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Gopuram - Episode 1749 - August 16, 2017 - Best Scene
Gopuram - Episode 1749 - August 16, 2017 - Best Scene
Published: 2017/08/17
Channel: zeetvtelugu
Gopuram Episode 1150 - November 25, 2013
Gopuram Episode 1150 - November 25, 2013
Published: 2013/11/26
Channel: zeetvtelugu
Smt. Sandhya Lakshmi || Gopuram fame II Cheppalani Vundi || 24 July 2016 || Bhaarat Today
Smt. Sandhya Lakshmi || Gopuram fame II Cheppalani Vundi || 24 July 2016 || Bhaarat Today
Published: 2016/07/27
Channel: Sahasra Television BT
Gopuram - Episode 1536 - March 09, 2016 - Best Scene
Gopuram - Episode 1536 - March 09, 2016 - Best Scene
Published: 2016/03/09
Channel: zeetvtelugu
Things You Should Do On Friday To Get Lakshmi Devi Blessings | How To Pray Goddess |  Gopuram
Things You Should Do On Friday To Get Lakshmi Devi Blessings | How To Pray Goddess | Gopuram
Published: 2017/04/07
Channel: Gopuram - Telugu Devotional, Spiritual Videos
Unknown Facts & Benefits of Laughing Buddha| Gopuram
Unknown Facts & Benefits of Laughing Buddha| Gopuram
Published: 2017/04/07
Channel: Gopuram - Telugu Devotional, Spiritual Videos
Gopuram - Episode 1751 - August 30, 2017 - Best Scene
Gopuram - Episode 1751 - August 30, 2017 - Best Scene
Published: 2017/08/31
Channel: zeetvtelugu
తొందరగా  పెళ్లి కావాలంటే ఏం చేయాలి ? | Remedies of Late Marriage Problems || Gopuram
తొందరగా పెళ్లి కావాలంటే ఏం చేయాలి ? | Remedies of Late Marriage Problems || Gopuram
Published: 2017/05/28
Channel: Gopuram - Telugu Devotional, Spiritual Videos
Gopuram   Watch Full Episode 969 of 24th January 2013
Gopuram Watch Full Episode 969 of 24th January 2013
Published: 2013/01/24
Channel: zeetvtelugu
Top Ten Temple Gopurams in India
Top Ten Temple Gopurams in India
Published: 2016/08/12
Channel: Temples Guide
Gopuram - Episode 1268 - July 17, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1268 - July 17, 2014
Published: 2014/07/17
Channel: zeetvtelugu
Gopuram - Episode 1746 - July 26, 2017 - Best Scene
Gopuram - Episode 1746 - July 26, 2017 - Best Scene
Published: 2017/07/27
Channel: zeetvtelugu
Gopuram - Episode 1750 - August 23, 2017 - Best Scene
Gopuram - Episode 1750 - August 23, 2017 - Best Scene
Published: 2017/08/24
Channel: zeetvtelugu
Gopuram - Episode 1739 - July 03, 2017 - Best Scene
Gopuram - Episode 1739 - July 03, 2017 - Best Scene
Published: 2017/07/03
Channel: zeetvtelugu
దేవుని ముందు ఇవి ఉంచితే అప్పుల బాధలు తీరిపోతాయట..!! || Gopuram
దేవుని ముందు ఇవి ఉంచితే అప్పుల బాధలు తీరిపోతాయట..!! || Gopuram
Published: 2017/06/23
Channel: Gopuram - Telugu Devotional, Spiritual Videos
ఇలాంటి కలలు వస్తే ధనప్రాప్తి | Facts of Dreams In Telugu || Gopuram
ఇలాంటి కలలు వస్తే ధనప్రాప్తి | Facts of Dreams In Telugu || Gopuram
Published: 2017/04/19
Channel: Gopuram - Telugu Devotional, Spiritual Videos
Gopuram - Episode 1
Gopuram - Episode 1
Published: 2013/09/12
Channel: Tamil Serials
Gopuram - Episode 1747 - August 02, 2017 - Best Scene
