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1
Swedish Gotland in summer 2011
Swedish Gotland in summer 2011
::2011/11/11::
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Mot Gotland!
Mot Gotland!
::2014/10/17::
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Maria Wern, Kripo Gotland - Schneeträume [HQ Krimi DEUTSCH] NEU
Maria Wern, Kripo Gotland - Schneeträume [HQ Krimi DEUTSCH] NEU
::2014/05/21::
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Gotland, Visby. Beautiful Sweden part 1,
Gotland, Visby. Beautiful Sweden part 1,
::2012/11/24::
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Gotland Grand National 2014 HD [GGN]
Gotland Grand National 2014 HD [GGN]
::2014/10/25::
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Havsöringsfiske på Gotland våren 2014
Havsöringsfiske på Gotland våren 2014
::2014/05/04::
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Traktorpulling i Roma på Gotland 19 juli 2014 del 6
Traktorpulling i Roma på Gotland 19 juli 2014 del 6
::2014/07/21::
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Gotland Grand National 2012! (full movie)
Gotland Grand National 2012! (full movie)
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Stridsvagnarna rullar på Gotland
Stridsvagnarna rullar på Gotland
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Gotland 2012
Gotland 2012
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Vi vill ha dig!
Vi vill ha dig!
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Gotland   Schwedens Sonneninsel   Reportage über Gotland Teil 1
Gotland Schwedens Sonneninsel Reportage über Gotland Teil 1
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Gotland  - Sweden
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Where
Where's the party? by Carlsberg presents AXWELL @ KALLIS / VISBY / GOTLAND / SWEDEN!
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Farao: Skarpt läge på Gotland - VAKNA MED NRJ
Farao: Skarpt läge på Gotland - VAKNA MED NRJ
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Larmet går - Skogsbrand på Gotland (TV3 1993)
Larmet går - Skogsbrand på Gotland (TV3 1993)
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Tåg på Gotland Gotlandståget GHJ Trans in Gotland Sweden 2013
Tåg på Gotland Gotlandståget GHJ Trans in Gotland Sweden 2013
::2013/08/07::
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Gotland Grand National 2014 Enduro
Gotland Grand National 2014 Enduro
::2014/10/26::
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Studenten Gotland visby 2014-06-05
Studenten Gotland visby 2014-06-05
::2014/06/06::
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Gotland Grand National 2014 Klass 6
Gotland Grand National 2014 Klass 6
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'Gotlands Dricku' Gotland's UnOfficial Song #2
::2011/08/15::
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Tabbar från Gotland Grand National (GGN) 2013
Tabbar från Gotland Grand National (GGN) 2013
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Opened the first time in Gotland speed plowing in Fardhem 2014
Opened the first time in Gotland speed plowing in Fardhem 2014
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S1 #19 - Köra Gotland Grand National
S1 #19 - Köra Gotland Grand National
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Jorden runt på en ö
Jorden runt på en ö
::2013/07/11::
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Gotlands Bröllopsmarsch, wedding march
Gotlands Bröllopsmarsch, wedding march
::2008/08/04::
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Filmgymnasiet Gotland - Slutproduktion 2013 - Min Judas
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Gotland Grand National 2014 - Worlds biggest enduro race
Gotland Grand National 2014 - Worlds biggest enduro race
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gotland grand national 2013
gotland grand national 2013
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Start craches at Gotland Grand National 2014
Start craches at Gotland Grand National 2014
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HMS Gotland on NBC Swedish Submarine (Swedish Subtitle)
HMS Gotland on NBC Swedish Submarine (Swedish Subtitle)
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Gotland Grand National 1989 del 1/3
Gotland Grand National 1989 del 1/3
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Gotland Grand National 2014 - Antti Hellsten
Gotland Grand National 2014 - Antti Hellsten
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Be Aware
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Revline Racing Porsche 944 Turbo GTR Gotland Ring track record 1:26.4
Revline Racing Porsche 944 Turbo GTR Gotland Ring track record 1:26.4
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FLY TV Squeeze - Gotland Sea Trout
FLY TV Squeeze - Gotland Sea Trout
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Gotland Grand National 2013 starten klass 4
Gotland Grand National 2013 starten klass 4
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Kaninjägare på Gotland, Nimrod Lindeman
Kaninjägare på Gotland, Nimrod Lindeman
::2008/10/30::
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Kitesurfing from Torö to Gotland
Kitesurfing from Torö to Gotland
::2014/11/06::
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Blue lagoon Gotland ( Blå lagunen )
Blue lagoon Gotland ( Blå lagunen )
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Gotland Open Brorakan 2013
Gotland Open Brorakan 2013
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Skandika Gotland 6 Familienzelt (Aufbauvideo)
Skandika Gotland 6 Familienzelt (Aufbauvideo)
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FLY TV Squeeze - Rauk Trout - Fly Fishing for Gotland Sea Trout
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David Batra misstar Skottland för Gotland - Parlamentet (TV4)
David Batra misstar Skottland för Gotland - Parlamentet (TV4)
::2014/09/21::
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SPECIAL: Blåljus följer med mc-polisen till Gotland
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Visby Gotland Sweden
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Crusader Kings 2: The Republic of Gotland (1)
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::2013/03/03::
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Gotland, Sweden
Gotland, Sweden
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Gotland Ring Actionpics snabb grupp 2013
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ATV Gotland
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RESULTS [51 .. 101]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Not to be confused with Götaland.
For the Swedish warships, see HSwMS Gotland.
Gotland
Gotland vapen.svg
Coat of Arms
Sweden Gotland location map modified.svg
Gotland (Sweden)
Geography
Location Baltic Sea
Coordinates 57°30′N 18°33′E / 57.500°N 18.550°E / 57.500; 18.550
Archipelago Slite archipelago
Total islands 14 large + a number of smaller
Major islands Gotland, Fårö, Gotska sandön, Furillen
Area 3,183.7 km2 (1,229.2 sq mi)
Length 176 km (109.4 mi)
Width 52 km (32.3 mi)
Coastline 800 km (500 mi) (including Fårö)
Highest elevation 82 m (269 ft)
Highest point Lojsta hed
Country
County Gotland County
Municipality Gotland Municipality
Largest city Visby (pop. 23,600[1])
Demographics
Population 57,221[2] (as of 2009)
Density 18.25 /km2 (47.27 /sq mi)
Sockens on Gotland. The sockens are written in small text, the bolder names are the names of the municipalities existing 1950–1970.

