Play Video
1
Gopuram - Episode 1275 - July 28, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1275 - July 28, 2014
::2014/07/28::
Play Video
2
Gopuram | Award Winning Telugu Short Film 2014 | Presented by iQlik Movies
Gopuram | Award Winning Telugu Short Film 2014 | Presented by iQlik Movies
::2014/09/20::
Play Video
3
Gopuram - Episode 1293 - August 20, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1293 - August 20, 2014
::2014/08/20::
Play Video
4
Gopuram - Episode 1307 - September 23, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1307 - September 23, 2014
::2014/09/23::
Play Video
5
Gopuram - Episode 1250 - June 20, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1250 - June 20, 2014
::2014/06/20::
Play Video
6
Gopuram - Episode 1291 - August 18, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1291 - August 18, 2014
::2014/08/18::
Play Video
7
Gopuram - Episode 1266 - July 14, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1266 - July 14, 2014
::2014/07/14::
Play Video
8
Thanga Gopuram│Full Tamil Movie│Jaishankar, Jayalalithaa
Thanga Gopuram│Full Tamil Movie│Jaishankar, Jayalalithaa
::2014/08/05::
Play Video
9
Gopuram - Episode 1289 - August 14, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1289 - August 14, 2014
::2014/08/14::
Play Video
10
Gopuram - Episode 1240 - June 06, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1240 - June 06, 2014
::2014/06/06::
Play Video
11
Akasha Gopuram Malayalam Movie Full Mohanlal ᴴᴰ
Akasha Gopuram Malayalam Movie Full Mohanlal ᴴᴰ
::2014/01/21::
Play Video
12
Gopuram - Episode 1282 - August 6, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1282 - August 6, 2014
::2014/08/06::
Play Video
13
Gopuram - Episode 1287 - August 12, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1287 - August 12, 2014
::2014/08/12::
Play Video
14
Gopuram - Episode 1308 - September 24, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1308 - September 24, 2014
::2014/09/24::
Play Video
15
Gopuram - Episode 1258 - July 02, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1258 - July 02, 2014
::2014/07/02::
Play Video
16
Swarnna Gopuram - Malayalam Full Movie Official [HD]
Swarnna Gopuram - Malayalam Full Movie Official [HD]
::2014/05/14::
Play Video
17
Manasunna Maaraju Movie Songs | Nenu Gaali Gopuram | Rajashekar | Laya
Manasunna Maaraju Movie Songs | Nenu Gaali Gopuram | Rajashekar | Laya
::2013/07/10::
Play Video
18
Gopuram - Episode 1
Gopuram - Episode 1
::2013/09/12::
Play Video
19
Gopuram -   Episode 218
Gopuram - Episode 218
::2014/11/29::
Play Video
20
Babel gopuram - The heaven
Babel gopuram - The heaven
::2013/03/29::
Play Video
21
Aakaasha Gopuram
Aakaasha Gopuram
::2012/02/06::
Play Video
22
Gopuram -   Episode 216
Gopuram - Episode 216
::2014/11/27::
Play Video
23
Gopuram - Episode 1288 - August 13, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1288 - August 13, 2014
::2014/08/13::
Play Video
24
Gopuram Sept. 21
Gopuram Sept. 21 '10 Part - 1
::2010/09/24::
Play Video
25
Gopuram - Episode 1268 - July 17, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1268 - July 17, 2014
::2014/07/17::
Play Video
26
CYANIDE GOPURAM- A Sandeep Munigadapa
CYANIDE GOPURAM- A Sandeep Munigadapa's Short Film
::2013/05/16::
Play Video
27
Gopuram - Episode 1225 - May 16, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1225 - May 16, 2014
::2014/05/16::
Play Video
28
Gopuram - Episode 1264 - July 10, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1264 - July 10, 2014
::2014/07/10::
Play Video
29
Akasha gopuram kalikkalam -
Akasha gopuram kalikkalam -
::2008/09/05::
Play Video
30
Babel Gopuram - Super-Hit Malayalam Christian Song
Babel Gopuram - Super-Hit Malayalam Christian Song
::2014/01/01::
Play Video
31
Anjaneya - Paisa gopuram song
Anjaneya - Paisa gopuram song
::2012/08/11::
Play Video
32
Gopuram - Episode 200
Gopuram - Episode 200
::2014/11/08::
Play Video
33
Gopuram -  Episode 227
Gopuram - Episode 227
::2014/12/08::
Play Video
34
Aakashagopuram Song HD Kalikalam Malayalam Movie
Aakashagopuram Song HD Kalikalam Malayalam Movie
::2013/08/25::
Play Video
35
Gopuram - Episode 1283 - August 7, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1283 - August 7, 2014
::2014/08/07::
Play Video
36
Gopuram -  Episode 219
Gopuram - Episode 219
::2014/11/30::
Play Video
37
Gopuram -   Episode 226
Gopuram - Episode 226
::2014/12/07::
Play Video
38
Cine Style Videos "Gopuram" Shashank Ramanujapuram - Savetemples Short Film Festival 2014
Cine Style Videos "Gopuram" Shashank Ramanujapuram - Savetemples Short Film Festival 2014
::2014/09/03::
Play Video
39
Aakaasha gopuram ponmani medayaay......(KALIKKALAM,1990)
Aakaasha gopuram ponmani medayaay......(KALIKKALAM,1990)
::2013/05/03::
Play Video
40
Gopuram - Episode 1253 - June 25, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1253 - June 25, 2014
::2014/06/25::
Play Video
41
Gopuram -  Tamil Serial | Episode 230
Gopuram - Tamil Serial | Episode 230
::2014/12/11::
Play Video
42
Gopuram -   Tamil Serial | Episode 229
Gopuram - Tamil Serial | Episode 229
::2014/12/10::
Play Video
43
Gopuram - Episode 1265 - July 11, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1265 - July 11, 2014
::2014/07/11::
Play Video
44
Gopuram -   Episode 213
Gopuram - Episode 213
::2014/11/24::
Play Video
45
Gopuram - Episode 1302 - September 10, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1302 - September 10, 2014
::2014/09/10::
Play Video
46
Gopuram - Episode 1306 - September 22, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1306 - September 22, 2014
::2014/09/22::
Play Video
47
Gopuram - Episode 1261 - July 7, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1261 - July 7, 2014
::2014/07/07::
Play Video
48
Gopuram - Episode 105
Gopuram - Episode 105
::2014/07/16::
Play Video
49
Gopuram -   Episode 215
Gopuram - Episode 215
::2014/11/26::
Play Video
50
Gopuram - Episode 1267 - July 15, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1267 - July 15, 2014
::2014/07/15::
NEXT >>
RESULTS [51 .. 101]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Meenakshiamman Temple tower in Madurai