Gopuram - Episode 1747 - August 02, 2017 - Best Scene
Published: 2017/08/03
Channel: zeetvtelugu
Gopuram - Episode 1699  - March 27, 2017 - Webisode
Gopuram - Episode 1699 - March 27, 2017 - Webisode
Published: 2017/03/27
Channel: zeetvtelugu
Gopuram - Episode 1736 - June 26, 2017 - Best Scene
Gopuram - Episode 1736 - June 26, 2017 - Best Scene
Published: 2017/06/26
Channel: zeetvtelugu
నరదిష్టి పోవాలంటే ఏం చెయ్యాలి || Remedies For Nara Disthi || Gopuram
నరదిష్టి పోవాలంటే ఏం చెయ్యాలి || Remedies For Nara Disthi || Gopuram
Published: 2017/07/28
Channel: Gopuram - Telugu Devotional, Spiritual Videos
Smt. Sandhya Lakshmi | Gopuram fame I Cheppalani Undi (చెప్పాలని ఉంది) | 18 June 2017 #BhaaratToday
Smt. Sandhya Lakshmi | Gopuram fame I Cheppalani Undi (చెప్పాలని ఉంది) | 18 June 2017 #BhaaratToday
Published: 2017/06/18
Channel: Bhaarat Today
Gopuram - Episode 1737 - June 27, 2017 - Best Scene
Gopuram - Episode 1737 - June 27, 2017 - Best Scene
Published: 2017/06/27
Channel: zeetvtelugu
Gopuram Films Anbu | இவரின் பின்னனி என்ன? எப்படி இந்த அளவுக்கு பணம் வந்தது...| Y NEWS TAMIL
Gopuram Films Anbu | இவரின் பின்னனி என்ன? எப்படி இந்த அளவுக்கு பணம் வந்தது...| Y NEWS TAMIL
Published: 2017/11/22
Channel: Y NEWS TAMIL
Gopuram - Episode 1282 - August 6, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1282 - August 6, 2014
Published: 2014/08/06
Channel: zeetvtelugu
Grow Gopuram Thangi herb at your Garden | Stop Hair Loss | Poovali | News7 Tamil
Grow Gopuram Thangi herb at your Garden | Stop Hair Loss | Poovali | News7 Tamil
Published: 2015/09/21
Channel: News7 Tamil
Gopuram - Episode 1748 - August 09, 2017 - Best Scene
Gopuram - Episode 1748 - August 09, 2017 - Best Scene
Published: 2017/08/10
Channel: zeetvtelugu
శనిదేవుని ఆశీస్సులు పొందాలంటే ! | how to get shani dev blessings  | Gopuram
శనిదేవుని ఆశీస్సులు పొందాలంటే ! | how to get shani dev blessings | Gopuram
Published: 2017/05/25
Channel: Gopuram - Telugu Devotional, Spiritual Videos
Gopuram - Episode 1594 - July 25, 2016 - Best Scene
Gopuram - Episode 1594 - July 25, 2016 - Best Scene
Published: 2016/07/25
Channel: zeetvtelugu
Gopuram - Episode 1738 - June 28, 2017 - Best Scene
Gopuram - Episode 1738 - June 28, 2017 - Best Scene
Published: 2017/06/28
Channel: zeetvtelugu
Gopuram Sept. 21
Gopuram Sept. 21 '10 Part - 1
Published: 2010/09/24
Channel: zeetvtelugu
Gopuram - Episode 1742 - July 10, 2017 - Best Scene
Gopuram - Episode 1742 - July 10, 2017 - Best Scene
Published: 2017/07/10
Channel: zeetvtelugu
Thanga Gopuram - Jaishankar, Jayalalitha, Srikanth - Super Hit Tamil Classic Movie
Thanga Gopuram - Jaishankar, Jayalalitha, Srikanth - Super Hit Tamil Classic Movie
Published: 2015/04/20
Channel: Rajshri Tamil
ఇలా చేస్తే అప్పుల బాధలు ఉండవు || Gopuram
ఇలా చేస్తే అప్పుల బాధలు ఉండవు || Gopuram
Published: 2017/04/17
Channel: Gopuram - Telugu Devotional, Spiritual Videos
Manasunna Maaraju Movie Songs | Nenu Gaali Gopuram | Rajashekar | Laya