Gotland (/ˈɡɒtlənd/; Swedish pronunciation: [ˈɡɔtland] ( ),[3] older spellings include Gottland /ˈɡɒtlənd/ or Gothland /ˈɡɒθlənd/,[4]), Gutland in the local language Gutnish, is a province, county, municipality, and diocese of Sweden. It is Sweden's largest island.[5][6][7][8] The island of Gotland and the other areas of the province of Gotland make up less than one percent of Sweden's total land area. The province includes the small islands of Fårö and Gotska Sandön to the north, as well as the even smaller Karlsö Islands (Lilla and Stora) to the west. The population is 57,221,[2] of which about 23,600 live in Visby, the main town.[1]

The island's main sources of income are agriculture along with food processing, tourism, IT solutions, design and some heavy industry such as concrete production from locally mined limestone.[9]

History[edit]

A DNA study conducted on the 5000 year old skeletal remains of three Middle Neolithic seal hunters from Gotland showed that they were related to modern-day Finns, while a farmer from Gökhem parish in Västergötland on the mainland was found to be closer related to modern-day Mediterraneans. This is consistent with the spread of agricultural peoples from the Middle East at about that time.[10]

Tofta Church, one of the island's many iconic, well-preserved medieval churches
This is the Torsätra runestone (U 614) which was raised in memory of one of the Swedish king's tribute collectors who fell ill and died during a trip to Gotland. It is in the Swedish History Museum in Stockholm.

The island is the home of the Gutes (the tribal name of the Gotlandic people), and sites such as Ajvide show that it has been occupied since prehistory.[11] Early on, Gotland became a commercial center and the town of Visby was the most important Hanseatic city in the Baltic Sea.[12] In late medieval times, the island had twenty district courts (tings), each represented by its elected judge at the island-ting, called landsting. New laws were decided at the landsting, which also took other decisions regarding the island as a whole.[13]

Among medieval Scandinavian accounts discussing or mentioning Gotland are Gutasaga and the more legendary Hversu Noregr byggdist[14] and Orkneyinga saga.[15]

Orkneyinga saga was written around 1200 CE by an unknown Icelandic author.[16] The Hversu account is only known to have survived in one single copy in Icelandic Flateyjarbók from 1387 CE, but may have been written earlier. According to Orkneyinga saga, Norwegian rulers were descendants of king Fornjót who "reigned over Gotland, which we now know as Finland and Kvenland". The Hversu account states that a descendant of Fornjót "ruled over Gothland, Kvenland (Kænlandi), and Finland".[16]

Gutasaga contains legends of how the island was settled by Þieluar and populated by his descendants. It also tells that a third of the population had to emigrate and settle in southern Europe, a tradition associated with the migration of the Goths, whose name has the same origin as Gutes, the native name of the people of the island. It later tells that the Gutes voluntarily submitted to the king of Sweden and asserts that the submission was based on mutual agreement, and notes the duties and obligations of the Swedish King and Bishop in relationship to Gotland.[17] According to some historians it is therefore not only an effort to write down the history of Gotland, but also an effort to assert Gotland's independence from Sweden.[18]

It gives Awair Strabain as the name of the man who arranged the mutually beneficial agreement with the king of Sweden; the event would have taken place before the end of the 9th century, when Wulfstan of Hedeby reported that the island was subject to the Swedes:

The Discovery of Muscovy –

Then, after the land of the Burgundians, we had on our left the lands that have been called from the earliest times Blekingey, and Meore, and Eowland, and Gotland, all which territory is subject to the Sweons; and Weonodland was all the way on our right, as far as Weissel-mouth.[19]

The region is considered by some historians to be the original homeland of the Goths.[20]

Visby harbor.

