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1
Gopuram - Episode 1275 - July 28, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1275 - July 28, 2014
::2014/07/28::
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2
Gopuram - Episode 1293 - August 20, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1293 - August 20, 2014
::2014/08/20::
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3
Gopuram - Episode 1289 - August 14, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1289 - August 14, 2014
::2014/08/14::
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4
Gopuram - Episode 1250 - June 20, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1250 - June 20, 2014
::2014/06/20::
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5
Gopuram - Episode 1191 - March 05, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1191 - March 05, 2014
::2014/03/05::
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6
Gopuram Episode 1166 - January 07, 2014
Gopuram Episode 1166 - January 07, 2014
::2014/01/07::
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7
Gopuram - Episode 1291 - August 18, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1291 - August 18, 2014
::2014/08/18::
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8
Gopuram - Episode 1261 - July 7, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1261 - July 7, 2014
::2014/07/07::
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9
Gopuram - Episode 1288 - August 13, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1288 - August 13, 2014
::2014/08/13::
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10
Gopuram - Episode 1256 - June 30, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1256 - June 30, 2014
::2014/06/30::
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11
Gopuram - Episode 1225 - May 16, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1225 - May 16, 2014
::2014/05/16::
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12
Gopuram - Episode 1171 - January 20, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1171 - January 20, 2014
::2014/01/20::
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13
Gopuram - Episode 1264 - July 10, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1264 - July 10, 2014
::2014/07/10::
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14
Gopuram - Episode 1282 - August 6, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1282 - August 6, 2014
::2014/08/06::
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15
Gopuram - Episode 1248 - June 18, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1248 - June 18, 2014
::2014/06/18::
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16
Gopuram - Episode 1283 - August 7, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1283 - August 7, 2014
::2014/08/07::
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17
Nenugaali Gopuram Song - Manasunna Maaraju Movie Songs - Rajasekhar - Laya - Asha Shaini
Nenugaali Gopuram Song - Manasunna Maaraju Movie Songs - Rajasekhar - Laya - Asha Shaini
::2013/10/18::
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18
Akasha Gopuram Malayalam Movie Full Mohanlal ᴴᴰ
Akasha Gopuram Malayalam Movie Full Mohanlal ᴴᴰ
::2014/01/21::
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19
Gopuram - Episode 1287 - August 12, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1287 - August 12, 2014
::2014/08/12::
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20
Gopuram - Episode 1266 - July 14, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1266 - July 14, 2014
::2014/07/14::
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21
Gopuram - Episode 1258 - July 02, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1258 - July 02, 2014
::2014/07/02::
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22
Gopuram - Episode 1268 - July 17, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1268 - July 17, 2014
::2014/07/17::
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23
Gopuram - Episode 1240 - June 06, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1240 - June 06, 2014
::2014/06/06::
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24
Gopuram Episode 1137 - October 08, 2013
Gopuram Episode 1137 - October 08, 2013
::2013/10/09::
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25
Manasunna Maaraju Movie Songs | Nenu Gaali Gopuram | Rajashekar | Laya
Manasunna Maaraju Movie Songs | Nenu Gaali Gopuram | Rajashekar | Laya
::2013/07/10::
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26
Swarnna Gopuram - Malayalam Full Movie Official [HD]
Swarnna Gopuram - Malayalam Full Movie Official [HD]
::2014/05/14::
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27
Gopuram - Episode 1197 - March 19, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1197 - March 19, 2014
::2014/03/19::
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28
Gopuram - Episode 1
Gopuram - Episode 1
::2013/09/12::
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29
Thanga Gopuram│Full Tamil Movie│Jaishankar, Jayalalithaa
Thanga Gopuram│Full Tamil Movie│Jaishankar, Jayalalithaa
::2014/08/05::
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30
Gopuram - Episode 1298 - September 2, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1298 - September 2, 2014
::2014/09/02::
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31
Aakaasha Gopuram
Aakaasha Gopuram
::2012/02/06::
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32
Anjaneya - Paisa gopuram song
Anjaneya - Paisa gopuram song
::2012/08/11::
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33
Gopuram - Episode 1279 - August 1, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1279 - August 1, 2014
::2014/08/01::
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34
Gopuram - Episode 1296 - August 27, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1296 - August 27, 2014
::2014/08/27::
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35
Gopuram - Watch Full Episode 1025 of 14th April 2013
Gopuram - Watch Full Episode 1025 of 14th April 2013
::2013/04/15::
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36
Gopuram - Episode 1263 - July 9, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1263 - July 9, 2014
::2014/07/09::
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37
Babel Gopuram Paniyum... song by Abel George
Babel Gopuram Paniyum... song by Abel George
::2013/11/07::
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38
Gopuram Tamil Serial - Episode 148
Gopuram Tamil Serial - Episode 148
::2014/09/17::
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39
Gopuram Sept. 21
Gopuram Sept. 21 '10 Part - 1
::2010/09/24::
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40
Gopuram May 15
Gopuram May 15 '12 Part - 1
::2012/05/22::
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41
Gopuram - Episode 1270 - July 21, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1270 - July 21, 2014
::2014/07/21::
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42
Gopuram - Episode 1254 - June 26, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1254 - June 26, 2014
::2014/06/26::
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43
CYANIDE GOPURAM- A Sandeep Munigadapa
CYANIDE GOPURAM- A Sandeep Munigadapa's Short Film
::2013/05/16::
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44
Gopuram - Episode 1267 - July 15, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1267 - July 15, 2014
::2014/07/15::
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45
Gopuram - Episode 1295 - August 26, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1295 - August 26, 2014
::2014/08/26::
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46
Babel gopuram - The heaven
Babel gopuram - The heaven
::2013/03/29::
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47
Gopuram - Episode 1269 - July 18, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1269 - July 18, 2014
::2014/07/18::
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48
Gopuram - Episode 1230 - May 26, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1230 - May 26, 2014
::2014/05/26::
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49
Babel Gopuram - Super-Hit Malayalam Christian Song
Babel Gopuram - Super-Hit Malayalam Christian Song
::2014/01/01::
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50
Aakaasha gopuram ponmani medayaay......(KALIKKALAM,1990)
Aakaasha gopuram ponmani medayaay......(KALIKKALAM,1990)
::2013/05/03::
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Meenakshiamman Temple tower in Madurai