Manasunna Maaraju Movie Songs | Nenu Gaali Gopuram | Rajashekar | Laya
Published: 2013/07/10
Channel: TeluguOne
Gopuram - Episode 1741 - July 05, 2017 - Best Scene
Gopuram - Episode 1741 - July 05, 2017 - Best Scene
Published: 2017/07/06
Channel: zeetvtelugu
Gopuram - Episode 1732 - June 14, 2017 - Best Scene
Gopuram - Episode 1732 - June 14, 2017 - Best Scene
Published: 2017/06/15
Channel: zeetvtelugu
Gopuram - Episode 1334 - November 25, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1334 - November 25, 2014
Published: 2014/11/25
Channel: zeetvtelugu
கோபுரம் தாங்கி - Gopuram thangi mooligai
கோபுரம் தாங்கி - Gopuram thangi mooligai
Published: 2017/09/24
Channel: ஔசதம் Owshadham
Gopuram - Episode 1733 - June 19, 2017 - Best Scene
Gopuram - Episode 1733 - June 19, 2017 - Best Scene
Published: 2017/06/20
Channel: zeetvtelugu
అప్పుల బాధనుండి బయటపడాలంటే లవంగం  చక్కటి మార్గమా ? || Lavangam Benefits || Gopuram
అప్పుల బాధనుండి బయటపడాలంటే లవంగం చక్కటి మార్గమా ? || Lavangam Benefits || Gopuram
Published: 2017/06/21
Channel: Gopuram - Telugu Devotional, Spiritual Videos
Gopuram - Episode 1734 - June 20, 2017 - Best Scene
Gopuram - Episode 1734 - June 20, 2017 - Best Scene
Published: 2017/06/21
Channel: zeetvtelugu
Gopuram - Tamil Serial | Episode 315
Gopuram - Tamil Serial | Episode 315
Published: 2015/03/12
Channel: Tamil Serials
తోలి ఏకాదశి  నియమాలు | What We Must Do On Tholi Ekadasi | Gopuram
తోలి ఏకాదశి నియమాలు | What We Must Do On Tholi Ekadasi | Gopuram
Published: 2017/07/03
Channel: Gopuram - Telugu Devotional, Spiritual Videos
Gopuram -   Episode 213
Gopuram - Episode 213
Published: 2014/11/24
Channel: Tamil Serials
History of Srivilliputhur temple Gopuram
History of Srivilliputhur temple Gopuram
Published: 2017/03/04
Channel: Britain Tamil Broadcasting
Gopuram - Episode 196
Gopuram - Episode 196
Published: 2014/11/04
Channel: Tamil Serials
Gopuram - Episode 10
Gopuram - Episode 10
Published: 2013/09/12
Channel: Tamil Serials
Gopuram - Watch Full Episode 862 of 27th August 2012
Gopuram - Watch Full Episode 862 of 27th August 2012
Published: 2012/08/27
Channel: zeetvtelugu
GOPURAM TV INTRO
GOPURAM TV INTRO
Published: 2016/11/28
Channel: Gopuram Tv
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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A Gopuram or gopura (Sanskrit: गोपुरम्, gopuram) is a monumental gatehouse tower, usually ornate, at the entrance of a Hindu temple, in the Dravidian architecture of the Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Karnataka, and Telangana states of Southern India.[1] Ancient and early medieval temples feature smaller gopuram, while in later temples they are a prominent feature of Hindu temples of the Dravidian style;[2] or in many cases the temple compound was expanded and new larger gopuram built along the new boundary. They are topped by the kalasam, a bulbous stone finial. They function as gateways through the walls that surround the temple complex.[3]