The city of Visby and rest of the island were governed separately, and a civil war caused by conflicts between the German merchants in Visby and the peasants they traded with in the countryside had to be put down by King Magnus III of Sweden in 1288.[21] In 1361, Valdemar Atterdag of Denmark invaded the island.[22] The Victual Brothers occupied the island in 1394 to set up a stronghold as a headquarters of their own in Visby. At last, Gotland became a fief of the Teutonic Knights, awarded to them on the condition that they expel the piratical Victual Brothers from their fortified sanctuary.[13] An invading army of Teutonic Knights conquered the island in 1398, destroying Visby and driving the Victual Brothers from Gotland. In 1409 Grand Master Ulrich von Jungingen of the Teutonic Knights guaranteed peace with the Kalmar Union of Scandinavia by selling the island of Gotland to Queen Margaret of Denmark, Norway and Sweden.[13]

The number of Arab dirhams discovered on the island of Gotland alone is astoundingly high. In the various hoards located around the island, there are more of these silver coins than at any other site in Western Eurasia. The total sum is almost as great as the number that has been unearthed in the entire Muslim world.[23] These coins moved north through trade between Rus merchants and the Abbasid Caliphate, along the Silver-Fur Road, and the money made by Scandinavian merchants would help northern Europe, especially Viking Scandinavia and the Carolingian Empire, as major commercial centers for the next several centuries.[24]

The Berezan' Runestone, discovered in 1905 in Ukraine, was made by a Varangian (Viking) trader named Grani in memory of his business partner Karl. It is assumed that they were from Gotland.[25]

The Mästermyr chest, an important artefact from the Viking Age, was found in Gotland.[26][27]

The authority of the landsting was successively eroded after the island was occupied by the Teutonic Order, then sold to Eric of Pomerania and after 1449 ruled by Danish governors.[13] In late medieval times, the ting consisted of twelve representatives for the farmers, free-holders or tenants. Since the Treaty of Brömsebro in 1645, the island has remained under Swedish rule.[13][28]

Spillings treasure[edit]

A part of the Spillings treasure at Gotlands Museum.

On 16 July 1999, the world's largest Viking silver treasure, the Spillings treasure, was found in a field at Spillings northwest of Slite.[29] The silver treasure was divided into two parts weighing a total of 67 kg (27 and 40 kg) and consisted mostly of coins, about 14,000, from foreign countries, mostly Islamic.[30] It also contained about 20 kg of bronze objects along with numerous everyday objects such as nails, glass beads, parts of tools, pottery, iron bands and clasps. The treasure was found by using a metal detector, and the finders fee, given to the farmer who owned the land, was over 2 million crowns (about US$308,000).[31] The treasure was found almost by accident while filming a news report for TV4 (Sweden) about illegal treasure hunting on Gotland.[32]

Administration[edit]

The traditional provinces of Sweden serve no administrative or political purposes today, but are historical and cultural entities. In the case of Gotland, however, due to its insular position, the administrative county (län), Gotland County, and the municipality (kommun), Gotland Municipality, both cover the same territory as the province. Furthermore, the Diocese of Visby is also congruent with the province.[33][34][35]

Sockens[edit]

Gotland is traditionally divided into 92 sockens.[1]

Heraldry[edit]

Unofficial flag of Gotland

Gotland was granted its arms in about 1560.[36] The coat of arms is represented with a ducal coronet. Blazon: "Azure a ram statant Argent armed Or holding on a cross-staff of the same a banner Gules bordered and with five tails of the third." The county was granted the same coat of arms in 1936. The municipality, created in 1971, uses the same picture, but with other tinctures.

The Gotlandic flag displays the Gotlandic coat of arms, white on red ground, known from the 13th century in the shape of the seal of the Gutnish Republic with the proud ram. It reads: "Gutenses signo xpistus signatur in agno".

Geography[edit]

Map of Gotland

Gotland is Sweden's largest island, and it is the largest island fully encompassed by the Baltic Sea (with Denmark's Zealand at the Baltic's edge).[5][6][7][8] With its total area of 3,183.7 km2 (1,229.2 sq mi) the island of Gotland and the other areas of the province of Gotland make up 0.8% of Sweden's total land area.[37] The province includes the small islands of Fårö and Gotska Sandön to the north, as well as the Karlsö Islands, (Lilla and Stora) to the west, which are even smaller. The island of Gotland has an area of 2,994 km2 (1,156 sq mi), whereas the province has 3,183.7 km2 (1,229.2 sq mi) [3,151 km2 (1,217 sq mi) of land excluding the lakes and rivers].[38] The population is 57,221,[2] of which about 23,600 live in Visby, the seat of the municipality as well as the capital of the county.[1] About two-fifths of the island's population live in Visby.

