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Gopuram - Episode 1384 - March 23, 2015 - Full Episode
Gopuram - Episode 1384 - March 23, 2015 - Full Episode
::2015/03/23::
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Gopuram - Episode 1383 - March 18, 2015 - Full Episode
Gopuram - Episode 1383 - March 18, 2015 - Full Episode
::2015/03/19::
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Gopuram - Episode 1386 - March 25, 2015 - Full Episode
Gopuram - Episode 1386 - March 25, 2015 - Full Episode
::2015/03/25::
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Gopuram - Episode 1382 - March 17, 2015 - Full Episode
Gopuram - Episode 1382 - March 17, 2015 - Full Episode
::2015/03/18::
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Gopuram - Episode 1356 - January 14, 2015
Gopuram - Episode 1356 - January 14, 2015
::2015/01/14::
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Gopuram - Episode 1362 - January 28, 2015 - Full Episode
Gopuram - Episode 1362 - January 28, 2015 - Full Episode
::2015/01/28::
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Gopuram - Episode 1363 - February 2, 2015 - Full Episode
Gopuram - Episode 1363 - February 2, 2015 - Full Episode
::2015/02/02::
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Gopuram - Episode 1364 - February 3, 2015 - Full Episode
Gopuram - Episode 1364 - February 3, 2015 - Full Episode
::2015/02/03::
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Gopuram - Episode 1359 - January 21, 2015
Gopuram - Episode 1359 - January 21, 2015
::2015/01/21::
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Gopuram - Episode - 1381, March - 17 - Webisode
Gopuram - Episode - 1381, March - 17 - Webisode
::2015/03/17::
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Gopuram - Episode 1355 - January 13, 2015
Gopuram - Episode 1355 - January 13, 2015
::2015/01/13::
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Gopuram - Episode 1307 - September 23, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1307 - September 23, 2014
::2014/09/23::
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Gopuram - Episode 1377 - March 4, 2015 - Full Episode
Gopuram - Episode 1377 - March 4, 2015 - Full Episode
::2015/03/04::
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Gopuram | Award Winning Telugu Short Film 2014 | Presented by iQlik Movies
Gopuram | Award Winning Telugu Short Film 2014 | Presented by iQlik Movies
::2014/09/20::
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Gopuram - Episode 1365 - February 4, 2015 - Full Episode
Gopuram - Episode 1365 - February 4, 2015 - Full Episode
::2015/02/04::
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Gopuram - Episode 1373 - February 24, 2015 - Full Episode
Gopuram - Episode 1373 - February 24, 2015 - Full Episode
::2015/02/24::
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Gopuram - Episode 1372 - February 23, 2015 - Full Episode
Gopuram - Episode 1372 - February 23, 2015 - Full Episode
::2015/02/23::
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Gopuram - Episode 1368 - February 11, 2015 - Full Episode
Gopuram - Episode 1368 - February 11, 2015 - Full Episode
::2015/02/11::
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Thanga Gopuram│Full Tamil Movie│Jaishankar, Jayalalithaa
Thanga Gopuram│Full Tamil Movie│Jaishankar, Jayalalithaa
::2014/08/05::
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Gopuram - Episode 1361 - January 27, 2015 - Full Episode
Gopuram - Episode 1361 - January 27, 2015 - Full Episode
::2015/01/27::
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Gopuram -28th March 2015 - Full Episode
Gopuram -28th March 2015 - Full Episode
::2014/12/09::
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Gopuram | Tamil Serial | Episode 321
Gopuram | Tamil Serial | Episode 321
::2015/03/25::
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Gopuram - Episode 1371 - February 18, 2015 - Full Episode
Gopuram - Episode 1371 - February 18, 2015 - Full Episode
::2015/02/18::
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Akasha Gopuram Malayalam Movie Full Mohanlal ᴴᴰ
Akasha Gopuram Malayalam Movie Full Mohanlal ᴴᴰ
::2014/01/21::
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Gopuram - Episode 1293 - August 20, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1293 - August 20, 2014
::2014/08/20::
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Gopuram -  March 27, 2015
Gopuram - March 27, 2015
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Manasunna Maaraju Movie Songs | Nenu Gaali Gopuram | Rajashekar | Laya
Manasunna Maaraju Movie Songs | Nenu Gaali Gopuram | Rajashekar | Laya
::2013/07/10::
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Gopuram | Tamil Serial | Episode 318
Gopuram | Tamil Serial | Episode 318
::2015/03/15::
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Gopuram - Episode - 1374, February - 25 - Webisode
Gopuram - Episode - 1374, February - 25 - Webisode
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Aakaasha Gopuram
Aakaasha Gopuram
::2012/02/06::
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Gopuram | Tamil Serial | Episode 295
Gopuram | Tamil Serial | Episode 295
::2015/02/20::
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Gopuram - Episode 1369 - February 16, 2015 - Full Episode
Gopuram - Episode 1369 - February 16, 2015 - Full Episode
::2015/02/16::
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Gopuram - Episode 1291 - August 18, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1291 - August 18, 2014
::2014/08/18::
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Gopuram | Tamil Serial | Episode 320
Gopuram | Tamil Serial | Episode 320
::2015/03/24::
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Gopuram - Episode 1308 - September 24, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1308 - September 24, 2014
::2014/09/24::
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Gopuram - Episode 1275 - July 28, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1275 - July 28, 2014
::2014/07/28::
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Gopuram - Episode 1376 - March 3, 2015 - Full Episode
Gopuram - Episode 1376 - March 3, 2015 - Full Episode
::2015/03/03::
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Gopuram - Episode 1
Gopuram - Episode 1
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Gopuram | Tamil Serial | Episode 297
Gopuram | Tamil Serial | Episode 297
::2015/02/22::
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Manasunna Maaraju Movie Songs - Nenugaali Gopuram Song - Rajasekhar - Laya - Asha Shaini
Manasunna Maaraju Movie Songs - Nenugaali Gopuram Song - Rajasekhar - Laya - Asha Shaini
::2013/10/18::
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41
Gopuram | Tamil Serial | Episode 281
Gopuram | Tamil Serial | Episode 281
::2015/02/06::
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42
Gopuram - Episode - 1379, March - 10 - Webisode
Gopuram - Episode - 1379, March - 10 - Webisode
::2015/03/10::
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43
Gopuram | Tamil Serial | Episode 282
Gopuram | Tamil Serial | Episode 282
::2015/02/07::
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44
Babel gopuram - The heaven
Babel gopuram - The heaven
::2013/03/29::
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Babel Gopuram - Super-Hit Malayalam Christian Song
Babel Gopuram - Super-Hit Malayalam Christian Song
::2014/01/01::
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Gopuram - Episode 1250 - June 20, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1250 - June 20, 2014
::2014/06/20::
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Gopuram | Tamil Serial | Episode 284
Gopuram | Tamil Serial | Episode 284
::2015/02/09::
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48
Gopuram - Episode 1347 - December 24, 2014
Gopuram - Episode 1347 - December 24, 2014
::2014/12/29::
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Gopuram | Tamil Serial | Episode 314
Gopuram | Tamil Serial | Episode 314
::2015/03/11::
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Aakashagopuram Song HD Kalikalam Malayalam Movie
Aakashagopuram Song HD Kalikalam Malayalam Movie
::2013/08/25::
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Meenakshiamman Temple tower in Madurai