The gopuram's origins can be traced back to early structures of the Pallava kings, and relate to the central shikhara towers of North India. Between the twelfth and sixteenth century, during the Pandya, Nayaka and Vijayanagara era when Hindu temples increasingly became a hub of the urban life, these gateways became a dominant feature of a temple's outer appearance, eventually overshadowing the inner sanctuary which became obscured from view by the gopuram's colossal size and courtyards.[4] It also dominated the inner sanctum in amount of ornamentation. Often a shrine has more than one gopuram.[1] They also appear in architecture outside India, especially Khmer architecture, as at Angkor Wat.

A large Dravidian-style temple, or koil, may have multiple gopurams as the openings into successively smaller walled enclosures around the main shrine, with the largest generally at the outer edges. The temple compound is typically square or rectangular with at least the outermost wall having gopuras, often from the four cardinal directions. The multiple storeys of a gopuram typically repeat the lower level features on a rhythmic diminishing scale.[4] The inner sanctum and its towering roof (the central deity's shrine) is also called the Vimanam (shrine), although in the south it is typically smaller than the gopurams in large temples.

Etymology[edit]

A gopura is a monumental gate, usually ornate with odd number of kalasa on top. It may have one or many storeys. Left: Single storey gopura; Right: Two storey gopura.

The Tamil derivation is from the two words: கோ (kō) and புறம் (puram) meaning 'king' and 'exterior' respectively.[5] It originates from the Sangam age when it was known as ஓங்கு நிலை வாயில் (ōnggu nilai vāyil) meaning 'imperishable gateway'.[6]

An alternative derivation is from the Sanskrit word gopuram, which can be broken down to go (Sanskrit: गो), which means either 'a city' or 'a cow', and puram (Sanskrit: पुरम्), 'a town', or 'a settlement'.[7]

Architecture[edit]

Detail of a gopuram at Chennai

A gopuram is usually a tapering oblong in form with ground-level wooden doors, often richly decorated, providing access. Above is the tapering or "battered" gopuram, divided into many storeys which diminish in size as the gopuram tower narrows. Usually the tower is topped with a barrel vaulted roof with a finial.[4] The form began rather modestly in the 10th century, as at Shore Temple, Mamallapuram, with the 11th century Brihadeeswarar Temple in Thanjavur marking a crucial step forward with two multi-storey gopurams from that period, much larger than any earlier ones, though much smaller than the main tower (vimanam) of the temple. The four gopurams of the Thillai Nataraja Temple, Chidambaram are important early examples, begun in the mid-13th century but completed over a longer period.[8] Gopurams are exquisitely decorated with sculpture and carvings and painted with a variety of themes derived from the Hindu mythology, particularly those associated with the presiding deity of the temple where the gopuram is located.

The two tallest gopuras are both modern, at least in part. At the Ranganathaswamy Temple, Srirangam, Tamil Nadu, there are 21 gopurams (tower gateways), among which the towering 239.5-feet Rajagopuram (shrine of the main gateway) is claimed as the tallest temple tower in Asia. The 73 m high 13- tiered Rajagopuram was completed in 1987 (having previously been incomplete) and dominates the landscape for miles around, while the remaining 20 gopurams were built between the 14th and 17th centuries.[9] The title of tallest is disputed by the twenty storey, 249 foot, gopura at the modern Murdeshwar Temple, which, unusually, is provided with a lift.[10]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b "gopura". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2008-01-20. 
  2. ^ Ching, Francis D.K.; et al. (2007). A Global History of Architecture. New York: John Wiley and Sons. p. 762. ISBN 0-471-26892-5. 
  3. ^ Ching, Francis D.K. (1995). A Visual Dictionary of Architecture. New York: John Wiley and Sons. p. 253. ISBN 0-471-28451-3. 
  4. ^ a b c Michell, George (1988). The Hindu Temple. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 151–153. ISBN 0-226-53230-5. 
  5. ^ Sellby, Martha A.; Indira Viswanathan Peterson (2008). Tamil geographies: cultural constructions of space and place in South India. SUNY Press. 
  6. ^ S. Sundararajan (1991). Ancient Tamil country: its social and economic structure. Navrang. 
  7. ^ Lienhard S., von Hinèuber O. (2007). Kleine Schriften: Supplement (in French). Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 414. ISBN 9783447056199. 
  8. ^ Harle, 320-325
  9. ^ "Towers" on temple website; Tamilwebworld
  10. ^ "Murudeshwar Temple Now Tallest Gopuram in Asia", April, 2008

References[edit]

Dallapiccola, Anna L. (2002). Dictionary of Hindu Lore and Legend. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-51088-1. 

  • Harle, J.C., The Art and Architecture of the Indian Subcontinent, 2nd edn. 1994, Yale University Press Pelican History of Art, ISBN 0300062176

External links[edit]

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