Gotland is located about 90 km (56 mi) east of the Swedish mainland and about 130 km (81 mi) from the Baltic states, Latvia being the nearest. Gotland is the name of the main island, but the adjacent islands are generally considered part of Gotland and the Gotlandic culture:

  • Furillen
  • Fårö
  • Gotska Sandön, a National park of Sweden
  • The Karlsö Islands (Stora and Lilla)
  • Laus holmar
  • Utholmen
  • Östergarnsholm

There are several shallow lakes located near shores of the island. The biggest is Lake Bästeträsk, located near Fleringe in the northern part of Gotland.

Gotland contains many popular beaches, such as Tofta Strand, and Hundfria strand.

The highest point of the island is Lojsta Hed which stands 82 m (269 ft) above sea level.

Geology[edit]

Main article: Geology of Gotland
Rauks at Langhammars, Fårö.

Gotland is made up of a sequence of sedimentary rocks of a Silurian age, dipping to the south-east. The main Silurian succession of limestones and shales comprises thirteen units spanning 200 to 500 m (660 to 1,640 ft) of stratigraphic thickness, being thickest in the south, and overlies a 75 to 125 m (246 to 410 ft) thick Ordovician sequence.[39]

A Silurian reef complex.

It was deposited in a shallow, hot and salty sea, on the edge of an equatorial continent.[40] The water depth never exceeded 175 to 200 m (574 to 656 ft),[41] and shallowed over time as bioherm detritus, and terrestrial sediments, filled the basin. Reef growth started in the Llandovery, when the sea was 50 to 100 m (160 to 330 ft), and reefs continued to dominate the sedimentary record.[39] Some sandstones are present in the youngest rocks towards the south of the island, which represent sand bars deposited very close to the shore line.[42]

The lime rocks have been weathered into characteristic karstic rock formations known as rauks. Fossils, mainly of rugose corals and brachiopods, are abundant throughout the island; palæo-sea-stacks are preserved in places.[43]

Economy[edit]

Cementa limestone industry and quarry at Slite, Gotland.

The island's main sources of income are agriculture along with food processing, tourism, IT solutions, design and some heavy industry such as concrete production from locally mined limestone. Most of Gotland's economy is based on small scale production.[44] In 2012, there were over 7,500 registered companies on Gotland.[45] 1,500 of these had more than one employee.[9]

Tourism[edit]

Catching the sun at Högklint, Visby, Gotland.

The first modern day tourists came to Gotland during the 19th century and were known as "bathers".[47] Gotland became very popular with socialites at the time through Princess Eugenie who lived in Västerhejde, in the west part of the island from the 1860s.[48][49]

When a new law ensuring two weeks vacation for all employees in Sweden was passed in 1938, camping became a popular pastime among the Swedes, and in 1955, Gotland was visited by 80,000 people.[49] In the 1970s mostly young people were attracted to Gotland. Since 2010 the island has become a more versatile vacation spot visited by people from all over the world, in all manner of ways.[49]

Gotland is one of Sweden's most noted tourist destinations. In 2001 it was the fifth largest tourist destination in Sweden based on the total number of guest nights.[50] Gotland is usually the part of Sweden which receives the most hours of sunlight during a year with Visby statistically the location with the most sunshine in Sweden.[51] In 2007 approximately 750,000 people visited Gotland.[9]

In 1996, for the first time, ferries between Gotland and mainland Sweden carried more than 1 million passengers in a year. In 2007, the number of passengers exceeded 1.5 million.[52] In 2012, the ferries had 1,590,271 passengers and the airlines 327,255 passengers.[53]

Cruise ships and new pier[edit]

Brilliance of the Seas (Nassau), one of the cruise ships frequenting Visby.

The main port of call on Gotland is Visby. The city is visited by a number of cruise ships every year.[56][57] About 40 cruise lines frequent the Baltic sea with Visby as one of their destinations.[58] In 2005, 147 ships docked at Visby, in 2010 the number was 69.[59] In 2014, 62 ships are scheduled to visit Visby.[60] The decrease in visiting ships is due to the fact that the modern cruise ships are too large to enter Visby harbor.[59] Ships must anchor a fair distance from shore whereupon passengers are shuttled to shore in small boats, which is not possible during bad weather.[61] In 2007, the first proposition for building a new pier at Visby harbor, large enough to serve the modern cruise ships, was made.[62] In 2011, the matter of the new pier was discussed in the Riksdag[63] and in 2012 research and planning for the pier began.[59] In January 2014 a letter of intent for building a new cruise pier in Visby harbor was signed by Region Gotland ("Municipality of Gotland") and Copenhagen Malmö Port (CMP). The pier is scheduled to be finished in 2018. The estimated cost is 250 million crowns (about US$38.52 million).[64][65]

Culture[edit]

Iron Age axe from Gotland.
The valknut symbol has its most discovered examples on Gotland.