Gopuram (Gopura (singular)), is a monumental tower, usually ornate, at the entrance of any temple, especially in Southern India. This forms a prominent feature of Koils, Hindu temples of the Dravidian style.[1] They are topped by the kalasam, a bulbous stone finial. They function as gateways through the walls that surround the temple complex.[2]

The gopuram's origins can be traced back to early structures of the Tamil kings Pallavas; and by the twelfth century, under the Pandya rulers, these gateways became a dominant feature of a temple's outer appearance, eventually overshadowing the inner sanctuary which became obscured from view by the gopuram's colossal size.[3] It also dominated the inner sanctum in amount of ornamentation. Often a shrine has more than one gopuram.[4] They also appear in architecture outside India, especially Khmer architecture, as at Angkor Wat.

A koil may have multiple gopurams, typically constructed into multiple walls in tiers around the main shrine. The temple's walls are typically square with the outer most wall having gopuras. The sanctum sanctorum and its towering roof (the central deity's shrine) is also called the vimanam.

Etymology[edit]

The Tamil derivation is from the two words: கோ (kō) and புறம் (puram) meaning 'King' and 'exterior' respectively.[5] It originates from the Sangam age when it was known as ஓங்கு நிலை வாயில் (ōnggu nilai vāyil) meaning 'imperishable gateway'.[6]

Siegfried Lienhard considers this Tamil derivation but offers a new derivation from the Sanskrit word, गोपुर, is often translated as "town gate". Separately, it consists of two words go, with the possible meanings of "cow" or "sky", and pura, meaning city.[7]

Architecture[edit]

Detail of a gopuram at Chennai

A gopuram is usually rectangular in form with ground-level wooden doors, often richly decorated, providing access. Above is the tapering gopuram, divided into many storeys which diminish in size as the gopuram tower narrows. Usually the tower is topped with a barrel vaulted roof with a finial.[3] The form began rather modestly in the 10th century, as at Shore Temple, Mahabalipuram, with the 11th century Brihadeeswarar Temple in Thanjavur marking a crucial step forward with two multi-storey gopurams from that period, much larger than any earlier ones, though much smaller than the main tower (vimana) of the temple. The four gopurams of the Thillai Nataraja Temple, Chidambaram are important early examples, begun in the mid-13th century but completed over a longer period.[8] Gopurams are exquisitely decorated with sculpture and carvings and painted with a variety of themes derived from the Hindu mythology, particularly those associated with the presiding deity of the temple where the gopuram is located. Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple in Srirangam, Tamil Nadu state is the tallest gopuram in Tamil Nadu and rises to 196 feet (60 m). The Gopuram of Murudeshwara in Karnataka (built in 2007) is 237.5-feet tall and is the tallest Gopuram in the world.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Ching et al., Francis D.K. (2007). A Global History of Architecture. New York: John Wiley and Sons. p. 762. ISBN 0-471-26892-5. 
  2. ^ Ching, Francis D.K. (1995). A Visual Dictionary of Architecture. New York: John Wiley and Sons. p. 253. ISBN 0-471-28451-3. 
  3. ^ a b Mitchell, George (1988). The Hindu Temple. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 151–153. ISBN 0-226-53230-5. 
  4. ^ "gopura". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2008-01-20. 
  5. ^ Sellby, Martha A.; Indira Viswanathan Peterson (2008). Tamil geographies: cultural constructions of space and place in South India. SUNY Press. 
  6. ^ S. Sundararajan (1991). Ancient Tamil country: its social and economic structure. Navrang. 
  7. ^ Lienhard, Siegfried; von Hinüber, Oskar, eds. (2007). Kleine Schriften [Collected Writings] (in German). Harrassowitz Verlag / Glasenapp-Stiftung. ISBN 9783447056199. Retrieved 5 February 2014. 
  8. ^ Harle, 320-325

References[edit]

Dallapiccola, Anna L. (2002). Dictionary of Hindu Lore and Legend. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-51088-1. 

  • Harle, J.C., The Art and Architecture of the Indian Subcontinent, 2nd edn. 1994, Yale University Press Pelican History of Art, ISBN 0300062176

External links[edit]

Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL License
Powered by YouTube
MASHPEDIA
LEGAL
  • Mashpedia © 2014