016/09/24
Channel: Gloria Richardson
Gloria Lee Richardson, HPAE Local 5030
Gloria Lee Richardson, HPAE Local 5030
Published: 2011/03/29
Channel: tthompson110
Jeff Mathews Garlan Richardson Jamie Cooper Gloria Cooper
Jeff Mathews Garlan Richardson Jamie Cooper Gloria Cooper
Published: 2012/05/24
Channel: Cooper & Company
Weight Loss With Phentermine
Weight Loss With Phentermine
Published: 2013/03/13
Channel: Gloria Richardson
Mrs. Richardson
Mrs. Richardson's 5th Grade::ACT ASPIRE RAP
Published: 2016/04/22
Channel: Gloria Richardson
Gloria (Uplifting
Gloria (Uplifting 'Catholic' Music)
Published: 2014/11/01
Channel: Michael Richardson
Jeff Mathews Garland Richardson Shut Up Hudleston Jamie Cooper Gloria Cooper
Jeff Mathews Garland Richardson Shut Up Hudleston Jamie Cooper Gloria Cooper
Published: 2012/05/25
Channel: Cooper & Company
Week 2 Update with Phentermine
Week 2 Update with Phentermine
Published: 2013/03/26
Channel: Gloria Richardson
Straight Forward with Gloria Strode and Dana Richardson, Author
Straight Forward with Gloria Strode and Dana Richardson, Author
Published: 2017/02/21
Channel: Straight Forward with Gloria Strode
Capture 20160207 5
Capture 20160207 5
Published: 2016/02/07
Channel: Gloria Richardson
BES 5th Graders ACT Aspire Rap
BES 5th Graders ACT Aspire Rap
Published: 2016/04/22
Channel: Gloria Richardson
Per La Gloria song by James Richardson of Cats and the Fiddler
Per La Gloria song by James Richardson of Cats and the Fiddler
Published: 2012/05/06
Channel: Tom Richardson
Tired Ollie singing xmas song in the car
Tired Ollie singing xmas song in the car
Published: 2016/12/15
Channel: Gloria Richardson
chief keefs  gloday video
chief keefs gloday video
Published: 2017/08/16
Channel: Gloria Richardson
Jeff Mathews Zack Greene Shut Up Garlan Richardson Jamie Cooper Gloria Cooper
Jeff Mathews Zack Greene Shut Up Garlan Richardson Jamie Cooper Gloria Cooper
Published: 2012/05/24
Channel: Cooper & Company
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Gloria Richardson
Born Gloria St. Clair
(1922-05-06) May 6, 1922 (age 95)
Baltimore, Maryland
Known for Cambridge movement during Civil Rights Movement

Gloria Richardson Dandridge (born Gloria St. Clair, May 6, 1922) is best known as the leader of the Cambridge movement, a civil rights struggle in Cambridge, Maryland in the early 1960s. She was recognized as a major figure in the Civil Rights Movement at the time and was honored on the stage at the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.

Early life[edit]

Gloria Richardson was born into the affluent St. Clair family, which owned a successful hardware store and had also produced one of Cambridge's only black city council members. Blacks could vote in Cambridge, but with only a third of the population, had never been able to completely overturn Jim Crow laws. According to Richardson, her uncle died in his early twenties when he contracted a major illness but the segregated local hospital would not treat him. Richardson earned a B.A. in sociology from Howard University in 1942. The city government would not hire black social workers, however, and she focused on being a housewife and mother for over a decade.[1] In an interview with Robert Penn Warren for the book Who Speaks for the Negro?, Richardson comments that in Cambridge, blacks were "the last hired and first fired."[2]

Cambridge movement[edit]

In 1961, a Freedom Ride came to Cambridge. The black city council member at the time attempted to discourage the campaign by insisting that the city was already desegregated. In contrast, Richardson and her college-age daughter Donna both responded to outreach by the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). At first Richardson rarely participated in civil disobedience, because she could not accept the original SNCC nonviolence regulations. Nonetheless, in 1962, she helped organize the Cambridge Nonviolent Action Committee, the first adult-led affiliate of SNCC, and became its official spokesperson.[3]