A number of stones with grooves exist on Gotland. Archaeologists interpret these grooves as traces of an unknown industrial process in the High Middle Ages. There are approximately 3,700 grinding grooves, of which about 750 occur in the solid limestone outcrop and the rest in other rock formations. The latter often consist of hard rocks such as granite or gneiss, but also soft rocks such as sandstone occur.[66] Grinding grooves are also found in Skåne, in southern Sweden and in Finland. Astronomer Göran Henriksson dates a number of these grinding grooves to the Stone Age, from c. 3300 BCE to c. 2000 BCE, based on astronomical alignments,[67] although his methodology has been heavily criticized.[68]

The north part of the Visby Vall.

The Medieval town of Visby has been entered as a site of the UNESCO World heritage programme. An impressive feature of Visby is the fortress wall that surrounds the old city, dating from the 13th century.[69]

The inhabitants of Gotland traditionally spoke their own language, known as Gutnish. Today however, they have adapted a dialect of Swedish that is known as "Gotländska".[70]

In the 13th century, a work containing the laws of the island, called "the Gotlandic law" (Gutalagen), was published in the ancient Gutnish language.[71]

Gotland is famous for its 94 medieval churches (see List of churches on Gotland),[72] most of which are restored and in active use. These churches exhibit two major styles of architecture: Romanesque and Gothic. The older churches were constructed in the Romanesque style from 1150–1250. The newer churches were constructed in the Gothic architectural style that prevailed from about 1250–1400. The oldest painting inside one of the churches on Gotland stretches as far back in time as the 12th century.[73]

Traditional games of skill like Kubb, Pärk, and Varpa are played on Gotland. They are part of what has become called "Gutniska Lekar", and are performed preferably on the Midsummer's Eve celebration on the island, but also throughout the summer months. The games have widespread renown; some of them are played by people as far away as in the United States.[74]

The knotwork design subsequently named the "Valknut" has the most attested historic instances on picture stones in Gotland, which include being on both the Stora Hammars I and the Tängelgårda stones.[75] Gotland also has a rich heritage of folklore, including myths about the bysen, Di sma undar jordi, Hoburgsgubben and the Martebo lights.[76][77]

Gotland gives its name to the traditional farmhouse beer Gotlandsdricka, a turbid beer with much in common with Finnish sahti, and related beers from the Baltic states.[78]

Notable Gotlanders[edit]

Ingmar Bergman & Sven Nykvist
Princess Leonore, Duchess of Gotland, 2014.
Håkan Loob

Dukes and Duchesses of Gotland[edit]

Sports events[edit]

  • Gotland competes in the biennial Island Games, which it hosted in 1999.[79]
  • Round Gotland Race-sailing event ("ÅF Offshore Race") starting at Stockholm, around the island of Gotland and back.[80]
  • Gotland Grand National (GGN) is an annual enduro race on Gotland. GGN is a part of the Swedish enduroklassikern (enduro classics, Ränneslättsloppet, Stångebroslaget and Gotland Grand National). GNN is the world's largest enduro race.[81][82]
  • Stångaspelen ("the Stånga Games") are the annual games for Gotlandic sports. The games are held during five days each summer at Stånga. The games are unofficially called "the Gotland Olympic games". Some of the sports at the Stångaspelen are pärk, varpa and caber toss.[74]

Sports organizations[edit]

Pärk at Stångaspelen in 2006.

In 2012, there were 171 registered sports organizations on Gotland.[83]

Gotland has two senior women's sport teams playing in the first tiers: basketball team Visby Ladies Basket Club (in Basketligan dam) and floorball team Endre IF (in the Swedish Super League).[84][85] Visby Ladies won the Swedish Championship in 2005.[86]

Football in the province is administered by Gotlands Fotbollförbund. The leading football club is FC Gute, playing in the fourth-tier league Division 2 as of 2014.[87]

In popular culture[edit]

The Long Ships, or Red Orm (original title: Röde Orm), a best-selling Swedish novel written by Frans G. Bengtsson, contains a vivid description of Gotland in the Viking Age. A section of the book is devoted to a Viking ship setting out to Russia, stopping on its way at Gotland and engaging a pilot from the island who plays an important part in their voyage. Gotlanders of the Viking era are depicted as city people, more sophisticated and cosmopolitan than other Scandinavians of their time, and proud of their knowledge and skills.

The crime novels of Mari Jungstedt, featuring Detective Superintendent Anders Knutas, are set on Gotland.

In the Battlefield Vietnam video game modification Invasion Gotland, the Soviet army invades Gotland in 1977.

For the 1989 Studio Ghibli film, Kiki's Delivery Service, by Hayao Miyazaki, he and other illustrators spent time in Gotland in preparation for animation.

In Season 2 of the 2013 historical drama Vikings, it is revealed that Ragnar Lodbrok's village is in Gotland, and he becomes the Jarl there.

Astronomy[edit]

The night sky at the old gallows, Visby, Gotland.