Gopuram (Gopura (singular)), is a monumental tower, usually ornate, at the entrance of any temple, especially in Southern India. This forms a prominent feature of Koils, Hindu temples of the Dravidian style.[1] They are topped by the kalasam, a bulbous stone finial. They function as gateways through the walls that surround the temple complex.[2]

The gopuram's origins can be traced back to early structures of the Tamil kings Pallavas; and by the twelfth century, under the Pandya rulers, these gateways became a dominant feature of a temple's outer appearance, eventually overshadowing the inner sanctuary which became obscured from view by the gopuram's colossal size.[3] It also dominated the inner sanctum in amount of ornamentation. Often a shrine has more than one gopuram.[4] They also appear in architecture outside India, especially Khmer architecture, as at Angkor Wat.

A koil may have multiple gopurams, typically constructed into multiple walls in tiers around the main shrine. The temple's walls are typically square with the outer most wall having gopuras. The sanctum sanctorum and its towering roof (the central deity's shrine) is also called the vimanam.

Etymology[edit]

The Tamil derivation is from the two words: கோ (kō) and புறம் (puram) meaning 'King' and 'exterior' respectively.[5] It originates from the Sangam age when it was known as ஓங்கு நிலை வாயில் (ōnggu nilai vāyil) meaning 'imperishable gateway'.[6]

Siegfried Lienhard considers this Tamil derivation but offers a new derivation from the Sanskrit word, गोपुर, is often translated as "town gate". Separately, it consists of two words go, with the possible meanings of "cow" or "sky", and pura, meaning city.[7]

Architecture[edit]

Detail of a gopuram at Chennai

A gopuram is usually rectangular in form with ground-level wooden doors, often richly decorated, providing access. Above is the tapering gopuram, divided into many storeys which diminish in size as the gopuram tower narrows. Usually the tower is topped with a barrel vaulted roof with a finial.[3] The form began rather modestly in the 10th century, as at Shore Temple, Mahabalipuram, with the 11th century Brihadeeswarar Temple in Thanjavur marking a crucial step forward with two multi-storey gopurams from that period, much larger than any earlier ones, though much smaller than the main tower (vimana) of the temple. The four gopurams of the Thillai Nataraja Temple, Chidambaram are important early examples, begun in the mid-13th century but completed over a longer period.[8] Gopurams are exquisitely decorated with sculpture and carvings and painted with a variety of themes derived from the Hindu mythology, particularly those associated with the presiding deity of the temple where the gopuram is located. Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple in Srirangam, Tamil Nadu state is the tallest gopuram in Tamil Nadu and rises to 196 feet (60 m). The Gopuram of Murudeshwara in Karnataka (built in 2007) is 237.5-feet tall and is the tallest Gopuram in the world.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Ching, Francis D.K. et al. (2007). A Global History of Architecture. New York: John Wiley and Sons. p. 762. ISBN 0-471-26892-5. 
  2. ^ Ching, Francis D.K. (1995). A Visual Dictionary of Architecture. New York: John Wiley and Sons. p. 253. ISBN 0-471-28451-3. 
  3. ^ a b Mitchell, George (1988). The Hindu Temple. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 151–153. ISBN 0-226-53230-5. 
  4. ^ "gopura". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2008-01-20. 
  5. ^ Sellby, Martha A.; Indira Viswanathan Peterson (2008). Tamil geographies: cultural constructions of space and place in South India. SUNY Press. 
  6. ^ S. Sundararajan (1991). Ancient Tamil country: its social and economic structure. Navrang. 
  7. ^ Lienhard, Siegfried; von Hinüber, Oskar, eds. (2007). Kleine Schriften [Collected Writings] (in German). Harrassowitz Verlag / Glasenapp-Stiftung. ISBN 9783447056199. Retrieved 5 February 2014. 
  8. ^ Harle, 320-325

References[edit]

Dallapiccola, Anna L. (2002). Dictionary of Hindu Lore and Legend. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-51088-1. 

  • Harle, J.C., The Art and Architecture of the Indian Subcontinent, 2nd edn. 1994, Yale University Press Pelican History of Art, ISBN 0300062176

External links[edit]

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