Gopuram (Gopura (singular)), is a monumental tower, usually ornate, at the entrance of any temple, especially in Southern India. This forms a prominent feature of Koils, Hindu temples of the Dravidian style.[1] They are topped by the kalasam, a bulbous stone finial. They function as gateways through the walls that surround the temple complex.[2]

The gopuram's origins can be traced back to early structures of the Tamil kings Pallavas; and by the twelfth century, under the Pandya rulers, these gateways became a dominant feature of a temple's outer appearance, eventually overshadowing the inner sanctuary which became obscured from view by the gopuram's colossal size.[3] It also dominated the inner sanctum in amount of ornamentation. Often a shrine has more than one gopuram.[4] They also appear in architecture outside India, especially Khmer architecture, as at Angkor Wat.

A koil may have multiple gopurams, typically constructed into multiple walls in tiers around the main shrine. The temple's walls are typically square with the outer most wall having gopuras. The sanctum sanctorum and its towering roof (the central deity's shrine) is also called the vimanam.

Etymology[edit]

The Tamil derivation is from the two words: கோ (kō) and புறம் (puram) meaning 'King' and 'exterior' respectively.[5] It originates from the Sangam age when it was known as ஓங்கு நிலை வாயில் (ōnggu nilai vāyil) meaning 'imperishable gateway'.[6] Adhering to the orthodox grammar of cangkattamiḻ (Classical Tamil), it would be pronounced koh-puram as the velar is always voiceless in the Tamil language, so gohpuram is considered a distortion.

Siegfried Lienhard considers this Tamil derivation but offers a new derivation from the Sanskrit word, गोपुर, is often translated as "town gate". Separately, it consists of two words go, with the possible meanings of "cow" or "sky", and pura, meaning city.[7]

Architecture[edit]

Detail of a gopuram at Chennai

A gopuram is usually rectangular in form with ground-level wooden doors, often richly decorated, providing access. Above is the tapering gopuram, divided into many storeys which diminish in size as the gopuram tower narrows. Usually the tower is topped with a barrel vaulted roof with a finial.[3] The form began rather modestly in the 10th century, as at Shore Temple, Mahabalipuram, with the 11th century Brihadeeswarar Temple in Thanjavur marking a crucial step forward with two multi-storey gopurams from that period, much larger than any earlier ones, though much smaller than the main tower (vimana) of the temple. The four gopurams of the Thillai Nataraja Temple, Chidambaram are important early examples, begun in the mid-13th century but completed over a longer period.[8] Gopurams are exquisitely decorated with sculpture and carvings and painted with a variety of themes derived from the Hindu mythology, particularly those associated with the presiding deity of the temple where the gopuram is located. Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple in Srirangam, Tamil Nadu state is the tallest gopuram in Tamil Nadu and rises to 196 feet (60 m). The Gopuram of Murudeshwara in Karnataka (built in 2007) is 237.5-feet tall and is the tallest Gopuram in the world.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Ching et al., Francis D.K. (2007). A Global History of Architecture. New York: John Wiley and Sons. p. 762. ISBN 0-471-26892-5. 
  2. ^ Ching, Francis D.K. (1995). A Visual Dictionary of Architecture. New York: John Wiley and Sons. p. 253. ISBN 0-471-28451-3. 
  3. ^ a b Mitchell, George (1988). The Hindu Temple. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 151–153. ISBN 0-226-53230-5. 
  4. ^ "gopura". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2008-01-20. 
  5. ^ Sellby, Martha A.; Indira Viswanathan Peterson (2008). Tamil geographies: cultural constructions of space and place in South India. SUNY Press. 
  6. ^ S. Sundararajan (1991). Ancient Tamil country: its social and economic structure. Navrang. 
  7. ^ Lienhard, Siegfried; von Hinüber, Oskar, eds. (2007). Kleine Schriften [Collected Writings] (in German). Harrassowitz Verlag / Glasenapp-Stiftung. ISBN 9783447056199. Retrieved 5 February 2014. 
  8. ^ Harle, 320-325

References[edit]

Dallapiccola, Anna L. (2002). Dictionary of Hindu Lore and Legend. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-51088-1. 

  • Harle, J.C., The Art and Architecture of the Indian Subcontinent, 2nd edn. 1994, Yale University Press Pelican History of Art, ISBN 0300062176

External links[edit]

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