A number of asteroids in the main-belt are named after places on Gotland. The places are vividly described in NASA's JPL Small-Body Database in connection to each asteroid.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Gotland i siffror, pdf". www.gotland.se. Region Gotland. pp. 65–67. Retrieved 13 June 2014. 
  2. ^ a b c Statistics Sweden (as of December 31, 2009)
  3. ^ [1] Svenska Akademiens ordlista, 6 February 2013
  4. ^ [2]
  5. ^ a b Renate Platzöder, Philomène A. Verlaan (1996). The Baltic Sea: new developments in national policies and international cooperation, Volume 1. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. 
  6. ^ a b Sailing Directions, Baltic Sea. ProStar Publications. ISBN 978-1-57785-759-4. 
  7. ^ a b Heather Knowles (2010). Passport Series: Western Europe. Lorenz Educational Press. ISBN 978-1-4291-2255-9. 
  8. ^ a b Encyclopædia Britannica. "Zealand". Britannica.com. Retrieved 31 May 2014. 
  9. ^ a b c "Fakta om Gotland". Website. Länsstyrelsen Gotland. Retrieved 31 May 2014. 
  10. ^ DNA study published in nature.com on April 26, 2012. Pontus Skoglund on prehistoric Gotlanders: "The hunter-gatherers show the greatest similarity to modern-day Finns."
  11. ^ Outram, A. K. 2006. Distinguishing bone fat exploitation from other taphonomic processes: what caused the high level of bone fragmentation at the Middle Neolithic site of Ajvide, Gotland?, pp. 32-43. In Mulville, J and Outram, A (eds). The Zooarchaeology of Milk and Fats. Oxford: Oxbow Books.
  12. ^ Yrwing, Hugo (1986). Visby – hansestad på Gotland (in Swedish). Stockholm: Gidlund. ISBN 91-7844-055-6. Retrieved 12 June 2014. 
  13. ^ a b c d e Martinsson, Örjan. "Gotland". www.tacitus.nu. TACITUS.NU. Retrieved 12 June 2014. 
  14. ^ Hversu Noregr byggdist. See also original text.
  15. ^ Orkneyinga saga. See also original text.
  16. ^ a b Tormod Kinnes, MPhil. "The Orkneyingers' Saga". http://oaks.nvg.org/index.html. Tormod Kinnes, MPhil. Retrieved 12 June 2014. 
  17. ^ "Gutagatan, based on Gannholm's 1992 edition". http://runeberg.org/. Project Runeberg. Retrieved 13 June 2014. 
  18. ^ Enderborg, Bernt. "Staten Gotland". www.guteinfo.com. Guteinfo. Retrieved 13 June 2014. 
  19. ^ "Discovery of Muscovy by Richard Hakluyt – Project Gutenberg". Gutenberg.org. 1 May 2003. Retrieved 11 August 2010. 
  20. ^ See Goths and Scandza for more information on this matter.
  21. ^ Sundberg, Ulf (1997). Svenska freder och stillestånd 1249–1814 (in Swedish) (1 ed.). Hargshamn: Arte. ISBN 91-89080-01-7. Retrieved 12 June 2014. 
  22. ^ Westholm, Gun (2007). Visby 1361: Invasionen (in Swedish). Stockholm: Prisma. ISBN 978-91-518-4568-5. Retrieved 12 June 2014. 
  23. ^ Johansson, Marcus; Jonsson, Kenneth (1997). "Islamiska mynt". www.archeology.su.se. Numismatiska forskningsgruppen, Stockholms universitet. p. 2. Retrieved 13 June 2014. 
  24. ^ "Vikingarnas historia". www.rosala-viking-centre.com. Rosala Viking center. Retrieved 13 June 2014. 
  25. ^ Jansson, Sven B. F. (1962). The runes of Sweden. Stockholm: Norstedt. pp. 3–4. Retrieved 11 June 2014. 
  26. ^ Åhlin, Christer. "Verktygskista från Mästermyr". www.historiska.se. Historiska Museet. Retrieved 5 June 2014. 
  27. ^ Hellner, Brynolf. "Tidigare publikationer om Mästermyrfyndet". wwwhistoricallocks.com. Historical locks. Retrieved 5 June 2014. 
  28. ^ Englund, Peter (2003). Ofredsår (in Swedish). Stockholm: Atlantis. pp. 368 and 394. ISBN 91-7486-349-5. 
  29. ^ "Spillingsskatten". www.historiska.se. Historiska Museet. Retrieved 17 June 2014. 
  30. ^ "Unikt mynt hittat i Spillingsskatten". www.hallekis.com. Hallekiskuriren. Retrieved 17 June 2014. 
  31. ^ Ann-Marie Pettersson, ed. (2008). Spillingsskatten: Gotland i vikingatidens världshandel. Visby: Länsmuseet på Gotland. ISBN 978-91-88036-69-8. Retrieved 17 June 2014. 