The Cambridge Movement began with black Cambridge residents sitting in at segregated movie theaters, bowling alleys and restaurants, but the movement evolved into a struggle for the economic rights of Cambridge citizens, many of whom were burdened with low wages and unemployment. The Cambridge Movement's focus on economic equality and its use of armed self-defense tactics have been cited as signaling the beginning of the Black Power phase of the civil rights movement.[2]

Richardson recalled that she had been a rebellious individual since childhood, but also situated herself as part of a community of militant African-American women: "I think I turned out like a lot of women in Cambridge...They did their cooking and ironing, but I don't remember them walking two steps behind anybody, and I think the men knew that. Later most of the members of our civil rights group were women...When we were attacked at demonstrations, they were the ones throwing stones back at the whites."[4]

The Cambridge protests escalated into a major riot in June 1963. Governor J. Millard Tawes imposed martial law on Cambridge and sent in the National Guard. Robert F. Kennedy and other Justice Department and housing officials brokered a five-point "Treaty of Cambridge" that was signed in July in the attorney general's office in Washington by local black leadership, including Richardson, and Cambridge officials.

By the autumn of 1963, black children were entering previously all-white schools, bus transportation was desegregated, the library and hospital were desegregated and a black policeman was promoted. In this period, Richardson rose to national prominence as a civil rights leader.[5] She was saluted as one of the six "Negro Women Fighters for Freedom" featured on the stage of the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom in August 1963. Like most of the other women that day, however, she was not permitted to address the crowd.[6] Richardson was an inspiration to those seeking to radicalize SNCC, both in terms of her focus on economic security, and her challenging of nonviolent ideology.[7]

A flare-up occurred in Cambridge in May 1964, when Richardson led a march protesting an appearance by segregationist George C. Wallace at the Fireman's Arena, a segregated ice-skating rink that had been the target of many of the original protests. However, in July 1964, President Johnson signed the historic Civil Rights Act, and the National Guard finally withdrew from Cambridge.

Later life[edit]

A month later, Richardson left Cambridge and married Frank Dandridge, a photographer she had become acquainted with during the demonstrations, and settled in New York City.[5] She largely retired from public life, but continued to work with Harlem Youth Opportunities Unlimited, Associated Community Teams, and the New York City Department for the Aging.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kisseloff, pp. 52-54.
  2. ^ a b c Warren.
  3. ^ Kisseloff, pp. 54-55.
  4. ^ Kisseloff, p. 54.
  5. ^ a b Rasmussen.
  6. ^ "Civil Rights Pioneer Gloria Richardson, 91, on How Women Were Silenced at 1963 March on Washington". Democracy Now!. August 27, 2013. Retrieved 14 June 2017. 
  7. ^ Ransby, p. 314.

Bibliography[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Scholarly monographs[edit]

Journal articles[edit]

  • Cook, Melanie B. (1988). "Gloria Richardson: Her Life and Work in SNCC". Sage: A Scholarly Journal on Black Women, Supplement: 51–53. 
  • Foeman, Anita K. (May 1996). "Gloria Richardson: Breaking the Mold". Journal of Black Studies. 26 (5, Special Issue: The Voices of African American Women in the Civil Rights Movement): 604–615. 
  • Millner, Sandra Y. (July 1996). "Recasting Civil Rights Leadership: Gloria Richardson and the Cambridge Movement". Journal of Black Studies. 26 (6): 668–687. 
  • Richardson, Gloria (Winter 1964). "Freedom—Here and Now". Freedomways. 4: 32–34. 
  • Szabo, Peter S. (Fall 1994). "An Interview with Gloria Richardson Dandridge" (PDF). Maryland Historical Magazine. 89: 347–358. 

Dissertations and theses[edit]

  • Fitzgerald, Joseph R. (2005). Days of Wine and Roses: The Life of Gloria Richardson (Ph.D.). Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Temple University. OCLC 213097799. 
  • Trever, Edward K. (1994). Gloria Richardson and the Cambridge Civil Rights Movement, 1962-1964 (M.A. thesis). Morgan State University. OCLC 32190676. 

Non-academic works[edit]

External links[edit]

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