  32. ^ Ström, Jonas. "Världens största vikingatida silverskatt". www.historiska.se. Historiska museet. Retrieved 17 June 2014. 
  33. ^ "Välkommen till Region Gotlands hemsida!". www.gotland.se. Region Gotland. Retrieved 13 June 2014. 
  34. ^ "Länsstyrelsen Gotlands län". www.lansstyrelsen.se. Länsstyrelsen Gotlands län. Retrieved 13 June 2014. 
  35. ^ "Visby Stift". www.svenskakyrkan.se. Sveska Kyrkan. Retrieved 13 June 2014. 
  36. ^ Clara Nevéus, Bror jacques de Wærn: Ny svensk vapenbok, 1992
  37. ^ "Gotland i siffror 2013 ("Gotland in numbers 2013")". pdf. Region Gotland. Retrieved 1 June 2014. 
  38. ^ Statistisk årsbok för Sverige 2009
  39. ^ a b Laufeld, S. (1974). Silurian Chitinozoa from Gotland. Fossils and Strata (5). Universitetsforlaget. 
  40. ^ Creer 1973
  41. ^ Gray, Laufield & Boucot, 1974
  42. ^ Long, D.G.F. (1993). "The Burgsvik beds, an Upper Silurian storm generated sand ridge complex in southern Gotland". Geologiska Föreningens i Stockholms Förhandlingar (GFF) 115 (4): 299–309. ISSN 0016-786X. 
  43. ^ Laufeld, Sven; Martinsson, Anders (22–28 August 1981). "Reefs and ultrashallow environments. Guidebook to the field excursions in the Silurian of Gotland". Project Ecostratigraphy Plenary Meeting. 
  44. ^ Gibson, Mimmi. "Gotländskt näringsliv". Website. Länsstyrelsen Gotland. Retrieved 31 May 2014. 
  45. ^ "Gotland i siffror 2013 ("Gotland in numbers 2013")". pdf. Region Gotland. p. 18. Retrieved 31 May 2014. 
  46. ^ "Gotland i siffror 2013 ("Gotland in numbers 2013")". pdf. Region Gotland. p. 19. Retrieved 31 May 2014. 
  47. ^ Jonsson, Marita (1987). Vägen till kulturen på Gotland. Gotländskt arkiv, 0434-2429 ; 59(1987). Visby: Gotlands fornsal. ISBN 91-971048-0-9. 
  48. ^ "Ljugarn, historia". Website. Ljuvliga Ljugarn. Retrieved 31 May 2014. 
  49. ^ a b c "Turisthistoria". Website. Länsstyrelsen Gotland. Retrieved 31 May 2014. 
  50. ^ "Gotland populärt turistmål". Website. Sveriges Radio. Retrieved 31 May 2014. 
  51. ^ Sjögren, Helena. "Solkrig pågår mellan Karlskrona och Visby". Website/Newspaper. Expressen & SMHI. Retrieved 31 May 2014. 
  52. ^ Fritz, Staffan. "Passagerare nr 1500000". Website/Newspaper. Helagotland. Retrieved 31 May 2014. 
  53. ^ "Gotland i siffror 2013 ("Gotland in numbers 2013")". pdf. Region Gotland. p. 27. Retrieved 31 May 2014. 
  54. ^ "Gotland i siffror 2013 ("Gotland in numbers 2013")". pdf. Region Gotland. p. 24. Retrieved 31 May 2014. 
  55. ^ a b c d e These numbers do not include visitors arriving by cruise ship. See section "Cruise ships".
  56. ^ Klint, Kerstin. "Större kryssningsfartyg till Visby". www.gotland.net. Visit Gotland. Retrieved 2 June 2014. 
  57. ^ Visitors on these ships are not included in the statistics in the section above since they come to Gotland in ships owned by other shipping companies than Destination Gotland, and these visitors only disembark during the day and do not use the accommodation available on Gotland.
  58. ^ Stenberg, Johan (31 March 2010). "Bara 69 kryssningsfartyg till Visby". Website/Radio programme (P4 Gotland). Sveriges Radio. Retrieved 2 June 2014. 
  59. ^ a b c "Att angöra en kaj eller passera en ö, pdf". www.gotland.se. Sweco Eurofutures AB. Retrieved 2 June 2014. 
  60. ^ Wahlberg, Lars. "Cruise Calls 2014, Port of Visby, pdf". www.gotland.se. Port of Visby, Teknikförvaltningen, Hamnavdelningen, Region Gotland. Retrieved 2 June 2014. 
  61. ^ Staflin, Mona; Pettersson, Mats (18 November 2013). "Kryssningskaj kan ge 130 miljoner". Newspaper/website (Gotlands Allehanda). Helagotland. Retrieved 2 June 2014. 
  62. ^ Wesley, Stefan. "Planer för en kryssningskaj i Visby". www.gotland.se. Region Gotland. Retrieved 2 June 2014. 
  63. ^ Engelhart, Christer. "Motion 2011/12:T416 Kryssningskaj i Visby". www.riksdagen.se. Sveriges Riksdag. Retrieved 2 June 2014. 
  64. ^ Andersson, Lars (29 January 2014). "Ny kryssningskaj i Visby". Website/Newspaper (Sjöfartstidningen). Retrieved 2 June 2014. 
  65. ^ Bringmark, Karsten (25 March 2014). "CMP förhandlar om kryssningskaj i Visby". Website/Newspaper (Skånskan). Retrieved 2 June 2014. 
  66. ^ Gibson, Olov (2013). "Gotlands slipskåror: spår av friktionsbromsar hos väderkvarnar?". Fornvännen. 2013(108):2: 130–133. Retrieved 13 June 2014. 
  67. ^ Göran Henriksson (1983). "Astronomisk tolkning av slipskåror på Gotland". Fornvännen (Royal Swedish Academy of Letters, History and Antiquities). 
  68. ^ Jonathan Lindström; Curt Roslund (2000). "Göran Henrikssons nonsensforskning". Folkvett (Vetenskap och Folkbildning). 
  69. ^ "Hanseatic Town of Visby". http://whc.unesco.org/. UNESCO World Heritage List. Retrieved 13 June 2014. 
  70. ^ Wahlgren, Tommy. "Gutamålsgillet". www.gutamal.org. Gutamålsgilde. Retrieved 13 June 2014. 
  71. ^ Olsson, K. "Gutalagen på svenska". www.tjelvar.se. Gotlands Militärhistoria och Gotlands Trupper. Retrieved 13 June 2014. 
  72. ^ Gotland is famous for its 94 medieval churches
  73. ^ Lagerlöf, Erland; Svahnström, Gunnar (1973). Gotlands kyrkor: en vägledning (in Swedish) (2. omarb o utök. uppl. ed.). Stockholm: Rabén & Sjögren. ISBN 91-29-41035-5. Retrieved 13 June 2014. 
  74. ^ a b "Stångsspelen". www.stangaspelen.com. Föreningen Gutnisk Idrott (FGI). Retrieved 8 June 2014. 
  75. ^ "Valknut, triskele, Hrungnir's hjärta". www.guteinfo.com. Guteinfo. Retrieved 13 June 2014. 
  76. ^ "Saga". www.guteinfo.com. Guteinfo. Retrieved 13 June 2014. 
  77. ^ Wallin, Inga-Lill. "Marteboljuset". www.ufo.se. UFO Sverige. Retrieved 13 June 2014. 
  78. ^ "Dricku". www.guteinfo.com. Guteinfo. Retrieved 12 June 2014. 
  79. ^ "Gotland – Member profile". www.islandgames.net. INternational Island Games Association. Retrieved 8 June 2014. 
  80. ^ "ÅF Offshore Race". www.ksss.se. Royal Swedish Yacht Club. Retrieved 8 June 2014. 
  81. ^ "Gotland Grand national". www.nordicsportevent.se. Nordic sport & event. Retrieved 8 June 2014. 
  82. ^ "Världens största endurotävling går av stapeln". www.tv4.se. Tv 4, Sweden. Retrieved 8 June 2014. 
  83. ^ "Gotland i siffror 2013 ("Gotland in numbers 2013")". pdf. Region Gotland. p. 41. Retrieved 1 June 2014. 
  84. ^ "Teams in Basketligan dam". Swedish Basketball Federation. Retrieved 12 June 2014. 
  85. ^ "Women's Swedish Super League". Swedish Floorball Federation. Retrieved 12 June 2014. 
  86. ^ "Visby Ladies svenska mästare i basket 2005" (in Swedish). guteinfo.com. Retrieved 12 June 2014. 
  87. ^ "Gotlands idrottsförbund". www.gotsport.se. Gotlands idrottsförbund. Retrieved 8 June 2014. 
  88. ^ "JPL Small-Body Database Browser". NASA. Retrieved 2008-04-25. 
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  91. ^ JPL Small-Body Database Browser on 10129 Fole, NASA.
  92. ^ JPL Small-Body Database Browser on 10127 Fröjel, NASA.
  93. ^ JPL Small-Body Database Browser on 9358 Fårö, NASA.
  94. ^ JPL Small-Body Database Browser on 8682 Kräklingbo, NASA.
  95. ^ JPL Small-Body Database Browser on 9267 Lokrume, NASA.
  96. ^ JPL Small-Body Database Browser on 10132 Lummelunda, NASA.
  97. ^ JPL Small-Body Database Browser on 3250 Martebo
  98. ^ JPL Small-Body Database Browser on 10813 Mästerby, NASA.
  99. ^ "JPL Small-Body Database Browser". NASA. Retrieved 2008-07-23. 
  100. ^ JPL Small-Body Database Browser on 9372 Vamlingbo, NASA.
  101. ^ "JPL Small-Body Database Browser". NASA. Retrieved 2008-05-17. 

Further reading[edit]

There are over 8,700 titles about Gotland in the National Library of Sweden on line database LIBRIS. About 560 of the books are in English. See LIBRIS.

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 57°30′N 18°33′E / 57.500°N 18.550°E / 57.500; 18.550

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